SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF CEREALS, OILS AND FOODS
    Special Topic
  • Analysis of the Degradation Products of Aflatoxin B1 by Pseudomonas aeruginosa M19(Online First, Recommended Article)

    WANG Jia-xing, XIE Yan-li*, SONG Juan-juan, MA Wei-bin, SUN Shu-min, LI Qian

    2020,28(5):1-5, DOI:

    Abstract
    A degrading enzyme PADE produced during the degradation of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by the laboratory screening bacteria M19 was selected as the subject in this study. Thin layer chromatography and fluorescence spectrum analysis were performed to analyze possible structural changes of products in the AFB1 degradation solution. Mass spectrometric were further used to detect the AFB1 degradation products. The results of thin layer chromatography showed that no new fluorescent absorbent substance was detected in the organic phase degradation solution, and no absorbent substance was detected in the aqueous phase degradation solution, indicating that the degradation product did not have fluorescence absorption. The fluorescence spectrum detection results showed that the fluorescence of the AFB1 degradation product was decreased obviously. The mass spectrometry results showed that a substance P with a mass-to-charge ratio of 227.18 was found. Based on all the results, it can be concluded that the lactone bond was broken during the degradation of AFB1, and a degradation product P with a molecular weight of 226 was generated. The molecular formula was C14H10O3 as analyzed by Xcalibur software. The degradation pathway was hypothesized.
  • Abstract
    Pollution of mycotoxigenic fungi and their toxins seriously affect the safety of grain, oil and food. The development and application of natural preservatives are important technologies and research areas in the field of food microbial control. Inhibitory effect of trans-2-methyl-2-pentenoic acid as a natural food flavor on the growth of Aspergillus flavus was determined in vitro by contact assay and in vivo in stored peanut seeds, with sorbic acid as a positive control. The results showed that trans-2-methyl-2-pentenoic acid exhibited a stronger inhibitory effect than sorbic acid. The MIC (Minimum Inhibition Concentration) values of trans-2-methyl-2-pentenoic acid and sorbic acid on A. flavus were 0.6 and 1.0 g/L, respectively. Moreover, trans-2-methyl-2-pentenoic acid had a 100% inhibitory effect on the control of A. flavus in stored peanut seeds at 10.0 g/L, while a higher concentration of 20.0 g/L was needed for sorbic acid to achieve the same control effect. The results indicate that trans-2-methyl-2-pentenoic acid as a natural food flavor shows significant antifungal effect, and has high potential for the development of natural food preservatives.
  • Abstract
    Zearalenone (ZEA) has strong reproductive toxicity, mutagenicity and teratogenicity. A rapid visual aptasensor for sensitive and specific detection of zearalenone (ZEA) was developed in this study based on gold nanoparticle (AuNP) aggregation induced by the competitive absorption of aptamer between gold nanoparticle and zearalenone. The results showed that a good linear correlation between the concentration of ZEA and the absorbance of AuNPs was found within the range of 5-200 ng·mL-1, the linear regression equation is y= 0.248 6+0.000 461 56x (R2=0.990 2). And the detection limit was 5 ng / ml with a good specificity. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the assay was further enhanced 50 times by combining with argentation amplification strategy. The reliability of the developed assay for detecting the actual corn and corn oil samples were verified by comparing with those detected by commercial ELISA kit. These results demonstrated that the developed assay has great potential in the rapid and specific detection of ZEA in foodstuffs.
  • Study on Optimization of Fermentation Process of Aflatoxin B1 Degradation by Aspergillusterreus(Online First, Recommended Article)

    NING Meng-ge, XIE Yan-li*, SUN Shu-min, MA Wei-bin, LI Qian, WEI-Min, HE Bao-shan, REN Wen-jie

    2020,28(5):18-23, DOI:

    Abstract
    The fermentation process of Aflatoxin B1(Aflatoxin B1, AFB1) degrading bacteria Aspergillusterreus HNGD-TM15 to degrade AFB1 was optimized. Based on the single-factor experiment, the Box-Behnken design principle was used to design the response surface experiment for the HNGD-TM15 fermentation process parameters, including carbon source (glucose), pH and temperature, which can significantly affect the degradation of AFB1. The results showed that the model (P=0.002 8) was extremely significant at 1% level, and the lack-of-fit term is not significant (P=0.063 5>0.05) with R2=0.929 9 and R2Adj=0.839 9, indicating that the model fits well, and it can simulate 92.99% of AFB1 degradation rate changes, in which pH has the greatest effect on the degradation rate of AFB1. The fermentation parameters of HNGD-TM15 were determined as follows: glucose was 0.7%, the initial pH of the fermentation broth was 3.0, the fermentation temperature was 34 ℃, the inoculation volume was 0.006% of the bacterial suspension, and the filling volume was 100 mL/250 mL, fermentation time was 72 h. After optimization, the degradation rate of AFB1 was increased from 98.30% with an inoculation volume of 5% to 99.94% with an inoculation volume of 0.006%.
  • Linear and Nonlinear Creep-Recovery Analysis of Black Bean-Wheat Flour Blend System(Online First, Recommended Article)

