将玉米置于1.5 m×0.95 m×1.2 m的模拟仓中,于室温(25~35℃)下储藏,定期观察玉米色泽、气味和发霉情况,并测定脂肪酸值、容重、不完善粒和糊化特性等品质指标。结果表明:水分含量为14%的玉米储藏60 d后,仍呈现玉米固有的色泽、气味和亮度,脂肪酸值略有上升,但在宜存范围;容重由755 g/L降至735 g/L,不完善粒上、中、下层均增多;最终黏度和峰值黏度略有下降,糊化温度基本稳定。最终黏度降低了300 m Pa·s,峰值黏度降低了44 m Pa·s,回生值下降260 m Pa·s,糊化温度在82~84℃之间波动。水分含量为17%的玉米储藏12 d后,上、中层不完善粒多于下层;52 d后,颜色变暗,上层和中层玉米籽粒开始发霉;储藏60 d脂肪酸值已升至90 mg/100 g;容重上层和中层下降幅度基本一致,由715 g/L降至665 g/L,而下层容重下降较少,下降了30 g/L;最终黏度降低480 m Pa·s,峰值黏度基本稳定,回生值降低100 m Pa·s,糊化温度均在(84±2)℃范围内波动。
Influence of infrared drying on storage characteristics of brown rice
Chao Ding, Ragab Khir, Zhongli Pan, et al
The aim of this study was to improve storage characteristics of brown rice by using infrared radiation drying (IRD) through comparison with hot air drying (HAD) and ambient air drying (AAD). After heating by IR from 20?°C to 60?°C within 58?s, 2.17 percentage points moisture of rough rice (initial moisture content is 25.0?±?0.2% in dry basis) were removed without adverse effect on germination capacity of husked brown rice. Compared with AAD, IRD slowed down the increase in yellowness, water uptake and volume expansion ratio of brown rice by 47.9%, 41.0% and 37.9% after four months of storage, and decreased the temperature range and enthalpy of gelatinization, the peak and breakdown viscosities. These changes might due to the higher stabilization effect of IRD on the microstructure and thermal properties of proteins and starch granules than AAD. IRD is an effective method to improve storage stability of brown rice.
Food Chemistry，Vol264(10): 149-156
Amino acid composition of flesh-coloured potatoes as affected by storage conditions
Anna P?ksa, Joanna Miedzianka, Agnieszka Nem?
The study determined nitrogen compounds and amino acid profile in dry matter of potatoes differing in flesh colour, stored at 2?°C and 5?°C for three and six months. With increased storage time, the total protein content and particularly amino acid content declined. The coagulable protein content increased at three months’ storage by 25%. The majority of the amino acid content decreased from 19 to 6% and from 38 to 21% after three and six months’ storage, respectively. Storage temperature did not influence the coagulable protein content or serine, glycine, cysteine, tyrosine and phenylalanine. However, potatoes stored at 2?°C contained slightly more amino acids than tubers stored at 5?°C. Independently of the storage conditions, potatoes of yellow-fleshed Fresco and red-fleshed Herbie 26 varieties were characterised by a relatively high nutritive value, limited by leucine (CS?=?84), methionine plus cysteine (CS?=?78) and leucine (CS?=?72), respectively.
Development of a peptide substrate for detection of sunn pest damage in wheat flour
Journal of the science of food and agriculture,2018,98(15): 5677-5682
Comparison of three different wood ashes and diatomaceous earth in controlling the maize weevil under laboratory conditions
Tanja Bohinc, Aleksander Horvat, Goran Andri?, et al
All tested wood ashes were slightly less effective than SilicoSec®, in controlling maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais), however the most promising results were confirmed with wood ash of Norway spruce.Significantly higher mortality of was achieved with higher temperature in combination to lower relative humidity.High percentage of Slovenian forest is covered with Norway spruce, which offers good possibilities for implementation of its wood ash for effective grain protectant.
Journal of Stored Products Research,2018,Vol 79(6) :1-8
Insecticidal effect of contact insecticides against stored product beetle populations with different susceptibility to phosphine
P. Agrafioti, C.G. Athanassiou
Field and laboratory populations of Sitophilus oryzae and Oryzaephilus surinamensis were evaluated for their resistance to phosphine and also for their susceptibility to different contact insecticides.For both species, field populations were found resistant to phosphine while laboratory populations were found susceptible to phosphine.Pirimiphos-methyl and spinetoram were effective for both field and laboratory populations, while alpha-cypermethrin was more effective for the laboratory population.The results indicate that field populations of stored product insects that are resistant to phosphine may not be controlled by certain contact insecticides.
