SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF CEREALS, OILS AND FOODS

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    Special Topic
  • Abstract
    Although carbon disulphide (CS2) is an old fumigant, the possibility of reintroducing it is supported by new data from Australia, and by published Egyptian and Chinese data which is not widely known. The data covers grain quality, natural emissions and residues in processed food. Egyptian data shown that CS2 has no effect on the germination and plumule length of rice even at high doses (400 mg/m3). Chinese data has shown that CS2, at high doses (200 mg/m3), has no effect on the germination of a large number of seeds, including malting barley, wheat and maize, sorghum, cotton, carrot etc. This is supported by current Australian data (150 mg/m3) on germination and plumule length of wheat, barley and chickpeas. Australian data from the Stored Grain Research Laboratory (SGRL) commercial scale trial showed that all tested insects are killed by CS2 at a range of C´T (concentration´time) values of 1 000~1 500 mg·h·L–1 and has no effect on the quality of end products of wheat. The sorption of carbon disulphide on grain is lower than that for methyl bromide, and is mainly physical in origin. It leaves residues on grain, but these are extensively degraded during storage and processing. Remaining residues of CS2 are reduced during cleaning and conditioning of wheat before milling. Residues of CS2 are progressively reduced during the milling and baking processes. For example, wheat was treated at 27 g/m3 of CS2 for 6 days in sealed farm bin and then aired for 24 hours. Cleaning reduced residues from 6.7 to 4.6 mg/kg, and conditioning reduced residues from 4.6 to 2.2 mg/kg before milling. They are further reduced during milling, and further still during formation of noodles (even before cooking), pasta and bread. Residues in processed products were indistinguishable by current methods of analysis (limits of quantification were <0.005 mg/kg) and the same as levels present in products made from unfumigated wheat from the same source.
  • Abstract
    Ethyl formate and carbonyl sulfide are potential stored product fumigants. They are present naturally in the atmosphere, plants and soil. Natural levels of ethyl formate and carbonyl sulfide in newly harvested grain and stored wheat, barley, oats and canola are varied with the commodity, temperature, moisture content and the period of storage. The values ranged from 0.5~2.0 mg/kg for ethyl formate and 0.02~1.0 mg/kg for carbonyl sulfide. Ethyl formate and carbonyl sulfide were naturally present in grains at harvest, increased during the first 4~5 months of storage, and then began to decline, particularly at grain temperatures greater than 20 ℃ and moisture contents of grain and canola greater than 9.5% and 5%. This information on natural levels is relevant to the establishment of Maximum Residue Limits (MRL) and to market acceptance of ethyl formate and carbonyl sulfide as fumigants for stored products.
  • Abstract
    The Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (order Thysanoptera) is a thrips species that represents major plant pests. It is a polyphagous species capable of adversely affecting crop production. As such, in the European Union, these thrips species are regulated as quarantine organisms. F. occidentalis can cause considerable damage to susceptible plants by feeding on them and transmitting several viruses responsible for serious plant diseases. Israel is responsible for 50% of the fresh herbs market in Europe, among them is considered the edible cut flowers market. However, phytosanitary failures due to quarantine pests with no optional treatment to control them, in the past decade, reduced significantly export volumes. Up to today, there is no effective disinfestation post-harvest treatment. Due to its association with the depletion of the ozone layer, the fumigant methyl bromide (MB) has been phased out and today is serving as a Quarantine and Pre-Shipment fumigant. However, MB is known for its phytotoxic character, especially on leafy products and foliage. Ethyl formate (EF) was suggested as an alternative to MB due to its rapid action, low mammalian toxicity, benign to the environment, and rapid breakdown with minimum or no residues. Trials conducted in Israel on various flower species treated with 30 g/m3 EF mixed with CO2 (1∶6 ratio) at 1, and 1.5 h in 10 and 15 ℃ obtained high efficacy in controlling all life stages of F. occidentalis. In 2 h exposure time at 15 ℃ resulted in complete mortality with no adverse effects on the flowers or their shelf lives. Ethyl formate fumigation was found as a suitable treatment for quarantine purposes and as an appropriate alternative to Methyl bromide.
  • Abstract
    Nitrogen technology has been developed as a complementary technology with fumigants, for control of key pests in Australian grain storages. However, market feedback from industry was its cost which remained as a barrier of uptake. Therefore, a commercial scale trial was set up using advanced membrane technology to assist industry overcome operational and the cost barriers for the uptake of the technology. A new generation membrane technology was sourced from Changshun Anda, a China-based company. The unit was deployed at the CBH grain port of Kwinana, Western Australia to compare performance against an older nitrogen generation technology (Pressure Swing Absorbance/PSA). To meet the strict Australian standards operating conditions the port the unit was upgraded by Changshun Anda specialist team. The target benchmark was set to $0.50 per tonne of grain (the high-end cost of a phosphine fumigation). Research demonstrated an operational cost for the older PSA technology of $2.43 per tonne of grain. The technology also displayed operational limitations in its ability to generate and maintain the required level of nitrogen purity necessary to provide insect control (99%). In comparison, the generation of nitrogen using membrane technology cost $0.99 per tonne of grain. Other performance gains were generation of required nitrogen purity within 4.5 days of operation and ability to maintain purity for the required 14 days to provide full control of pests.
  • Nitrogen as an Alternative to Phosphine (Chinese and English versions) (Online First, Recommended Article)