    FAN Ting-ting, XIE Yan-li*, WANG Chen, ZHAO Wen-hong, YANG Yu-hui, XIE Dong-dong

    2020,28(5):24-30, DOI:

    Abstract
    The creep-recovery test was used to analyze the rheological properties of black bean-wheat flour blends in linear and nonlinear viscoelastic regions. After adding black bean powder to wheat flour, the water absorption rate and development time of the dough were both increased, and the stable time of the dough showed a trend of increasing first and then decreasing. Creep and recovery data fitted well with the 4-element Burgers model (R2>0.94). During the creep time of  3、5、10 and 15 min, the λc、μc、Jcm、and Jmax of the dough gradually increased, the Jro and the recovery rate gradually decreased. Jco、Jro、Jcm generally showed a decreasing trend. After the deformation, the recovery rate of the dough in the recovery time of  3、5、10 and 15 min was 63.51%~73.6%. Under the shear stress of 150、250、500 and 1 000 Pa, the Jco、Jcm and Jmax of the dough gradually increased, μc、Jro、λr and recovery rate dropped from 89.99% to 32.36%. When the amount of black bean flour added in wheat flour was 10%, the weakening of the dough was the smallest and the stable time was relatively longer. The Linear creep-response analysis results showed that the dough had reached steady shear during the creep time of 3 min, prolonging of the creep time affected the elastic recovery and recovery speed of the dough, and the elastic network of the dough was broken partially; the recovery rate of the dough was 73.6% at the recovery time of 10 min. The nonlinear creep-analysis results showed that the dough was sensitive to shear stress outside the linear viscoelastic region, but it still had typical viscoelastic properties, improved the shear stress, reduced the steady shear viscosity of the dough, and accelerated the delayed elastic recovery.
  • International Contract
  • Abstract
    Surfactants are important chemical products, serving as emulsifiers and interfacial modifiers in the household detergents, personal care products, paints and coatings, foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals industries. This review focuses upon recent global advances in research and development to improve the ecological sustainability of surfactants throughout their life cycle, including derivation from renewable resources, production using green manufacturing principles, and improved biocompatibility and biodegradability during their consumer use and disposal stages. Biobased surfactants, derived from vegetable oils, polysaccharides, proteins, phospholipids, and other renewable resources, currently comprise approximately 24% of the surfactant market, and this percentage is expected to increase, especially in Asia. The use of renewables is attractive to consumers because of reduced production of CO2, a greenhouse gas associated with climate change. Enzymes can greatly increase process sustainability, through reduced use of organic solvent, water, and energy, and reduced formation of by-products and waste products. Among the enzymes being investigated for surfactant synthesis, lipases are the most robust, due to their relatively high biocatalytic activity, operational stability and their ability to form or cleave ester, amide, and thioester bonds. For enzymes to be robust catalysts of surfactants, further research and development is needed to improve catalytic productivity, stability and reduce their purchase cost.
  • Abstract
    Surfactants are important chemical products, serving as emulsifiers and interfacial modifiers in the household detergents, personal care products, paints and coatings, foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals industries. This review focuses upon recent advances in research and development to improve the ecological sustainability of surfactants throughout their life cycle, including derivation from renewable resources, production using green manufacturing principles, and improved biocompatibility and biodegradability during their consumer use and disposal stages. Biobased surfactants, derived from vegetable oils, polysaccharides, proteins, phospholipids, and other renewable resources, currently comprise approximately 24% of the surfactant market, and this percentage is expected to increase, especially in Asia. The use of renewables is attractive to consumers because of reduced production of CO2, a greenhouse gas associated with climate change. Enzymes can greatly increase process sustainability, through reduced use of organic solvent, water, and energy, and reduced formation of by-products and waste products. Among the enzymes being investigated for surfactant synthesis, lipases are the most robust, due to their relatively high biocatalytic activity, operational stability and their ability to form or cleave ester, amide, and thioester bonds. For enzymes to be robust catalysts of surfactants, further research and development is needed to improve catalytic productivity, stability and reduce their purchase cost.
  • Abstract