Journal of Stored Products Research,2018,Vol 79(6) :9-15
Efficacy of filter cake and Triplex powders from Ethiopia applied to wheat againstSitophilus zeamais and Sitophilus oryzae
Tesfaye M. Tadesse, Bhadriraju Subramanyam
Sitophilus zeamais and Sitophilus oryzae were susceptible to filter cake and Triplex.Mortality increased with increasing powder concentration and exposure time.Filter cake at 1000?mg/kg caused 100% mortality of adults of both species at 14?d.Filter cake was more efficacious than Triplex against both species.Both powders can be used to manage S. zeamais and S. oryzae in stored wheat.
Journal of Stored Products Research,2018,Vol 79(6) : 40-52
分析了5种油脂在65~105℃下加速氧化过程中过氧化值的变化,进行了脂质氧化诱导期分析及货架期预测。结果表明:温度及脂肪酸组成对油脂的氧化稳定性有重要影响,亚麻籽油具有最高的过氧化值初始值,且增加较快,活化能最小,氧化稳定性最弱;整体而言,初始氧化阶段,5种油样的活化能介于63.83~93.87 k J/mol之间;随饱和脂肪酸含量及MUFA/PUFA值的增大,油样过氧化值的变化趋缓,诱导期延长,氧化速率常数减小,活化能增大,氧化稳定性提高,货架期延长;加速氧化阶段的氧化速率常数显著增大,而活化能相对降低(花生油除外);随温度升高,过氧化值变化加剧,氧化诱导时间缩短,氧化速率常数增大,货架期缩短;经验证实测货架期与预测值间具有较好的相符性,说明基于油脂过氧化值的脂质氧化诱导期分析可有效预测货架期。
以豆粕、米糠、麦麸混合粕为主要原料,采用多种菌(枯草芽孢杆菌+根霉菌+乳酸杆菌)菌种协同发酵提高混合粕的饲用价值。以蛋白寡肽含量为指标,通过单因素实验和正交实验对发酵条件进行优化。确定最佳的固态发酵条件为:发酵温度37℃,发酵初始p H 6.8,接种量4%,发酵时间60 h。在最佳条件下,发酵产物中蛋白寡肽含量由发酵前的4.0%提高到12.9%,其饲用价值明显提高。
Micellar systems of aliphatic alcohol ethoxylates as a sustainable alternative to extract soybean isoflavones
Ezequiel R. Coscueta, Luciana Pellegrini Malpiedi, Bibiana Beatriz Nerli
Ethoxylated aliphatic surfactants belonging to the Genapol and Tergitol series were assessed as extraction systems of isoflavones. They showed good extraction properties when compared with different solvents, the Genapol X-080 exhibiting the best performance. Available commercial isoflavone pills were used, as a starting simple matrix, to determine the parameters that affect the extraction procedure. The temperature and the surfactant concentration showed to be factors that favored significantly the extraction performance. The application of optimized variables (Genapol X-080 11%?m/m, pH 4.5; extraction temperature of 54?°C and extraction time of 60?min) on soybean flour (natural) allowed extracting 3.237?±?0.173?mg of isoflavone per gram of treated flour. This result was three times what it was for methanol under identical conditions. Extraction with these micellar systems represents a sustainable alternative methodology for industrial purposes due to its low cost, biodegradability, non-toxicity and easy scaling up.
Food Chemistry， Vol264(10): 135-141
Advances in the breeding and processing of grains and pulses
Linda Malcolmson,Mike Sissons
Global demand for healthier and high-protein, plant-based foods continues to inspire cereal scientists to innovate with grains and pulses. Many consumers are seeking gluten-free, whole grain, and low-glycemic foods, as well as vegetarian and vegan-based diet options, but they don’t want to give up taste or variety in their food experiences. Cereal scientists are accepting this challenge by exploring novel solutions from the seed to the finished product. In this issue of Cereal Foods World, advances in the breeding and processing of grains and pulses and how these innovations are delivering new consumer benefits are examined.
Cereal Foods World 63 (5): 183 - 183.