    Manjree AGARWAL, James NEWMAN, Yan-yu LI, Li GU, Bei-bei LI, Yong-lin REN*

    2024,32(3):55-68, DOI:

    Abstract
    The use of nitrogen gas in grain storage has a history of over 30 years. However, it wasn't until the recent emergence of economically efficient pressure swing adsorption (PSA) and membrane separation (MS) nitrogen production equipment that this technology became viable for grain storage. This study first conducted laboratory bioassays over 4, 3, and 2 weeks on wheat, barley, oats, lupin, and canola seeds, exposing them to environments of 25 ℃, 30 ℃, and 35 ℃ with nitrogen concentrations of 99%, 98%, and 97%. The study focused on assessing the adult and immature stages of Trogoderma variabile, Tribolium castaneum, Rhyzopertha dominica, and Sitophilus oryzae. Subsequently, in-field verification was carried out at the Lake Grace terminal and the Cooperative Bulk Handling (CBH) grain export terminal in Albany, evaluating the efficacy of controlling various storage grain pests and field pests in wheat, barley, and canola seeds, as well as assessing the quality of treated grains. The results showed that pest mortality increased with decreasing oxygen concentration, increasing exposure time, and temperature. However, under low-temperature conditions, nitrogen-rich low-oxygen treatment did not achieve 100% mortality of Trogoderma variabile larvae. There was no significant difference in the efficacy of controlling storage pests resistant or sensitive to phosphine. Canola seeds showed better control efficacy compared to other grains. Furthermore, the moisture content, protein, oil content, starch, and grain color quality indicators of various grains were unaffected. A commercially scalable nitrogen-rich low-oxygen application model was successfully developed, providing a solution for controlling pests resistant to phosphine and meeting the growing market demand for insect-free and chemical residue-free grains.
  • Abstract
    Phosphine is a major fumigant for insects control in stored products. However, the current fumigation with aluminum phosphide to generate phosphine is facing many challenges, such as require manual operation, fumigation produce can’t be automatically performed, and management of residue contaminants. To address these issues, the study utilizes a combination of pure phosphine gas from cylinders and nitrogen from a membrane separation nitrogen generator. Phosphine and nitrogen are mixed at predetermined ratios, and the resulting gas mixture is delivered directly into sealed grain storage facilities via a controlled release device and circulated within the grain piles to ensure fumigant evenly distribution. This maintains effective phosphine concentrations within the storage facility. The exposure duration lasted for 13 days, during which phosphine concentrations were monitored, and the total mortality rate of adult insects within the grain piles was recorded. Within 9 hours of treatment initiation, gas concentrations reached 736 mL/m3, peaking at 1 160 mL/m3, with an effective average concentration above 200 mL/m3 sustained for 10 days. The gas circulated and distributed uniformly within the treated space, enabling effective control of major stored commodity pests within a relatively short exposure period.
  • Grain Processing
  • Abstract
    In order to understand the quality of local sorghum in Chongqing and provide theoretical and applied guidance for the development of local sorghum industry, 12 main sorghum varieties in Chongqing were collected in the experiment. The physical and chemical components of the two main sorghum varieties in the northeast and northwest were measured and analyzed by principal component analysis, and their components and uses were correlated. At the same time, the digestibility of sorghum starch was determined to screen out the anti-digestible sorghum varieties. The results showed that there were significant differences in the physical and chemical properties of 16 sorghum varieties (P<0.05). The 1 000-grain weight ranged from 9.86 to 30.14 g. The contents of starch, protein and fat ranged from 39.41% to 84.86%, 7.21% to 12.44% and 1.80% to 4.92%, respectively. The contents of tannin and phytic acid ranged from 0.19% to 2.12% and 8.42% to 15.61%, respectively. They were rich in amino acids and minerals. Through the study of in vitro digestion of sorghum, it was shown that the starch digestibility (C∞) of Yunyang Maotaihong 2, Northeast Sorghum 2, Dianjianghongyingzi and other varieties was lower, and their resistant starch (RS) content was higher, indicating that these varieties were suitable for making low GI food and low calorific value food to meet the recipes of special consumers. This study can provide a reference for the quality evaluation and application of sorghum in Chongqing.