    Prevalence of chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is rapidly increasing and has become a global problem in modern day. Over consumption of simple, processed carbohydrate foods is considered one of the main causes of NCD in young and elderly populations. Whole grain rice is an important source of a complex carbohydrate, dietary fiber, enriched with vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. However, palatability of brown rice is the key success factor among white-rice-addicted communities. In the initial phase, we successfully breed rice strains with aromatic, soft-whole grain, white rice contains high grain-Fe/Zn density and intermediate glycemic index (GI). The most successful variety was uniquely soft-textured black purple rice named Riceberry, depicting rice enriched with blueberry nutritional characteristics. Product development for fiber-rich, high antioxidant has been extremely active from academia, real sectors, and SMEs. In total, 39 patent applications (18 granted patents), 12 international publications, and 18,700 Youtubes related to Riceberry. From 2017, Riceberry has become the most popular choice for product development surpassing Thai Hommali Rice. More than 200 food and non-food products were commercialized as dairy replacement, side dishes, meals, hot beverages, bakery, and breakfast cereals. In the second phase, we successfully breed low GI rice strains named Pink+4 equipped with farmers’ preferred resistance to flash flooding, bacterial leaf blight, leaf blast, and devastating brown planthopper adapted to organic rice production. Innovative products combined of low GI rice flour with purple Riceberry have been the next trend for functional ingredients and foods. These healthy rice products have high potential globally as healthy foods, gluten-free, fiber-rich, complex carbohydrate, and nutrient-dense from sustainable organic farming.
  • Abstract
    Prevalence of chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is rapidly increasing and has become a global problem in modern day. Over consumption of simple, processed carbohydrate foods is considered one of the main causes of NCD in young and elderly populations. Whole grain rice is an important source of a complex carbohydrate, dietary fiber, enriched with vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. However, palatability of brown rice is the key success factor among white-rice-addicted communities. In the initial phase, we successfully breed rice strains with aromatic, soft-whole grain, white rice contains high grain-Fe/Zn density and intermediate glycemic index (GI). The most successful variety was uniquely soft-textured black purple rice named Riceberry, depicting rice enriched with blueberry nutritional characteristics. Product development for fiber-rich, high antioxidant has been extremely active from academia, real sectors, and SMEs. In total, 39 patent applications (18 granted patents), 12 international publications, and 18,700 Youtubes related to Riceberry. From 2017, Riceberry has become the most popular choice for product development surpassing Thai Hommali Rice. More than 200 food and non-food products were commercialized as dairy replacement, side dishes, meals, hot beverages, bakery, and breakfast cereals. In the second phase, we successfully breed low GI rice strains named Pink+4 equipped with farmers’ preferred resistance to flash flooding, bacterial leaf blight, leaf blast, and devastating brown planthopper adapted to organic rice production. Innovative products combined of low GI rice flour with purple Riceberry have been the next trend for functional ingredients and foods. These healthy rice products have high potential globally as healthy foods, gluten-free, fiber-rich, complex carbohydrate, and nutrient-dense from sustainable organic farming.
  • Focal Topic
  • Abstract
    Food safety has always been the most concerned problem of our government and people, because it involves the most direct and realistic interests of everyone. At present, China's food safety is in a period of frequent contradictions and risks. Compared with the past, food safety has been greatly improved, but there is still a certain gap with the expectations of the masses. Especially after the outbreak of the COVID-19, public health emergencies make the people more worried about "safety on the tip of the tongue". Food safety is related to people's health and life safety, economic development and social stability. Therefore, we should clarify the specific impact of the COVID-19 on China's food safety, and put forward corresponding countermeasures, so as to grasp and improve China's food safety at this stage, and truly ensure the safety of the people's tongue.
  • Storage logistics
  • Abstract
    The relationship between T. castaneum and S. zeamais was studied through reciprocal selectivity experiment, single rearing and mixture rearing at 30 ℃, 75% RH. The results showed that the mutual selection behavior between the two species was not obvious in the same ecological environment. The number of T. castaneum adults in the population decreased first, then increased slowly with increasing treatment time, the maximum number of adults in the population reaching 11.5 times of the initial number after 56 d rearing alone in wheat. while the number of S. zeamais adults in the population increased obviously with increasing treatment time, and reaching 53.9 times of the initial number after 56 d rearing alone in wheat. Compared with rearing alone, the number of adults in the population of both T. castaneum and S. zeamais significantly increased under mixture rearing in wheat, the maximum adults in the population reaching 20.3 and 93.4 times of the initial number respectively after 56 d. Therefore, both T. castaneum and S. zeamais are important pest insects during wheat storage, and the S. zeamais infestation can promote the growth of T. castaneum population.
  • Study on the Resistance of Different Rice Packaging Materials Against Insect Pests

    XU Jing-feng, LV Jian-hua, HUO Ming-fei, HUANG He-zhou, LI Yin-long

    2020,28(5):74-78, DOI:

    Abstract
    This study investigated the boring ability of four stored grain insects including Tribolium castaneum, Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Rhizopertha dominica, and Sitophilusoryzae to seven common rice packaging materials at the temperature of 28 ℃ and relative humidity of 75%±5%. The results showed that the double-sided coated perforated packaging material and the single-sided film perforated packaging material exhibited poor insect resistance and had no defense against the four insects at different life stages. However, the double-sided coated non-perforated packaging material, the double-sided coated packaging material with lining, the vacuum PE packaging material, and the inflatable PE packaging material can prevent the boring of the four insects.
  • Abstract
    To explore the use of volatile components in grains to attract pests and improve the trapping control effect, volatile organic compound variety and relative content of ten kinds of cereals were determined by the methods of headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) at 28 ℃ and GC-MS analysis. And attractive effect of the cereals on larva of the Indian moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) was also assayed at same temperature. Nine categories of volatiles were found including alkanes, alkenes, aromatic aldehydes, alcohols, acids, ketones, esters and furans in headspace sampling of ten kinds of cereals by the solid phase microextraction/gas mass spectrometry analysis. There were significant differences in volatile species and relative contents among grains. The substance numbers of the volatile organic compounds from coix seeds, buckwheat, wheat, sorghum, oats, millet, broomcorn millet, barley, rice, and corn were 30, 26, 23, 22, 20, 20, 19, 16, 15, and 15 respectively. The oat, coix seeds and sorghum have the highest attraction rates which were 30%, 25% and 23%, respectively. The attractive rate of wheat, rice, buckwheat and corn was about 14%, while that of millet, barley and millet was less than 9%. The relative content of aldehydes in oats and coix seeds with high attraction rate to larvae was the highest, and the relative content of acids in sorghum was the highest. Aldehydes and acids which were relatively high in these three kinds of cereals, as well as 2-Methyl-Hexadecane、3,5-Octadien-2-ol、2,2-Dimethyl-1-octanol、β-Elemene、Linalool、Cedrenol、Cedrol、Ethyl hexanoate、2,2,4,4,6-Pentamethylheptane、Hexanoic acid、Tridecanoic acid、Butyl undecyl ester phthalic acid which existed in specific volatiles in oats, coix seeds and sorghum were all worth to be further studied.
  • Abstract
    A fumigation with dosage of 20 g/m3 sulfuryl fluoride was carried out in a warehouse stored 8 000 t of wheat and equipped with recirculation system, in which the temperature was 27~30 ℃ for head space, 26~28 ℃ for top layer of the bulk, 16~19 ℃ for middle and bottom layers of central bulk and 26~29 ℃ for surrounded bulk grain in the warehouse. The fumigant was applied in five points on the bulk surface and through the ventilation ducts under bottom of the bulk by a pipe connection while the recirculation running. The concentrations of sulfuryl fluoride in bulk surface, 1.5 m and 4.5 m depth under grain surface were all monitored during the process. The killing effect on Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) was also examined for the adults, pupae, larvae, and eggs of lab cultured strain and adults of field strain. The peak concentration was monitored on surface of the bulk and in the depth of 4.5 m of that, the concentration was lower in the depth of 1.5 m of the bulk, just after fumigant applied and while recirculation running. During exposure of 3 to 12 h, the sulfuryl fluoride concentration was above 20 g/m3 and distributed uniformly.The concentration of sulfuryl fluoride in the grain pile was generally higher, and the concentration decreased obviously with the time after 12 h. Sulfuryl fluoride concentration descended more quickly after 24 h when recirculation stopped and descended rate of sulfuryl fluoride concentration in higher temperature part of grain located in surround bulk was bigger than that in lower temperature part located in central bulk. When the concentration of sulfuryl fluoride in the grain pile decreased to 2 g/m3 (about 13 d), the decay rate decreased, and the time from 2 g/m3 to 0 g/m3 was about 10 days. During the fumigation that sulfuryl fluoride concentration changed in range of 27~24 g/m3, adults and larvae can be killed completely in 3 h exposure. Pupae can be given 100% mortality in 6 h when exposure under 27~22 g/m3 of the fumigation. The full mortality for eggs needed 24 h in 27~19 g/m3 of sulfuryl fluoride concentration. The tolerance of four life stages of C. ferrugineus to sulfuryl fluoride was eggs>pupae>adults≈larvae. In the grain bulk where temperature was 26~29 ℃ for top layer and surround bulk and 16~19 ℃ for middle and bottom grain of central bulk, all life stages of C. ferrugineus can be fumigated successfully by sulfuryl fluoride that concentration varied from about 24 g/m3 to 0 g/m3 during 23 d of the exposure time.
  • Study on Detection of Psocids Annual Occurrence in Wheat Flour Warehouse in Guangzhou

    HE Li-li, WANG Dian-xuan*, GUO Chao, LIN Qian, WANG Li-na, LIU Zi-li, CHEN Liang, ZHANG Shao-bo, WANG Zhi-ying

    2020,28(5):96-101, DOI:

    Abstract
    Psocids occurrence was detected in flour warehouse from March-2017 to February-2018 by a corrugated board trap. The location of psocids and its relationship with temperature and humidity were analyzed by geostatistics contour mapping technology. The results showed that 25 131 psocids were caught in the flour warehouse which indicated that psocids were in nonuniform distribution in the warehouse,and the number of psocids closely related to the temperature and humidity of the flour warehouse. The infestation hot spot of psocids was Bran Packing Room, the junction region with Bran Packing Room and Flour Storage Room, the area of Auto Baler Machineand Belt Conveyor, and Grain Unloading Tunnel. The distribution hot spot area of psocids had characteristics of long-term persistent existence, and had risks of spreading outside. In practical production, targeted prevention measures can be taken according to the distribution of hot spots of psocids.
  • Investigation on the Species of Stored Grain Insects and Mites in Beijing and Tianjin Area(Online First, Recommended Article)

    CUI Miao, WU Yi, CAO Yang, JIANG Jun-yi, SHAN Chang-yao, DONG Zhen, WANG Zhong-ming*

    2020,28(5):102-106, DOI:

    Abstract
    To understand the species and occurrence of stored grain insects and mites in Beijing and Tianjin which is the fourth grain storage ecological area, and to provide the basis for formulating pest control strategies, field investigation of stored grain insects and mites was carried out in grain related places in 2016 and 2017. A total of 19 species of stored grain insects and 3 species of stored grain mites were collected in Beijing. The main occurrence species were Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky), Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner). A total of 22 species of stored grain insects and 4 species of stored grain mites were collected in Tianjin. The main occurrence species were Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Linnaeus), and Tenebrio obscurus Fabricius.
  • Study on the Natural Tropism of Seven Kinds of Stored Grain Pests

    XIA Li-yuan, QI Yan-mei, CAO Yang, FANG Jiang-kun, HUANG Cheng-bing, DONG Zhen, WU Yi, WANG Zhong-ming*

    2020,28(5):107-110, DOI:

    Abstract
    For monitoring and controlling stored grain pests in grain storage, the tropism of natural activity of seven main stored grain pests were studied under laboratory conditions. The results showed that the Triboliumcastaneum (Herbst), Liposcelisbostrychophila Bodonnel and Sitophilusoryzae (linnaeus) showed strong tendency towards east and north when the light source was at the east and north, the Triboliumconfusum Jacquelin du Val towards north, and the Sitophiluszeamais Motschulsky towards east. The Liposcelisbostrychophila Bodonnel obviously trends to north when there is no light source. The results of the study can provide a reference for the field monitoring and trapping.
  • Grain Processing
  • Extraction and Structure Analysis of Wheat Bran Starch

    LI Xin, ZHANG Hong-wei*, LIU Ying, GAO Fei, TANG Yan-jun, LIU Zi-wei

    2020,28(5):111-116, DOI:

    Abstract
    Wheat bran was taken as raw material to extract bran starch by alkaline protease method and ultrasonic-assisted alkaline protease method respectively. After extraction conditions of the two methods were optimized, the granular structure and molecular structure of bran starch were analyzed. The results showed that the optimal extraction conditions by alkaline protease method were as follows: solid-liquid ratio 1∶10 (g∶mL), enzyme dosage 529.92 U/mL, enzyme reaction time 50 min, reaction temperature 45 ℃ and pH 12. The yield of starch was 30.40% and its content was 59.24%, while the powder was light brown; the optimal conditions by ultrasonic-assisted alkaline protease method were as follows: solid-liquid ratio 1∶15 g/mL, ultrasonic power 150 W and ultrasonic time 15 min. The yield of bran starch was 21.06% and its content was 90.64%, while the powder was white. The purity and extraction rate of bran starch extracted by ultrasonic-assisted alkaline protease method were better than those by single alkaline protease method. Analysis results showed that branch/straight ratio of the wheat bran starch was 4.69 and broken starch content was 1.78%. The starch bran particles were ellipsoidal, with an average particle size of 15.86 μm and radial crystal structure of A-type.
  • Abstract
    In this paper, the fine bran processed by heating and pressuring was added into the flour for the steamed bread. The moisture, TPA, water distribution and so on of steamed bread was evaluated during the storage in cool. The results showed that there was a certain correlation between the dosage of the fine bran and the water absorption of the flour, the regression equation is y=32.525*x+44.207, R2=0.996 9. The additive of the fine bran led to an increase of water content of steamed bread. The water migration of the steam bread weakened in cold storage, with the strong and weak binding water of steamed bread increased. The hardness and adhesion of the steamed bread strengthened, the reactivity and adhesion decreased for the addition of fine bran. Moreover, the yield value of steamed bread increased with the increase of bran content.
  • Oil Processing
  • Study on the Effect of Refining Process on the Quality and Oxidation Stability of Paeonia ludlowii Seed Oil