Purple and blue wheat—health-promoting grains with increased antioxidant activity
Heinrich Grausgruber,Klaus Atzgersdorfer, Stefan Böhmdorfer
Anthocyanins are flavonoid pigments that are responsible for red, purple, and blue colors in diverse organs in a wide array of plants. Anthocyanins also act as antioxidants, for example by scavenging free radicals. In wheat, anthocyanins can be present in the pericarp (purple anthocyanins) or aleurone (blue anthocyanins) layer of the grain. Purple and blue wheat grains, therefore, can be processed into innovative whole wheat (wholemeal) products that are rich in both dietary fiber and antioxidants. Combining the genetic components that produce purple pericarp and blue aleurone traits significantly increases the total concentration of anthocyanins and, as a result, the total antioxidant activity.
Cereal Foods World 63 (5): 217 - 220.
Effect of ozone treatment on the quality of grain products
Ozone is a strong oxidant and has different food applications to ensure food safety. Ozone treatment is considered an eco-friendly and cost-effective food processing technique. In this mini-review, the impact of ozone treatment on the composition (e.g., mycotoxins) and physicochemical properties of components (e.g., starch and protein) of different food grains (e.g., wheat, rice and maize) is summarised. The rheology, color, storage, and germination capacity of the grains/flours affected by ozone are reviewed. The quality attributes (e.g., texture) of food products (e.g., bread, noodle, and cake) made from ozone treated cereals are also examined. It becomes evident that ozone has great potential to improve the functionalities of grain products while ensuring food safety.
Food Chemistry， Vol265(11): 358-366
Rice flakes produced from commercial wild rice: Chemical compositions, vitamin B compounds, mineral and trace element contents and their dietary intake evaluation
Daniela Sumczynski, Eva Koubová, Lenka Šenkárová, et al
Non-traditional wild rice flakes were analysed for chemical composition, vitamin B compounds, α-tocopherol, mineral and trace elements. Dietary intakes of vitamins, minerals and trace elements were evaluated using FAO/WHO and Institute of Medicine regulations. Wild rice flakes proved to be significant contributors of pyridoxine, pantothenic and folic acids, niacin, thiamine, chromium, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, zinc, copper, molybdenum and iron to essential dietary intakes values. Toxic dietary intake values for aluminium, cadmium, tin and mercury were less than 33%, which complies the limits for adults set by FAO/WHO for toxic elements intake related to the body weight of 65?kg for females and 80?kg for males taking 100?g of flakes as a portion. However, concentrations of Hg reaching between 3.67 and 12.20?µg/100?g in flakes exceeded the average Hg value of 0.27–1.90?μg/100?g in cereals consumed in the EU. It has to be respected in the future.
Food Chemistry， Vol265(11): 386-392
Structural and thermal properties of amylose–fatty acid complexes prepared via high hydrostatic pressure
Zebin Guo, Xiangze Jia, Song Miao,et al
An innovative approach of high hydrostatic pressure was used to prepare lotus seed amylose–fatty acid complexes. The objective of this study was to investigate their structure and thermal properties. WAXD pattern of amylose changed from B-type to B- and V6-type hybrid polymorphs, and its relative crystallinity increased upon the addition of fatty acids. Carboxyl group observed by FTIR indicates the formation of complexes. SAXS was performed to measure the lamellar structure of complexes. The complexes were more compact and had lower amounts of amorphous regions compared with amylose controls. Entrapped fatty acids, higher melting temperature, and enthalpy change of complexes but not of the controls were detected by DSC. The distribution of fatty acid molecules in the complex matrix was estimated through NMR. Under different pressures, the complexes exhibited dissimilar characteristics with the increase in aliphatic chain length, as observed by WAXD, FTIR, DSC and NMR.
Effect of processing conditions on water mobility and cooking quality of gluten-free pasta. A Magnetic Resonance Imaging study
Alessandra Marti, Enzio Maria Ragg, Maria Ambrogina Pagani
A new approach for producing gluten-free pasta from hydrated (50?°C, 20?min) rice kernels, skipping the grinding step, was explored. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was used to study the hydration kinetics of rice, by monitoring the time evolution of both proton density and water transverse-relaxation rate during water diffusion. Results showed that the optimal water diffusion was reached after 180?min, allowing the extrusion of hydrated rice kernels into pasta. MRI analysis also highlighted in cooked pasta gradients of water distribution and mobility, in agreement with the high shear force that was measured using the Kramer cell (1066.5 vs 896.4?N). The high hydration in the external layers of pasta did not negatively affect the cooking quality (cooking loss, compression energy, firmness) of the product. MRI analysis provided experimental evidence for the optimization of early steps in the technological process of grains for the production of gluten-free pasta.