  • Abstract
    In order to clarify the relationship among nutritional quality of highland barley flour, processing quality and edible quality of noodles, the flour of 21 highland barley varieties in Qinghai Province was used as raw the materials. The key indexes for evaluating the suitability of highland barley noodle processing were screened out through correlation analysis and cluster analysis to construct an evaluation system for the suitability of highland barley noodle processing. The results showed that the contents of starch, fat, the fiber and the protein of highland barley flour were 69.95%~83.36%, 0.87%~2.38%, 1.13%~3.69%, and 6.88%~11.64%, respectively. Beiqing No. 8 (gate) had the highest peak viscosity (2 378.50 mPa·s), and Kunlun No. 15 (Dulan) had the highest regeneration value (756.00 mPa·s). Kunlun No. 16 (Guinan) had the best water holding capacity (4.32 g/g), and Chai Qing No. 1 (Dulan) had the highest oil holding capacity (0.94 g/g). Kunlun No. 14 (Guide) had the largest solubility (27.46%), and Kunlun No. 15 (Dulan) had the largest expansion (9.15%). Kunlun No. 18 (gate) had the greatest transparency (28.40%), and freeze-thaw stability was the largest (77.16%). The nutritional quality and processing characteristics of highland barley noodles were significantly related to the cooking quality and texture characteristics of noodles, flour water content, total starch content, resistant starch content, flour L* value and peak viscosity were the key indicators to evaluate the suitability of highland barley noodle processing. Through the construction of processing suitability evaluation system, the evaluation level of highland barley noodle processing suitability was determined. Beiqing No. 9 (Xining), Kunlun No. 14 (Xining), Kunlun No. 17 (Menyuan), Chai Qing No. 1 (Guinan) were screened out, while Kunlun No. 14 (Guinan), Kunlun No. 15 (Guinan) and other 6 highland barley flours were suitable for processing into highland barley noodles. The results of this study could provide a theoretical basis for the selection of raw materials for processing highland barley noodles.
  • Abstract
    For seeking the cause of the increase in dough water absorption rate after cold plasma treatment, this study adopted low-pressure, radiofrequency 120 W helium cold plasma (CP) to treat wheat flours from 0 s to 180 s. Results showed that water absorption rate, conductivity, values of water and sucrose solvent retention capacity (SRC), and paste breakdown value in wheat flours increased significantly with increasing CP treatment time. To further explore the change causes in these physiochemical indexes, we developed a seven- parameter polynomial , (M was equilibrium moisture (%), ERH was equilibrium relative humidity (decimal), t was temperature (℃), and A~G were parameters. This polynomial could fit moisture sorption isotherms (20-35 ℃ and ERH 10%-90%) of helium CP treated flours, and the goodness-of-fit indexes were superior to those of modified Chung-Pfost (commonly used) and four-parameter polynomial (without temperature term) equations. The seven-parameter polynomial equation clearly showed the hysteresis loops between moisture adsorption and desorption isotherms of flour samples, which shifted downward with increasing temperature. The hysteresis degree showed a parabolic shape curve with increasing ERH, and the vertex of the parabola was at the range of 40-50% ERH. CP treatment shifted the monolayer adsorption sites to multi-molecular adsorption sites ahead of schedule, from ERH 50% to 40%. Further analysis using Dent model showed that the helium CP treatment was able to reduce the mono-layer moisture content and spreading pressure in wheat flour, and increase the elasticity of a capillary wall. The ability of water molecules was increased to form hydrogen bonds with the chemical components, which promoted the uniform distribution and permeation of water molecules into flour particles. Infrared spectral scanning showed that the degree of short-range order at the surface of starch granules and the interaction between protein and starch tended to increase with increasing CP time. Helium cold plasma technology has potential application in improving flour processing quality.
  • Oil Processing
  • Research Progress on the Enrichment of γ-Linolenic Acid and Its Physiological Functions (Online First, Recommended Article)