    ZHANG Chao-qi, LAN Xiao-zhong, YUAN Lei, KAN Jin-tao, ZHONG Zheng-chang*

    2020,28(5):125-130, DOI:

    Abstract
    To explore the effects of different oil producing processes on the quality and oxidation stability of Paeonia ludlowii seed oil. The physical and chemical characteristics, oxidation stability and fatty acid composition of Paeonia ludlowii seed oil were tested, and the effects of different refining processes on the quality and oxidation stability of Paeonia ludlowii seed oil were analyzed. The results showed that the iodine value after decolorization was 140 g I/100 g, the acid value after deacidification was 0.36 mgKOH/g, the peroxide value was 1.89 mmol/kg and 0.76 mmol/kg after deacidification and decolorization respectively, and the saponification value was 182 mg/g after deodorization, all of them had significant differences (P<0.05), while the refractive index did not change significantly and had no significant influence. The order of oil oxidation stability is: degumming oil > crude oil > deodorization oil > deacidification oil > decolorization oil; Degluing and deodorization had significant effects on the stearic acid and palmytic acid components in Paeonia ludlowii seed oil respectively (P<0.05), while there was no significant difference in other components.
  • Correlation Analysis of the Characteristic Indices of Edible Oil during Fry Process

    XU Ze-qun, ZHANG Le, YANG Jing-mei, WANG Zhi-qiang, WU Ling-tao

    2020,28(5):131-137, DOI:

    Abstract
    Soybean oil and rapeseed oil were taken as the research objects, and the sensory quality and characteristic indexes changes during the frying process for 15 hours at 170 ℃ were discussed. Meanwhile, the relationship between fatty acid composition, polar component, viscosity value and high value of oil bubble was studied. The results showed that the sensory experience of soybean oil in the frying process was better than that of rapeseed oil. The changes of acid value of the two kinds of oils were within the hygienic standard (acid value≤5 mgKOH/g), and there was a significant positive correlation between the bubble high value, viscosity, polar components and the frying time (P<0.01). In addition, viscosity and polar components were also positively correlated with bubble height respectively (P<0.01). The relative content of total saturated fatty acids in vegetable oil will increase gradually, which has a significant positive correlation with the bubble high value (P<0.01); the relative content of total unsaturated fatty acids will decrease gradually, which has a significant negative correlation with the bubble high value (P<0.01), and the content of total trans fatty acids will decrease gradually, which has a significant negative correlation with the bubble high value (P<0.01).
  • Abstract
    To establish a method for the determination of phthalic acid esters in Peanut oil, Peanut oil samples were extracted with n-hexane saturated acetonitrile, purified by 25 mg PSA and 25 mg C18 and detected by GC-MS selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode detection, external standard method quantitative. The standard solution of 17 phthalates showed a good linearity in the concentration range of 0.02~3.0 mg/L, and the correlation coefficient (r) is above 0.999, the detection limit (LOD) was 0.01 mg/kg to 0.02 mg/kg, and the quantitative limit (LQD) was 0.03 mg/kg to 0.05 mg/kg. the recovery of standard addition was 92.47% to 108.72%, and the relative standard deviation was 1.10% to 5.94%.The method is simple, rapid, sensitive and accurate. and can be used for the determination of 17 phthalates in Peanut oils.
  • Efficacy and Application Prospect of Ginger Oil with Ginger Characteristics

    LI Tong, WANG Yuan-li, GUO Mi-mi, YANG Kai-zhou, LUAN Xia*

    2020,28(5):144-149, DOI:

    Abstract
    Ginger essential oil is the main deep-processed product of ginger. Ginger oil has functional properties, such as anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory, because of the upgrade of extraction technology. Ginger is widely used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries because of its rich in phenols. Ginger oil not only inherits the function of removing fishy smell, but also retains the health benefits of ginger. With consumers' attention to health, the application of ginger oil in cooking is also concerned. This article compared the advantages and disadvantages of various ginger oil extraction methods, summarized the benefits of ginger oil, and prospected the application of ginger oil based on internal and external R & D and market situation.
  • Food Processing
  • Abstract
    Flaxseed meal extracted by cold pressing was degummed and defatted by enzyme to obtain flaxseed protein. The application of flaxseed protein in ice cream was studied. The factors influencing flax protein ice cream were flax protein, cream, skim milk powder and sucrose. The formula of flax protein ice cream was optimized by single factor and orthogonal experiments with sensory evaluation as index. The optimum formula was determined as follows: flax protein content 3%, skimmed milk powder content 13%, cream content 15%, and sucrose content 16%. The sensory score of flax protein ice cream was 95.32 ± 0.41, the expansion rate was 69.67% ± 0.91%, and the melting resistance was 5.28% ± 0.98%.
  • Abstract
    Nine chlorogenic acid isomers were extracted from Yunnan Catimor green coffee beans by water-alcohol extraction method. Single factor experiments were carried out to study the material number, ratio of liquid to material, water extraction temperature, extraction time, alcohol concentration and alcohol extraction temperature, and response surface design was used to optimize the water alcohol extraction process. The results showed that the extraction rate of water-alcohol extraction method (5.21%) was significantly higher than that of water extraction method (4.29%);The alcohol concentration and the ratio of liquid to material had significant influence on the extraction rate of chlorogenic acids (P ≤ 0.01). The optimum extraction conditions of chlorogenic acids isomers by water-alcohol method optimized by single factor and response surface were: alcohol extraction temperature of 60 ℃, extraction time of 11.67 min, material mesh of 60, liquid to material ratio of 16.07, alcohol concentration of 20.16%, the extraction rate of chlorogenic acid isomers were of 5.31%.
  • Research on Grout Vomiting Value Detection Method of Jiangxi Straight Rice Noodles