Spray-dried polyphenolic extract from Italian black rice as new ingredient for bakery products
Valentina Azzurra Papillo, Monica Locatelli, Fabiano Travaglia,et al
Artemide is one of the Italian pigmented rice varieties richest in polyphenols, especially anthocyanins. The aim of this work was to obtain anthocyanin-rich powders from Artemide cv, useful as functional ingredients for bakery foods.The hydroalcoholic extract prepared from Artemide black rice was processed by both spray-drying (with and without coating agents: maltodextrins: MD; arabic gum: GA) and freeze drying, in order to obtain ingredients more stable during storage and baking.The polyphenols spray-dried with MD and GA (50:50, w/w) resulted the ingredient most stable to the storage and partially protected from thermal damage during the baking in a model biscuit. The enriched biscuits showed a significantly higher content of polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and anthocyanins respect to a control biscuit.The polyphenolic extract obtained from Artemide black rice can be considered a valuable source of polyphenols to produce functional foods or microencapsulated ingredients for nutraceutical applications.
Food Chemistry,269(12): 603-609
Improvers and functional ingredients in whole wheat bread: A review of their effects on dough properties and bread quality
Lauren Tebben, Yanting Shen, Yonghui Li
This review examines the effects of enzymes, emulsifiers, hydrocolloids, and oxidants on the properties of whole wheat bread and dough, with particular attention to effects on loaf volume and hardness. Wheat gluten and other plant materials are also discussed. Gaps in the research into whole wheat bread are identified, and future research needs are recommended.Xylanase reduces the water absorption of whole wheat flour and increases loaf volume and crumb softness by hydrolyzing ararbinoxylans. α-amylase can be beneficial under certain conditions. Phytase may activate endogenous α-amylase. G4-amylase is promising but needs validation by further research on its effect on loaf volume, crumb hardness, and staling. Vital wheat gluten overcomes many of the challenges of whole wheat bread production and is found in the majority of commercial whole wheat breads. Emulsifiers DATEM and SSL can improve the volume, texture and staling profile of whole wheat bread. Several types of improvers are generally needed in combination to provide the greatest improvement to whole wheat dough and bread.
Trends in Food Science & Technology,2018(11):10-24
Recent update on methodologies for extraction and analysis of soybean seed proteins
Devanand L Luthria,Kollakondan M Maria John,Ramesh Marupaka
Journal of the science of food and agriculture,2018,98(15): 5572-5580
Free fatty‐acid generation and lipid oxidation during dry‐grind corn ethanol fermentation
Brett Brothers,Hui Wang,Tong Wang
The formation of free fatty acid (FFA) is an undesirable change during dry‐grind corn ethanol fermentation because it negatively affects biodiesel transformation. The primary objective of this work was to determine where in the process FFA is generated using laboratory‐scale simulation experiments. TLC and GC were used to quantify FFA in the extracted total lipids. Values obtained from FFA determination by titration were also compared with those obtained from TLC‐GC. Results indicate that FFA generation is due to an incremental increase at each step in the process, particularly at the early slurrying and liquefaction stage, and also likely during the continuous backset. Furthermore, laboratory‐based fermentations indicate that the oxidation of linoleic acid in the FFA fraction and possibly in the oil increased the FFA level determined using the titration method. Industrial oil samples collected were shown to be highly oxidized and this led to an overestimation of FFA by 15–24% using the titration method compared to TLC‐GC due to the formation of a secondary oxidation product, acids. Such a discrepancy in FFA quantification and the level of lipid oxidation have not been seen in the literature.
Preparation and modification of high dietary fiber flour: A review
Huijuan Zhang, Hongna Wang, Xinran Cao, et al
Dietary fiber, consisting of soluble dietary fiber and insoluble dietary fiber, has beneficial functional effects on the human body that are receiving increasingly attention. Refined flour lacks dietary fiber and poses potential risks to human health. Therefore, improving the nutritional value and processing performance of flour in the preparation and modification of high dietary fiber flour is of great importance. Whole-wheat flour, a high dietary fiber flour obtained by crushing whole-wheat grains, is rich in nutritional value. High dietary fiber flour obtained by adding bran back into the flour makes full use of the bran, which increases the utilization of wheat-milling byproducts. The addition of dietary fiber to flour is a direct method for obtaining high dietary fiber flour, and which has evolved with the development of the dietary fiber extraction industry. Further modifications of whole-wheat flour, bran, and dietary fiber, such as milling, extrusion, heat treatment, and biological treatment, can diminish the effect that bran materials on the quality of flour and flour products. This review summarizes methods used for the preparation and modification of three kinds of high dietary fiber flour and the effects of these different methods on the quality of flour and flour products, with the aim to provide guidance for the industrial preparation of high dietary fiber flour.
Food Research International, 2018(11) :24-35
Fiber‐rich food processing byproducts enhance the expansion of cornstarch extrudates
Maria Dian Pratiwi Masli,Bon‐Jae Gu,Barbara A. Rasco
Expansion characteristics of cornstarch‐based extrudates incorporating fiber‐rich food processing byproducts was explored. Waxy and regular cornstarch were used as the base materials with apple pomace and sugarcane bagasse incorporated at two addition levels (0%, 15%, and 30% w/w). Extrusions were conducted at three different screw speeds (150, 200, and 250 rpm) with other parameters optimized and kept constant. Apple pomace inclusion resulted in higher initial expansion index (4.23 to 5.60) and higher stable expansion index (2.76 to 4.43), but also showed higher shrinkage (8.50% to 34.72%) than sugarcane bagasse extrudates at the same inclusion levels. Inclusion of apple pomace showed potential of producing extrudates with significantly higher expansion than cornstarch control, with relatively lower energy inputs. Extrusion methods used here have the potential to preserve the textural quality and nutritional value of the fiber‐enriched extrudates, providing the base for healthier snack food items.
Journal of Food Science,2018,V83(10): 2500-2510
Recent update on methodologies for extraction and analysis of soybean seed proteins
Devanand L Luthria，Kollakondan M Maria John ，Ramesh Marupaka，et al
Soybean is one of the best sources of plant protein. Development of improved soybean cultivars through classical breeding and new biotech approaches is important to meet the growing global demand for soybeans. There is a critical need to investigate changes in protein content and profiles to ensure the safety and nutritional quality of new soybean varieties and their food products. A proteomics study begins with an optimal combination of extraction, separation and detection approaches. This review attempts to provide a summary of current updates in the methodologies used for extraction, separation and detection of protein from soybean, the basic foundations for good proteomic research. This information can be effectively used to investigate modifications in protein content and profiles in new varieties of soybeans and other crops.
Journal of the science and agriculture，2018，98（15）：5572-5580
建立液相萃取-反相高效液相色谱法测定植物油中苯并芘的方法,以乙腈饱和的正己烷-正己烷饱和的乙腈作为萃取试剂,采用反相高效液相色谱仪对植物油中苯并芘的含量进行测定。所得线性方程Y=0.717 823X+0.159 747,相关系数r=0.999 99,线性范围在2～100 ng/m L,当乙腈饱和的正己烷与正己烷饱和的乙腈体积比为2∶5时(即4 m L乙腈饱和的正己烷,10 m L正己烷饱和的乙腈),其回收率在82.62%,精密度为1.1%,检出限为0.4μg/kg。该方法稳定、高效、检测成本低,适用于植物油中苯并芘的检测。
Detection of cystine and cysteine in wheat flour using a robust LC-MS/MS method
Canan Ekinci Dogan, Nur Cebi, Ay?en Develioglu, et al
An effective and simultaneous liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the first time, with the aim of quantification of cysteineand cystine in wheat flour. Developed LC-MS/MS method showed good linearity (R2?=?0.99) with very low LOD and LOQ values as 2.0?μg/kg and 7.0?μg/kg for cystine, 3.0?μg/kg and 8.0?μg/kg for cysteine, respectively. Favorable repeatability and reproducibility were achieved. Developed highly sensitive LC-MS/MS method was successfully applied for the detection and quantification of cystine and cysteine in wheat flour samples. Cystine and cysteine contents were determined as quite similar and appropriate for 25 types of wheat flour. In addition, method has great capability for quantification of additional cysteine and cystine in the wheat flour since quite favorable recovery values were obtained.