    YOU Yue, ZHANG Wen-jing, XU Rui, ZHOU Yi-fang, LYU Yan-kun, , ZHANG Hui, WU Gang-cheng*, WANG Xing-guo

    2024,32(3):101-108, DOI:

    Abstract
    The γ-linolenic acid (GLA), a polyunsaturated fatty acid with three double bonds, has attracted much attention due to its numerous biological properties. Borage, evening primrose, and blackcurrant are the primary sources of GLA, while algae and fungi constitute the majority of microbial sources. Existing GLA separation and purification technologies have their own advantages and disadvantages. A single enrichment method can not meet the requirements for high-purity GLA. The comprehensive use of different methods and the combination of modern separation and extraction technology could be the methods for preparing GLA in the future. Simultaneously, numerous studies have demonstrated the crucial involvement of GLA in the body’s metabolism and physiological control, as well as its efficacy in blood lipids, antithrombotic cardiovascular diseases, cancer and diabetes. Further research is necessary to gain a better understanding of the mechanism of action. This review of GLA sources, enrichment methods,metabolic pathways and physiological efficacy in humans could provide theoretical support for GLA as a functional health food for the prevention of multiple chronic diseases.
  • Research Progress on the Antioxidation of Edible Vegetable Oils (Online First, Recommended Article)

    LI Xin, GUO Mi-mi, FAN Wen-guang, XUE Ya-lin, DUAN Zhang-qun*

    2024,32(3):109-116, DOI:

    Abstract
    Edible vegetable oils could provide energy, essential fatty acids and various micronutrients required in the body. However, vegetable oils, being rich in unsaturated fatty acids, are susceptible to oxidation to produce a series of oxidation products that are harmful to health after consumption, due to environmental factors during processing and storage. Therefore, this paper introduced the causes of oxidation in edible vegetable oils, the mechanism of lipid autoxidation, the main oxidation pathways and the hazards of oil oxidation, and the research progress of antioxidation on edible vegetable oils were also reviewed, including low-temperature storage, gas-conditioned storage and adding single or combined antioxidants. Meanwhile, the current problems on the lipid oxidation and the antioxidant measures in edible vegetable oils were discussed. This work could be expected to provide some references for the researches focusing on the oxidative stability of edible vegetable oils.
  • Food Processing
  • The Effect of Soluble Dietary Fiber from Soybean Sauce Residue and Low-temperature Soybean Meal on the Stability and Digestive Characteristics of Oil Bodies

    SONG Jun-cheng, ZHANG Li-li, LIU Qi1, ZOU Cai-feng, FENG Shi, LIU Feng, SONG Li-li, LI Xiang-yang*

    2024,32(3):117-124, DOI:

    Abstract
    Soybean soluble dietary fiber (SSDF) was extracted from soy sauce residue and soybean meal. The influence of SSDF on the physicochemical stability and digestive characteristics of soybean oil body (SOB) lotion was investigated by taking the absolute value of Zeta potential, average particle size, peroxide value (POV value), thiobarbituric acid value (TBARS value) and fatty acid release rate (FFA) as characteristic parameters. The results showed that certain concentration of SSDF could effectively reduce the Zeta potential, average particle size, POV value, TBARS value of SOB lotion system, and significantly improve the physical and chemical stability of SOB lotion. In addition, in vitro simulated digestion experiments further showed that the introduction of SSDF can significantly reduce the FFA release rate of SOB emulsion, which effectively delayed the digestion process of lipids in the gastrointestinal tract. This study can provide theoretical basis and reference for the high-value utilization of soybean processing by- products such as soy sauce oil residue and soybean meal, which could improve the processing applicability of SOB, and develop new low-fat health foods containing SOB and SSDF.
  • Quality & Nutrition
  • Abstract
    Due to the high water content of fresh wet noodles, it is easy for microorganisms to breed and spoil, and quickly loses its edible value. The effect of composite biopreservatives such as chitosan, Nisin and tea polyphenols and their formula on shelf-life and storage quality of fresh wet noodles was investigated in this study. The results showed that the prescription 0.25% chitosan, 0.025% Nisin and 0.012% tea polyphenols can prolong the fresh wet noodles shelf-life to 48 hours under room temperature and relative humidity 60%, and the total number of colonies was less than 5.0 lg (CFU/g), which complied with national standards. However, under the same conditions, the total number of colonies of CK group have exceeded the national standard within 12 hours and the water absorption rate decreased by 26.07% whose edible value was lost.
  • Abstract
    Highland barley is a unique cereal in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China, and has good effects on improving blood glucose metabolism. However, its specific hypoglycemic ingredients and compatibility are not yet clear. In this manuscript, the polyphenols, polysaccharides, and peptides in whole grain highland barley (WHB) were extracted. And the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of 3 key active ingredients components and their interaction were investigated. The optimal reaction system for measuring α-glucosidase inhibitory activity using the microplate method was first determined through single factor experiments and Box-Benhnken response surface optimization experiments, i.e., 0.5 U/mL of enzyme concentration, 80 mmol/L of buffer concentration, and 5 mmol/L of substrate concentration. The results showed that all 3 WHB extracts exhibited good α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, with WHB polyphenols having the strongest inhibitory activity. Its inhibition rate reached 83.63% ± 2.92%, corresponding to an IC50 of 0.18 mg/mL. In addition, any 2 hypoglycemic ingredients combinations of the 3 WHB extracts had a certain synergistic effect. Our results will provide guidance for dietary choices in blood glucose control populations and new evidence for the development of functional foods.
  • Abstract
    To explain the moisture adsorption properties and improve the package material of polydextrose product, the adsorption and desorption isotherms of five domestic samples with initial moisture content (IMC) of 1.01%~4.89% were determined in this study in the range of 20~35 ℃ and ERH10%~90% using a dynamic water sorption analyzer. The adsorption and desorption isotherms were sigmoidal-shaped curves, and there was a hysteresis between desorption isotherm and the adsorption isotherm when ERH was less than 80%. Because polydextrose is an amorphous phase powder, we assumed that the water adsorption process of polydextrose was an equilibrium that existed among the vapor phase, the liquid phase (polylayer adsorption) and the solid solution (monolayer adsorption), and the adsorptive and desorptive sigmoidal-shaped isotherms can be de-convolved into a monolayer (Mh) and a polylayer component (Md) in accordance with Hailwood- Horrobin (HH) model. The polylayer water content of adsorption and desorption showed a sigmoidal increase with increasing ERH. The monolayer water content of desorption remained constant with increasing ERH, while that of the adsorption increased slowly for samples a1 to a4 with IMC 4.87% to 2.35% and decreased almost linearly for sample a5 with IMC 1.01%. As the IMCs of the samples decreased, the molecular weight of the polymer at the sorption site was maximum for sample a1 and minimum for sample a5. Although the FTIR showed the smallest intensity of hydroxyl group (3 416 cm–1) and amorphous structural functional group (1 027 cm–1) for a5 sample, a5 sample had the largest moisture absorption rate. These results suggested that, for the lower moisture content of polydextrose samples processed by different processes, their adsorptive monolayer water content seemed to decrease almost linearly with an increase of ERH. However their adsorptive polylayer water content sigmoidally increased with an increase of ERH, and their moisture absorption rate and hygroscopic capacity increased.
  • Analysis of 12 Mineral Elements in Takeaway Fast Food in Beijing and Preliminary Dietary Nutritional Assessment (Online First, Recommended Article)

    LIU Ting, LIN Li*, ZHOU Rui-zei, SUN Hai-bo, ZHAO Xi-xi, XIAO Hui, LIU Jun-peng, YANG Yu-fei

    2024,32(3):148-154, DOI:

    Abstract
    In this paper, the contents of 12 mineral elements in 100 samples of four types of takeaway fast food, including porridge and noodles, special snacks, Chinese fast food and Western fast food, sold in Beijing were analyzed by ICP-MS, and the RNI and UL values of the elements were used as the assessment criteria for preliminary dietary nutritional assessment of different age groups. The results showed that the range of mineral element contents in the samples was wide and the degree of dispersion was large. The intakes of Na, I and Cr could meet the daily dietary needs of the whole population in all types of takeaway samples, while the intakes of Ca, Mg and Fe were insufficient. The insufficient intakes of K, Zn, Cu, Mn, Mo and Se were found in some of the samples of some populations. The intakes of the 12 elements showed different degrees of variability among the four types of takeaways, with lower intakes of each element in congee and noodle dishes, and K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Se and Cr showed significant differences from the other three types. The intake of each element was lower in congee and noodles, which showed significant differences with the other three categories. In addition, the intake of take-away fast food was found to be excessive, with Zn and I exceeding 1.1%~5.3% and 3.6%~14.3%, respectively, in different age groups. The results showed that the long-term take-away population should pay attention to adjusting their dietary structure, balancing the intake of take-away food containing meat, vegetables, legumes, eggs and milk, and appropriately replenishing various types of minerals with insufficient intake. At the same time the health risks of “over-nutrition” brought about by fast food takeaways should be paid attention, and the young minors were the key concern groups.
  • Food Safety
  • Abstract
    An automatic chemiluminescence magnetic enzyme immunoassay based on the high specificity of antigen and antibody was developed for rapid and quantitative determination of lead in grain. By optimizing the pre-treatment conditions and the reaction conditions of chemiluminescence magnetic enzyme immunoassay, the automatic determination of lead in rice, wheat and corn samples was realized. The detection range was 0.05~0.71 mg/kg, and the limit of detection was 0.02 mg/kg in rice and corn and 0.01 mg/kg in wheat. The recovery range was 89.2%~113.6%, and the relative standard deviations were all less than 10%. Based on the chemiluminescence immune platform, the developed method can realize eight samples simultaneous auto-detection within 30 min. Meanwhile, the automatic detection method can avoid human errors, and greatly improve the accuracy and efficiency, showing a good application prospect in the rapid quantitative detection of lead in grain.
  • Abstract
    A semiconductor nanomaterial was prepared and its degradation efficiency on zearalenone (ZEN) was investigated. The photocatalytic material, graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4), was synthesized by the conventional thermal cracking method, and its structure was analyzed by (X-ray diffraction) XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The photocatalytic degradation experiments showed that g-C3N4 induced photocatalytic effects under ultraviolet light (254 nm, including 185 nm), releasing reactive oxygen radicals to degrade ZEN. The experimental conditions for the photocatalytic degradation of ZEN were explored. The results showed that the degradation rate of ZEN was 96.0% when the mass of the photocatalytic material , the wavelength of the UV lamp, the initial concentration and the irradiation time were 20 mg, 254 nm (50 W), 0.5 μg/mL and 60 min, respectively. Meanwhile, the experimental conditions for the photocatalytic degradation of ZEN powder samples were optimized. The results showed that the degradation rate of ZEN was 80.0% when the mass of the photocatalytic material, the wavelength of the UV lamp, and the irradiation time were 800 mg, 254 nm (50 W) and 50 min, respectively. The results could provide a theoretical reference and practical basis for the photocatalytic degradation of ZEN.
  • Determination of Fatty Acids in Oat Flour by MRM of GC/MS/MS (Online First, Recommended Article)

    ZHANG Chun-ping, GUO Shu-gang, ZHANG Rui, XIONG Hui-xia, XUE Hong-bo, DU Xing

    2024,32(3):170-178, DOI:

    Abstract
    Fatty acids in oat flour have been analyzed by using multiple reaction monitoring mode of gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The samples and fatty acid standards were methylated by potassium hydroxide - methanol and boron trifluoride- methanol solutions for 15 min to produce the corresponding fatty acid methyl ester. Then, the products would be separated through DB-FastFAME (90 m×0.25 mm×0.25 μm) capillary column. Multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM) was performed under electron bombardment ionization (EI) source, and the external standard method was carried out for quantitative analysis. 40 kinds of fatty acid methyl esters could be completely separated within 38 min. A good linear relationship was achieved in the concentration range of 0.4~40 μg/mL. The correlation coefficients of standard curve were all greater than 0.999 7. The limit of quantification of 6 fatty acids such as C20:2 was 0.003 g/100 g, and the remaining 34 fatty acids was 0.000 6 g/100 g. The standard recoveries of fatty acids were 86.6%~107.3%, and the precision was between 0.9% and 5.2%. It is a method for simple operate and high selectivity, which has a good accurate, precise and sensitive. The method is suitable for the rapid and accurate determination of fatty acids in oat flour.
  • Storage logistics
  • Diversity Analysis of Volatile Flavor Compounds of Corn with Various Storage Years Based on SPME-GC-MS/MS and Multivariate Statistical Analysis