    JIANG Guo-fu, ZHANG Yun-ying, XIE Nian-feng, CAI Jun-zhi, YU Xiao-jian, SUN Wen-jun

    2020,28(5):163-169, DOI:

    Abstract
    The grout vomiting value is one of the key indicators for judging the quality of Jiangxi straight rice noodles. The main factors that affect the results of the grout vomiting value are as follows: cooking time, cooking temperature, stirring, methods of pipetting et al. However, most of the above factors were not limited in DB/T222—1998 the measurement standard of grout vomiting value of Jiangxi straight rice noodles except the cooking time. It is easy to have errors in the actual measurement. Therefore, effect of four factors including cooking time, cooking temperature, stirring, and methods of pipetting on the grout vomiting were studied in this research. Result indicated that obtained data from the graphite hot plate heating method was stable and had a small error. It would be better if the grout vomiting value were expressed in the average of the three measured after every three shakes. The data will be more accurate if the pipetting area is in the middle of the volumetric flask. The stirs number during the cooking process need declare. Overcooking would increase the grout vomiting value. Partial revision of DB/T222—1998 was recommended according to this research. This study will provide a more accurate method for the detection of the grout vomiting value of Jiangxi straight rice noodles and promote the standardization of Jiangxi straight rice noodles.
  • Nutrition & Quality
  • Research on Brown Sugar Quality Using Color Difference and Electronic Nose

    ZENG Xin-yi, CHEN Er-bao, ZHANG Yu, SONG Huan-lu*, ZHAO Shu-na, WANG Bao

    2020,28(5):170-180, DOI:

    Abstract
    Took brown sugar as the research object, this paper compared the color difference of brown sugar solids in different origins and pressed seasons and the liquid when they are dissolved at the same concentration, and analyzed the characteristic odor components of brown sugar solid samples and discussed the feasibility of color difference meter and electronic nose to determine the flavor quality of brown sugar. The experimental results showed that the color of brown sugar samples from different origins and extraction seasons were obviously different, and the volatile components of brown sugar samples from different origins were also different. The electronic nose can effectively identify and determine brown sugar from different origins and determine its characteristic gas components, namely sulfides and nitrogen oxides. Both the color difference meter and the electronic nose can be used as a technical means for measuring and evaluating the flavor quality of brown sugar instead of sensory evaluation.
  • Research Progress on Brain-invigorating of Walnut

    XU Cheng-mei, MA Ya-ge, ZHANG Xi, CHEN Chao-yin, ZHAO Sheng-lan*

    2020,28(5):181-189, DOI:

    Abstract
    Walnut has the functions of improving learning and memory, protecting nerve cells, regulating cholinergic dysfunction, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and so on. It is a traditional brain-invigorating food. The main functional ingredients of walnut are known as ellagic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, melatonin, vitamin E, syringic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, coumaric acid, etc. And the main functional target of walnut is prostaglandin synthase. There are more than 300 invention patents for walnuts to improve memory, of which more than 40 are authorized, and 16 health food approvals. However, the identification of walnut functional ingredients is still limited to linoleic acid, linolenic acid and protein, and the recognition of other memory functional ingredients and contents remains to be studied.
  • Abstract
    To analyze the application of dietary intervention combined exercise in health management of overweight and obese college students. 107 overweight and obese college students who received intervention were selected as the research object and divided into control and combined group which were implemented conventional intervention and diet combined exercise intervention respectively. After intervention, the obesity-related indexes, physical function and quality indexes, lipid metabolism indexes and compliance of the combined group were better than those of the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: the application of dietary intervention combined exercise method can effectively improve the physical function of overweight and obese college students, improve their physical quality and provide good support for their health management.
  • Food Safety
  • Research Progress on the Toxicity and Detoxification of T-2 Toxin