Journal of Cereal Science, 2018,Vol84(11):49-54
Reducing variability in the measurement of gluten contamination in oats, oilseeds, and pulses by improving sample preparation
Sheryl A. Tittlemier，Tanya Zirdum，Jason Chan，et al
The variability in gluten in non‐gluten‐containing grains (NGCG) processed using two preparation schemes was evaluated with the aim of minimizing effects of sample heterogeneity on gluten determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The relationship between gluten concentration as determined by ELISA and visually assessed contamination of NGCG with wheat, durum, barley, and rye was investigated.Low variability between duplicate aliquots taken from test portions (0–30.6% relative standard deviation [RSD]) demonstrated the ELISA itself was precise. In the first scheme, variability among test portions ranged from 1% to 143% RSD, with only half in the range of 1–50%. Using scheme 2, variability in gluten among test portions ranged from 1% to 85% RSD, with more than three quarters in the range of 1–50%. High lipid content hemp seed was a particular challenge to grind, and this was reflected in higher variability in gluten results between test portions (mean RSD = 61%).Subsampling ground samples using rotary sample division and the use of a 1g test portion in scheme 2 decreased the variability of gluten results for most samples. At concentrations relevant to existing thresholds of gluten contamination (e.g. 20 mg/kg), there was no relationship between gluten concentration in NGCG and cereal contamination as determined by visual inspection.
Occurrence of deoxynivalenol in maize germs from North China Plain and the distribution of deoxynivalenol in the processed products of maize germs
Li-Li Xu, Yun-Qi Wen, Yu-Lan Liu,et al
69 maize germ samples from North China Plain, 40 processed products of maize germs obtained in lab, 30 crude corn oils from factories and 40 refined corn oils from supermarkets in China were analyzed of deoxynivalenol (DON) by HPLC combined with ultraviolet detection and immunoaffinity column. 95.7% of maize germs were contaminated by DON. The average content was 449.0?μg/kg. The average of DON in processed products of maize germs including solvent extracted oil, cold-press oil, meal and cake was 163.7, 113.1, 1111.5 and 1175.2?μg/kg, respectively. Only 20% of crude corn oil and 12.5% of refined corn oil were contaminated by DON with the range of 67.5–340.5?μg/kg and 57.1–207.5?μg/kg, respectively. During the production of corn oil, solvent extraction oil had a larger amount of DON than pressing oil. The contamination of DON in corn oil was not serious or widespread, which indicated a low risk of health.
Simple and fast method for simultaneous determination of propionate and sorbate in bread by capillary electrophoresis with UV spectrophotometric detection
Francielly Fernanda Souza de Jesus, Aline Guadalupe Coelho, Laís de Assis Pallos, et al
A novel method for simultaneous determination of the preservatives propionate and sorbate in bread samples using capillary electrophoresis with diode array spectrophotometric detection is proposed. This method requires a simple and fast sample preparation using aqueous extraction with sonication aid. A background electrolyte (BGE) composed of 10?mmol/L benzoic acid, 15?mmol/L l-histidine and 0.2?mmol/L of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) allowed the separation of the preservatives with good resolution in less than 5?min. Propionate was indirectly detected at 235?nm, and the sorbate was directly detected at 250?nm. The limits of quantification (LOQ) were 4.3 and 1.5?mg /kg for propionate and sorbate, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for analysis of commercial samples of sliced white bread.
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 2018,Vol72(9) :93-96
Immunogenic and allergenic profile of wheat flours from different technological qualities revealed by ion mobility mass spectrometry
Thais O. Alves, Carolina T.S. D’Almeida, Verônica C.M. Victorio,et al
A two-step extraction of soluble (AG) and gluten (GLU) proteins was performed on nine common wheat flours of different technological qualities, low (LW), medium (MD), and superior (SP). The immunogenic and allergenic peptides were identified and relatively quantified by a non-targeted multiplexed MS-MS method that used a Triticum aestivum database (UniProt) and ProPepper™. Collectively, 3603 and 91,609 peptides were identified, and, after clustering and filtering for this study, approximately 450 and 1708 peptides from GLU and AG fractions, respectively, were obtained from all samples. Approximately 19% of the identified peptides showed immunogenic action associated with prolamins. For the most part, 60% of the peptides belonged to high-molecular-weight glutenins. The immunogenic peptides were more expressed in LW than in SP and MD flours. Low quality flours also contained the highest number of epitopes (28) associated with CD and wheat allergies. The major proteins from AG associated with respiratory allergies were α-amylase inhibitors and serpins. Two serpins were found more expressed in LW flours. This paper offers the most comprehensive immunogenic profile of wheat proteins based on proteomics to date. These results indicate that low quality wheat flours are a more conceivable cause of immunological reactions.
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 2018,73(10) :67-75