    GUO Rui, LI Pan-pan, ZHANG Xiao-li, FAN Wei-yan, LI Xiao-dong, YANG Xiao-chun, ZHANG Wei, YANG Yong-tan*

    2024,32(3):179-186, DOI:

    Abstract
    Flavor compounds are important indicators of edible quality and nutritional value of corn. The quality deterioration of corn during storage is closely related to its flavor compounds. Corn samples harvested in four years from 2019 to 2022 were detected by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS/MS), and multivariate statistical analysis of flavor compounds relative content was carried out by principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis. The results showed that 129 volatile flavor compounds were detected in corn, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, benzenes, heterocycles, acids, ethers, hydrocarbons and phenols. The multivariate statistical analysis showed that volatile flavor compounds and storage years of corn were correlated. According to the importance of variable projection, 47 compounds had significant diversity between corn samples with various storage years. Among them, the relative contents of 1-octen-3-ol, neryl butyrate and 2-pentylfuran increased with the extension of corn storage years, while the relative content of pantolactone, methyl octanoate and 2-acetylfuran decreased with the extension of corn storage years. These 6 compounds were identified as characteristic differential compounds. The partial least squares discriminant analysis classification model was constructed, and had good discrimination for corn storage years (R2=0.99, Q2=0.97, prediction accuracy was 1). The model will provide technical means for dynamic monitoring of corn storage quality, which is of great significance for ensurance national food security and reduce grain loss.
  • Abstract
    The change of water content, mildew of Liupao tea at 35 ℃, 30 ℃, 25 ℃ and humidity of 90%, 80% and 70% were studied. The influence of temperature and humidity on water content and mildew of Liupao tea was analyzed, and the temperature and humidity conditions of Liupao tea were determined. The parameters of spore counting method applied to Liupao tea were optimized and the feasibility of spore counting method in predicting the mildew degree of Liupao tea was evaluated. The results showed that temperature below 25 ℃ and humidity below 70% were the best storage conditions for Liupao tea to prevent mildew. The increase level of spore number and the degree of mildew were synchronized. This method was feasible for rapid assessment of mildew of Liupao tea, and the critical value of the number of spores with mildew was preliminarily determined to be 30.00×107 ·g–1. The results of this study could provide a theoretical basis for the safe storage conditions of Liupao tea, and a new method for rapid assessment of its mildew degree.
  • Abstract
    In order to clarify the controlling effect of different packaging materials on common storage pests, the penetration and survival of 7 kinds of high density polyethylene films with different concentrations of deltamethrin by the larvae of 3 common species of stored grain pests (Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), Tribolium confusum Duval and Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius)) were investigated after being treated by two penetration methods for different times at 27~29 ℃ and 70%~80% RH. The results showed that all the tested new insect-proof films had certain insect resistance capabilities, which were different based on species of stored grain insects. In addition, the insect resistance capability of the 6 kinds of new films containing chemicals was higher than that of the control films after 9 days of treatment, and the anti-penetration rate of 1% A (HDPE particle containing 5% deltamethrin by mass) film, 3% A film, 1% B (HDPE particle containing 5% deltamethrin and 2% isoethers by mass) film and 3% B film was 100% under two penetration modes. The survival rate of all three species larvae decreased with increasing treatment time. After 9 days of parallel penetration treatment, the survival rate of three species of larvae on 3%B film was significantly lower than that of other films, and the survival rate of L. serricorne larvae reduced to 10% at the lowest. According to the penetration resistance and larvae survival rate of the test insects on the films, 3% B film had the best insect control effectiveness.
  • Abstract
    Granary is an important facility to ensure the safety of grain storage. The granary is a large closed space with dim lighting and poor air circulation. Operations such as fumigation and air conditioning increase personnel safety risks. The identification and analysis of abnormal behaviors of workers through security videos in the granary has become a key safe operations for workers as an important technical guarantee. This paper proposed a video recognition algorithm for abnormal behavior of workers in a granary based on a skeleton sequence multi-algorithm. First, the YOLOv3tiny model was used to quickly detect the human body, combined with Sort to track the motion trajectories of multiple targets, and the human skeleton coordinate sequence and weight information were extracted through the AlphaPose model. Then, based on the real spacial graph (RSG) composed of natural connection nodes of the human skeleton and virtual spacial graph (VSG) constructed by interconnecting the center of gravity of the virtual human body with the head, hands, and feet, the bin was extracted based on the balance of the interaction between the center of gravity of the human body dynamics and the hands and feet. Spatial characteristics of abnormal behavior of internal workers and spatiotemporal characteristics of concatenated temporal convolution (TC). Finally, a virtual-real combining spatial temporal graph convolution network (VR-STGCN) video recognition algorithm for abnormal behavior of granary workers was proposed. At the same time, a hybrid dataset was built, and comparative experiments and analysis were conducted between VR-STGCN and four algorithms such as SSD, PCANet, Two-StreamCNN, and STGCN. The results showed that all indicators of VR-STGCN were better than those of the other four algorithms. VR-STGCN can accurately identify abnormal behaviors such as falling, crawling, and lying down of people in the granary in complex environments such as insufficient light, multiple targets, and long distances. The recognition accuracy reached 97.7%, and the processing speed was 18.67fps, which can analyze the abnormal behavior of workers in real time. The research results could provide a new and efficient technology for the safety of granary workers in complex environments.
  • Abstract
    For reduce the carbon emissions of grain transportation, improve ment the efficiency of grain transportation and ensurance the safety of grain transportation, this paper constructed a location-routing optimization model of grain transshipment hub driven by low carbon according to the perspective of quantitative analysis. An improved genetic algorithm was designed to solve the model, which could improve and optimize the layout of China's existing grain transportation network. Finally, some provincial capital cities on the key line of grain logistics were selected for analysis and verification. The results showed that The model and algorithm of hub node sitting-route optimization in hub-spoke multimodal transport network could reduce the total grain transportation cost by 13.87%. Carbon emissions were reduced by 11.70%, and the average transfer saturation of hubs was increased by 9.66%. This method was suitable for the actual grain transportation process, and can realize the low-carbon and efficient transportation of grain, which could provide reference for the location and path planning of Chinese grain transport hub under low-carbon drive.
  • Industrial Economy
  • Abstract
    Grain sampling and inspection is the key process for food safety and the important technical support for the grain quality supervision. There are still many gaps between the current grain sample inspection quality and enterprise expectations. Based on the field survey of the grain reserve enterprises to Beijing, Hebei, InnerMongolia, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Ningxia, the realistic dilemma for the basic attitude analysis was found, and the results showed that the difficulties concerning in legislation, standard, monitoring, technology and industry. Strategy choice of improving the quality for grain sampling inspection required strengthening legislation, standardization system, administrative supervision, technology providing and industry development, to ensure the stability and quality safety of the national grain supply.
  • Abstract
    One of the core elements to enhance the resilience of the modern food industry chain is to lead enterprises to establish an integrated set of standards. To this end, it is necessary to solve the problems of difficulty in identifying key common technologies with dissemination and competitiveness and difficulty in connecting standards used by stakeholders in various links in the industry chain. Initially, an HMM-HITS Topic Keyness Identification Model was constructed based on the LDA topic clustering model, and characterized by the identification of key technologies which were not only competitive but also had strong dissemination power. Combined with the theme commonality identification model based on common skewness, a key commonality technology identification model was constructed. For the key common technologies identified by this model, based on the principles of value, rarity, difficulty in imitating, irreplaceability and inevitable implementation, the key common technologies that can enter the standard system list of leading enterprises were identified. Subsequently, based on the agricultural product supply chain mechanism, a standard connection consultation mechanism with the goal of improving resilience was built.. Finally, the standard complex formulation and optimization process for the modern grain industry chain was derived, which was verified in the formulation of the japonica rice standard complex.
  • Abstract
    In order to improve the quality and safety level of food related products and provide a basis for the government to scientifically and quickly evaluate the quality and safety status of food related products, this article constructed a set of food related product quality and safety situation evaluation indicators system based on Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) from four dimensions, including regulatory regulation, quality and safety, industry health, and hot topic attention, which consisted of 15 secondary indicators. Based on this system, an empirical evaluation was conducted on the quality and safety status of food related products in Shanghai. The results indicated that the total score of the quality and safety situation of food related products in Shanghai was 87.43, which was at a good level.