    SONG Jia, FAN Huan, YAN Xue, WANG Wen-jie, ZHAO Chen*

    2020,28(5):194-199, DOI:

    Abstract
    T-2 toxin is a secondary metabolite produced by Fusarium spp., and belongs to the type A mycotoxins in the cephalosporins family. T-2 toxin is highly toxic, and it pollutes not only crops in the field, but also granary which leads the post-harvest lost of grain, furthermore, it causes huge damage to human and animal health. Therefore, it becomes world widely the target to be prevented and controlled in the food industry and livestock industry in recent years. At present, the research on the biological toxicity of T-2 toxin is more indepth, but it still lacks adequate study on detoxification of T-2 toxin, especially the biological detoxification. The harm, mechanism and physical, chemical and biological methods of detoxification of T-2 toxins were reviewed. Focusing on the acquisition of efficient detoxification enzymes and the development of detoxification processes are conducive to the healthy development of multiple industries in China, such as grain industry, livestock industry, and by-product deep processing.
  • Abstract
    A fatty acid value determination method in grain was developed by using automatic photometric titrator with KOH as standard titration solution in this paper, in which magnetic stirring apparatus was selected as extraction device, anhydrous ethanol was used as extraction solvent, and thymol blue was used to control directing terminal. Finally, the fatty acid value was calculated by combining the consumed volume of KOH's standard titration solution. The instrument can automatically complete the whole process of extraction, filtration, quantitative transfer, titration and calculation. The results showed that the determination method has high precision, and the repeatability, accuracy and stability can meet the requirements of the national standard method, the consistency between instruments can meet the repeatability requirement of national standard method, the measuring time of paddy and wheat flour were one-third and one-half respectively of those by potentiometric or manual titration, and the measuring time of maize was two-fifths of the potentiometric titration and one-half of the manual titration. With a wide application range, the method was easy to operateand less to be disturbed by human factors, it is very suitable for batch and rapid determination of fatty acid value in grain. In a word, this method provided a suitable method for strict quality control in the grass-roots grain storage companies when purchasing grain and detection of large quantities fatty acid value in grain inspection agency.
  • Abstract
    Chinese liquor was made from sorghum, corn, wheat, rice, and glutinous rice with high starch content as raw materials, and was prepared through multiple processes. The amount of starch in the raw material was directly related to the liquor yield. In order to effectively shorten the time for detecting starch content in grain and reduce human error during operation, a fast method for detecting starch content was established. In the sample pre-treatment stage, fast microwave digestion instead of reflux acid hydrolysis is used to speed up starch hydrolysis and improve the completeness of hydrolysis. In the sample detection stage, instrumental detection instead of artificial micro-boiling titration is used which improves the ease of experimental operation. In this paper, the starch content of a variety of brewing grains was tested using the rapid starch detection method, and compared with the results of the national standard method GB 5009.9—2016. There were no significant differences between the results of the two detection methods. The rapid starch detection method can be applied to the detection of total starch content in a variety of brewing grains, greatly shorten the detection time, reduce the artificial operation error, and have good repeatability and reproducibility. The linear regression and correlation coefficient ≥ 0.999 7.
  • Effect of Nitrogen Flow Rate on the Concentration of Nitrogen in Controlled-atmosphere Warehouse

    CAO Wen-jie, HE Guo-qiang, HUANG Guo-rong, LI Ming, JIANG Hua-bang, GUO Chao*

    2020,28(5):213-217, DOI:

    Abstract
    The decay and holding time of nitrogen concentration was characterized in a controlled-atmosphere warehouse with half life of pressure of 165 s. The relationship of nitrogen concentration, nitrogen holding timeand grain temperature was further studied. The results showed that, the nitrogen concentration gradually decreases with the time, when the nitrogen concentration in the controlled-atmosphere warehouse reached to the target concentration of 98.0%. The concentration of nitrogen was related to nitrogen leakage and sorption. An increase of the nitrogen concentration required that the amount of supplemental nitrogen is greater than the amount of leakage. When there is no nitrogen supplement in the controlled-atmosphere warehouse, the monthly decrease of nitrogen concentration is 1.6%; when the monthly nitrogen supplement is greater than 12.4% of the grain warehouse volume, the nitrogen concentration will increase by 0.1% ~ 0.9%; the monthly nitrogen supplement is greater than 27.0% of the grain warehouse volume, the nitrogen concentration will greater than 1.0%. In addition, the amount of nitrogen supplementation has no direct effect on the temperature of the grain.
  • Special Topic
  • International Contract
  • 国际约稿背景介绍

    Douglas G. Hayes, Apichart Vanavichit

    2020,28(5):C-5-C-6, DOI: