SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF CEREALS, OILS AND FOODS

The Key Magazine of China Science and Technology
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Food Science and Technology Abstract (FSTA)
Japan Science and Technology Agency (Chinese Bibliographic Database) (JSTChina)
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    Special Topic Ⅰ
  • Breeding for High Quality Glutinous Rice in Hokkaido in Northern Japan

    Hisashi TANNO, Tohru YOSHIMURA, Yuji HIRAYAMA

    2022,30(5):1-12, DOI:

    Abstract
    Glutinous rice produced in the coldest rice cultivation region of Hokkaido Japan has low hardening speed and is suitable for Japanese sweet and steamed glutinous rice called okowa. However, compared to the main branded glutinous varieties in the area south of Tohoku district, rice produced in Hokkaido has a high protein content, low whiteness of milled rice, and low eating quality of pounded rice cake. Moreover, recently in order to expand demands for Hokkaido rice, it’s required to develop a new variety suitable for sliced rice-cake, molded rice-cake and rice cracker while has high hardening speed of pounded rice-cake. In order to develop a new variety quickly, we used accelerated generation advancement and drug cultivation techniques. In addition, for efficient selection, we analyzed the whiteness of brown and milled rice, the protein content and gelatinization property which is related to hardening speed from early generations of breeding materials mechanically. We also measured hardening speed using a small amount of rice sample. We tested the eating quality of steamed glutinous rice and of pounded rice-cake from the intermediate generations. In this way, agronomic characters and quality were improved at the same time. We obtained newly bred varieties with larger grain size and higher cold tolerance at both the flowering and the booting stages, leading to higher stability for production. Compared to earlier generation, later generation varieties had a lower protein content, higher whiteness of milled rice, and higher eating qualities of steamed glutinous rice and pounded rice-cake. Moreover, a negative correlation was found between the protein content and the whiteness of milled rice. On the other hand, in addition to new rice varieties with low hardening speed, two new varieties with high hardening speed were developed. However, concerning eating quality and hardening speed of pounded rice cake, these new varieties were inferior to the top branded glutinous varieties in the area of south of Tohoku district, and need to be improved further.
  • Breeding for High Quality Glutinous Rice in Hokkaido in Northern Japan

    Hisashi TANNO, Tohru YOSHIMURA, Yuji HIRAYAMA

    2022,30(5):13-25, DOI:

    Abstract
    Glutinous rice produced in the coldest rice cultivation region of Hokkaido Japan has low hardening speed and is suitable for Japanese sweet and steamed glutinous rice called okowa. However, compared to the main branded glutinous varieties in the area south of Tohoku district, rice produced in Hokkaido has a high protein content, low whiteness of milled rice, and low eating quality of pounded rice cake. Moreover, recently in order to expand demands for Hokkaido rice, it’s required to develop a new variety suitable for sliced rice-cake, molded rice-cake and rice cracker while has high hardening speed of pounded rice-cake. In order to develop a new variety quickly, we used accelerated generation advancement and drug cultivation techniques. In addition, for efficient selection, we analyzed the whiteness of brown and milled rice, the protein content and gelatinization property which is related to hardening speed from early generations of breeding materials mechanically. We also measured hardening speed using a small amount of rice sample. We tested the eating quality of steamed glutinous rice and of pounded rice-cake from the intermediate generations. In this way, agronomic characters and quality were improved at the same time. We obtained newly bred varieties with larger grain size and higher cold tolerance at both the flowering and the booting stages, leading to higher stability for production. Compared to earlier generation, later generation varieties had a lower protein content, higher whiteness of milled rice, and higher eating qualities of steamed glutinous rice and pounded rice-cake. Moreover, a negative correlation was found between the protein content and the whiteness of milled rice. On the other hand, in addition to new rice varieties with low hardening speed, two new varieties with high hardening speed were developed. However, concerning eating quality and hardening speed of pounded rice cake, these new varieties were inferior to the top branded glutinous varieties in the area of south of Tohoku district, and need to be improved further.
  • Abstract
    Glutinous rice is produced in the coldest and the severest regions for rice cultivation in Hokkaido, Japan. The rice quality of four years and six cultivation areas with large fluctuation in yield and quality was investigated.. Among years, the higher the temperature during the stage sensitive to sterile-type cool injury, the lower the sterility. Moreover, the higher the cumulative daily mean temperature during 40 days after heading (grain-filling temperature), the heavier the 1 000-kernel-weight, the higher the grain yield, the lower was the protein content and the higher were the whiteness of both brown and milled rice. However, the correlation among different planting areas was not clear. This was because, compared to the range of the regional variation (differences between the two extreme values and coefficients of variation), the range of the yearly variation in protein content was 1.0 and 1.3 times larger, the mean temperatures during some growth stages and growth characteristics like grain yield were 1.3~8.5 times higher, and the whiteness of both brown and milled rice were 1.6~2.6 times larger. It should be noted that the protein content was the lowest in the quadratic regression relationship at a grain-filling temperature of 849 ℃, among the 6 areas during the 4 years. In addition, concerning the mean values for year and area, the lower the temperature during the sensitive stage to sterile-type cool injury, the higher the sterility, the lighter the 1 000-kernel-weight, the lower the grain yield, the higher the protein content, the lower the whiteness of both brown and milled rice; namely, the worse these characteristics, the larger the coefficient of variation among areas and years. Moreover, the whiteness of both brown and milled rice showed positive relationships with grain-filling temperature per one unhulled rice in one square meter. Therefore, the number of unhulled rice in one square meter could be calculated from the grain-filling temperature per one unhulled rice to reach the target value of whiteness of brown rice and the grain-filling temperature in a normal year in the target area, and then the amount of nitrogen fertilizer application to obtain the target value of whiteness of brown rice could be determined.
  • Abstract
    Glutinous rice is produced in the coldest and the severest regions for rice cultivation in Hokkaido, Japan. The rice quality of four years and six cultivation areas with large fluctuation in yield and quality was investigated.. Among years, the higher the temperature during the stage sensitive to sterile-type cool injury, the lower the sterility. Moreover, the higher the cumulative daily mean temperature during 40 days after heading (grain-filling temperature), the heavier the 1 000-kernel-weight, the higher the grain yield, the lower was the protein content and the higher were the whiteness of both brown and milled rice. However, the correlation among different planting areas was not clear. This was because, compared to the range of the regional variation (differences between the two extreme values and coefficients of variation), the range of the yearly variation in protein content was 1.0 and 1.3 times larger, the mean temperatures during some growth stages and growth characteristics like grain yield were 1.3~8.5 times higher, and the whiteness of both brown and milled rice were 1.6~2.6 times larger. It should be noted that the protein content was the lowest in the quadratic regression relationship at a grain-filling temperature of 849 ℃, among the 6 areas during the 4 years. In addition, concerning the mean values for year and area, the lower the temperature during the sensitive stage to sterile-type cool injury, the higher the sterility, the lighter the 1 000-kernel-weight, the lower the grain yield, the higher the protein content, the lower the whiteness of both brown and milled rice; namely, the worse these characteristics, the larger the coefficient of variation among areas and years. Moreover, the whiteness of both brown and milled rice showed positive relationships with grain-filling temperature per one unhulled rice in one square meter. Therefore, the number of unhulled rice in one square meter could be calculated from the grain-filling temperature per one unhulled rice to reach the target value of whiteness of brown rice and the grain-filling temperature in a normal year in the target area, and then the amount of nitrogen fertilizer application to obtain the target value of whiteness of brown rice could be determined.
  • Abstract
    Appearance quality of glutinous rice grains produced in the six areas of cultivation in the coldest regions for rice cultivation in Hokkaido, Japan was investigated during four years. Among years, the higher the temperature during the stage sensitive to sterile-type cool injury, and the cumulative daily mean temperature during 40 days after heading (grain-filling temperature), the lower the sterility, the heavier the 1000-kernel-weight, the higher the grain yield, higher the percentage of whole grain, the lower the percentages of immature, damaged and colored grains, the lower was the protein content, and the higher was the whiteness of both brown rice and milled rice. On the other hand, the relationship among the 6 areas was not clear. This was because the range of the yearly variation (differences between the two extreme values and coefficients of variation) in the temperatures during the growth stages, the growth characteristics, and the percentages of both whole grain and immature grain were larger than the regional variations. However, the range of the yearly variation in the percentages of damaged grain and colored grain were smaller than the regional variations, and the percentages of damaged grain and colored grain were the lowest in the quadratic regression relationship, at the grain-filling temperature of 843 ℃ and 857 ℃, respectively, among the 6 areas during the 4 years. In addition, the percentage of whole kernels varies between years and regions, and the affected kernels and colored kernels only change between years; the worse these characteristics, the the larger the coefficient of variation among years in the same area or among areas in the same year. Moreover, glutinous grains, called mihaze grains, that are translucent after drying, did not show clear differences in physicochemical characteristics such as contents of both protein and starch, size of starch granules, iodine absorption spectrum of prepared starch and lightness of rice-cake dough as compared with the opaque grains called haze, and did not show large differences in physical property of rice-cake dough. Therefore, contamination of mihaze grains is considered to have little effect on the processing quality of rice-cake dough. Xenia seeds of glutinous rice plants occurred by outcrossing with pollen of a non-glutinous variety, and were found more in rice plants with high sterility than those with low sterility. The longer the isolation distance from non-glutinous variety to glutinous rice plant; the lower was the Xenia seed rate. However, Xenia seeds were found even at an isolation distance of 600 m. Therefore, in Hokkaido, to avoid quality deterioration, glutinous rice varieties should be cultivated in a district distant apart from paddy fields of non-glutinous rice varieties.
  • Abstract
    Appearance quality of glutinous rice grains produced in the six areas of cultivation in the coldest regions for rice cultivation in Hokkaido, Japan was investigated during four years. Among years, the higher the temperature during the stage sensitive to sterile-type cool injury, and the cumulative daily mean temperature during 40 days after heading (grain-filling temperature), the lower the sterility, the heavier the 1000-kernel-weight, the higher the grain yield, higher the percentage of whole grain, the lower the percentages of immature, damaged and colored grains, the lower was the protein content, and the higher was the whiteness of both brown rice and milled rice. On the other hand, the relationship among the 6 areas was not clear. This was because the range of the yearly variation (differences between the two extreme values and coefficients of variation) in the temperatures during the growth stages, the growth characteristics, and the percentages of both whole grain and immature grain were larger than the regional variations. However, the range of the yearly variation in the percentages of damaged grain and colored grain were smaller than the regional variations, and the percentages of damaged grain and colored grain were the lowest in the quadratic regression relationship, at the grain-filling temperature of 843℃and 857℃, respectively, among the 6 areas during the 4 years. In addition, the percentage of whole kernels varies between years and regions, and the affected kernels and colored kernels only change between years; the worse these characteristics, the the larger the coefficient of variation among years in the same area or among areas in the same year. Moreover, glutinous grains, called mihaze grains, that are translucent after drying, did not show clear differences in physicochemical characteristics such as contents of both protein and starch, size of starch granules, iodine absorption spectrum of prepared starch and lightness of rice-cake dough as compared with the opaque grains called haze, and did not show large differences in physical property of rice-cake dough. Therefore, contamination of mihaze grains is considered to have little effect on the processing quality of rice-cake dough. Xenia seeds of glutinous rice plants occurred by outcrossing with pollen of a non-glutinous variety, and were found more in rice plants with high sterility than those with low sterility. The longer the isolation distance from non-glutinous variety to glutinous rice plant; the lower was the Xenia seed rate. However, Xenia seeds were found even at an isolation distance of 600 m. Therefore, in Hokkaido, to avoid quality deterioration, glutinous rice varieties should be cultivated in a district distant apart from paddy fields of non-glutinous rice varieties.
  • Abstract
    Hardening speed of pounded rice-cake and gelatinization property of glutinous rice were investigated in six areas of Hokkaido during four years. The range of the yearly variations (differences between the two extreme values and coefficients of variation) was larger than that of regional variations. Using the ratio of yearly to regional variations and values of correlation coefficient among those properties, in ascending order of ratio, the properties were classified as: Group 1: maximum viscosity and break down; Group 2: minimum viscosity, final viscosity and consistency; Group 3: gelatinization initiation temperature, temperature at which maximum viscosity was shown, time in which maximum viscosity was shown and hardening speed of pounded rice-cake. Among years, for gelatinization property, a positive relationship was seen for properties in Group 2 and Group 3 with hardening speed of pounded rice-cake, and the clearest positive relationship was seen for properties in Group 3. Moreover, the higher the cumulative daily mean temperature during 40 days after heading (grain-filling temperature), the higher the values in Groups 2 and 3 and hardening speed of pounded rice-cake; and, the clearest positive relationship was seen for properties in Group 3 and hardening speed of pounded rice-cake. However, the relationship with the area was not clear. Moreover, the higher the protein content; the lower the values in Group 1 and Group 2 among years and among areas, and the lower the values in Group 3 among years only. In addition, physical properties of cooked rice produced in the normal grain-filling temperature year (NGFTY) were compared with those in the high grain-filling temperature year (HGFTY). The cooked rice produced in NGFTY was softer and less sticky, namely the eating quality was lower. However, it was less stiffened and was kept soft by storage at 5 ℃ for 24 hours after cooking. On the other hand, cooked rice in HGFTY was stickier, and became hard and less sticky with storage at 5 ℃ for 24 hours. Moreover, the higher the protein content, the lower the stickiness, namely the eating quality was lower in both NGFTY and HGFTY. Therefore, the cultivation technique to obtain low protein content rice was considered important to obtain glutinous rice with good eating quality.
  • Abstract
    Hardening speed of pounded rice-cake and gelatinization property of glutinous rice were investigated in six areas of Hokkaido during four years. The range of the yearly variations (differences between the two extreme values and coefficients of variation) was larger than that of regional variations. Using the ratio of yearly to regional variations and values of correlation coefficient among those properties, in ascending order of ratio, the properties were classified as: Group 1: maximum viscosity and break down; Group 2: minimum viscosity, final viscosity and consistency; Group 3: gelatinization initiation temperature, temperature at which maximum viscosity was shown, time in which maximum viscosity was shown and hardening speed of pounded rice-cake. Among years, for gelatinization property, a positive relationship was seen for properties in Group 2 and Group 3 with hardening speed of pounded rice-cake, and the clearest positive relationship was seen for properties in Group 3. Moreover, the higher the cumulative daily mean temperature during 40 days after heading (grain-filling temperature), the higher the values in Groups 2 and 3 and hardening speed of pounded rice-cake; and, the clearest positive relationship was seen for properties in Group 3 and hardening speed of pounded rice-cake. However, the relationship with the area was not clear. Moreover, the higher the protein content; the lower the values in Group 1 and Group 2 among years and among areas, and the lower the values in Group 3 among years only. In addition, physical properties of cooked rice produced in the normal grain-filling temperature year (NGFTY) were compared with those in the high grain-filling temperature year (HGFTY). The cooked rice produced in NGFTY was softer and less sticky, namely the eating quality was lower. However, it was less stiffened and was kept soft by storage at 5 ℃ for 24 hours after cooking. On the other hand, cooked rice in HGFTY was stickier, and became hard and less sticky with storage at 5 ℃ for 24 hours. Moreover, the higher the protein content, the lower the stickiness, namely the eating quality was lower in both NGFTY and HGFTY. Therefore, the cultivation technique to obtain low protein content rice was considered important to obtain glutinous rice with good eating quality.
  • Abstract
    The mean air temperature from May to September, during which the rice plant is cultured in the paddy field in Hokkaido, has increased during the four decades from 1980 to 2019. The growth of rice in the 2030s in comparison to the most recent decade (2010—2019) was predicted using two predicted weathers for the 2030s and the previously reported relational expression. In the 2030s, the critical planting date (early limit of planting day) will be 8~9 days earlier than that in the 2010s. The early limit of heading date will also be 1~5 days earlier, and the late limit of heading date will be 1~5 days later. Therefore, the safe heading period will be 2~10 days longer and the heading date will be 1~3 days earlier. As the period between heading date and late limit of heading will be 2~9 days longer, cool summer damage due to delayed growth will decrease slightly. Concerning the weather at different growth stages, the average air temperature will be the same or lower for the earlier growth during the 30 days after 24 days before heading. During the 40 days after 10 days before heading and during the 40 days after heading, the average air temperature will be slightly higher, and the amount of solar radiation will be slightly lower. Then the grain yield will be slightly lower (96%~98%), and the agroclimatic index for expressing the potential of grain yield will be the same. As the average air temperature during the critical stage of chilling injury at the booting stage, which is related with occurrence of male sterility, will be slightly lower or the same, the risk of occurrence of cool weather damage will remain. On the other hand, the appearance frequency of low temperature, which causes sterility, will vary depending on the area. The protein content of milled rice will be the same and the amylose content will be slightly lower. Therefore, the palatability will be slightly better. On the appearance quality of rice grain, there will be no consistent tendency between the 2030s and the 2010s in the percentages of damaged grain and of colored grain, and the percentage of immature grain will be slightly higher. Although the whiteness of milled rice will be the same, the whiteness of brown rice will be slightly higher. The measures to be taken in response to the above predictions are discussed, for rice growth in the future in the coldest region, Japan.
  • Abstract
    The mean air temperature from May to September, during which the rice plant is cultured in the paddy field in Hokkaido, has increased during the four decades from 1980 to 2019. The growth of rice in the 2030s in comparison to the most recent decade (2010—2019) was predicted using two predicted weathers for the 2030s and the previously reported relational expression. In the 2030s, the critical planting date (early limit of planting day) will be 8~9 days earlier than that in the 2010s. The early limit of heading date will also be 1~5 days earlier, and the late limit of heading date will be 1~5 days later. Therefore, the safe heading period will be 2~10 days longer and the heading date will be 1~3 days earlier. As the period between heading date and late limit of heading will be 2~9 days longer, cool summer damage due to delayed growth will decrease slightly. Concerning the weather at different growth stages, the average air temperature will be the same or lower for the earlier growth during the 30 days after 24 days before heading. During the 40 days after 10 days before heading and during the 40 days after heading, the average air temperature will be slightly higher, and the amount of solar radiation will be slightly lower. Then the grain yield will be slightly lower (96%~98%), and the agroclimatic index for expressing the potential of grain yield will be the same. As the average air temperature during the critical stage of chilling injury at the booting stage, which is related with occurrence of male sterility, will be slightly lower or the same, the risk of occurrence of cool weather damage will remain. On the other hand, the appearance frequency of low temperature, which causes sterility, will vary depending on the area. The protein content of milled rice will be the same and the amylose content will be slightly lower. Therefore, the palatability will be slightly better. On the appearance quality of rice grain, there will be no consistent tendency between the 2030s and the 2010s in the percentages of damaged grain and of colored grain, and the percentage of immature grain will be slightly higher. Although the whiteness of milled rice will be the same, the whiteness of brown rice will be slightly higher. The measures to be taken in response to the above predictions are discussed.
  • Special Topic Ⅱ
  • Abstract
    Heat treatment is the most commonly used physical modification method for starch, which shows advantage of simple operation, low pollution and high safety. The present work mainly summarized the effects of dry heat treatment, heat moisture treatment and annealing on physicochemical, structural and digestive properties of starch. Meanwhile, effects of heat treatment combined with hydrocolloid as well as combination of multiple heat treatments on physicochemical and digestive properties of starch were also introduced. As shown in the previous literature, heat treatment modification improved the thermal stability and anti-digestion properties of starch. Effects of heat treatment modification on starch properties were influenced by the kinds of heat treatment modification as well as the types and sources of starches. Due to high moisture content during the process of heat moisture treatment and annealing, swelling power and solubility of starches were remarkably changed. These three heat treatments could change the relatively crystallinity of starch. Moreover, heat moisture treatment could alter the crystalline patterns of starches. Except for annealing, both of dry heat treatment and heat moisture treatment changed the structure of starch particles. Both heat treatment combined with hydrocolloid and combination of multiple heat treatments enhanced physicochemical and digestive properties of heat-treated starches. Purpose of the present work could provide useful information for further research and application of heat-treated starches.
  • Abstract
    Corn starch was modified by dry heat treatment combined with amino acids (aspartic acid and lysine) in the present research. Gelatinization, thermal, structural, and digestive properties of dry heat-treated corn starch with different amount of amino acids were investigated by using Rapid Viscosity Analyser, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffractometry. The results indicated that the amount of amino acids showed significant effects on the physicochemical properties and digestive properties of dry heat-treated corn starch-amino acid mixtures. With increasing the addition of amino acids, peak viscosity, setback value, and gelatinization enthalpy of starch decreased, while relative crystallinity and resistant starch content increased. Gelatinization temperature of dry heat-treated corn starch-aspartic acid mixtures showed a tendency to increase first and then decrease with increasing the amount of aspartic acid. However, gelatinization temperature of dry heat-treated corn starch-lysine mixtures increased with increasing the amount of lysine. Increasing the amount of amino acids also promoted a tighter and more ordered crystal arrangement inside starch granules, which could inhibit the short-term retrogradation and reduce the digestibility of starch. This study can be used as a new method for corn starch modification and provide a reference for the production of modified starch.
  • Abstract
    Common corn starch-lauric acid complex (CSLA) was prepared by extrusion treatment combined with cool storage. The effects of extrusion treatment combined with cool storage on the gelatinization degree, complexing index, thermal properties, crystal structure and digestive properties of CSLA were systematically investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetric analysis (DSC) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The results showed that compared with extrusion treatment, extrusion treatment combined with cool storage was beneficial to the formation of common corn starch-lauric acid complex, the complexing index increased from 29% to 35%, and the relative crystallinity increased from 25.20% to 31.82%. Extrusion treatment combined with cool storage can reduce the digestibility of the compound and increase the content of RS from 38.07% to 49.82%. The results of thermal properties showed that extrusion treatment combined with cool storage made common corn starch and lauric acid form VI- type complex with low thermal stability, and the melting temperature was 89.95~101.33 ℃, while common corn starch and endogenous lipids formed a VII- type complex with high thermal stability, and the melting temperature was 106.73~ 117.48 ℃. The results can provide reference for the preparation of starch-fatty acid complex with low digestibility and the preparation of anti-digestibility starch food.
  • Abstract
    Sodium alginate-porous starch complex gels were prepared by calcium chloride dripping method and calcium carbonate internal gelation method. Furthermore, hardness, syneresis, swelling characteristics, crystalline structure and microstructure of the complex gels were analyzed. The results showed that the gel properties were significantly affected by calcium source and sodium alginate to porous starch ratio (mass ratio defined as r value). At high r value (r =4∶2 or 5∶1), calcium carbonate caused the formation of gel curds with uniform shape and dense structures, which also showed high gel hardness and low syneresis. Meanwhile, calcium chloride caused the formation of gel beads with uniform shape and hard shell. Due to different gel structures, the initial swelling speed of gel beads was slow and the final swelling ratio was high, while the initial swelling speed of gel curds was fast and the final swelling ratio was relatively low. The gels prepared by these two methods showed high swelling ratio in simulated colonic fluid and low swelling ratio in simulated gastric fluid, indicating good pH response. Microstructure analysis showed there was good compatibility between sodium alginate and porous starch. The results of the present research could provide useful information to develop pH responded delivery system for bioactive substances.
  • Abstract
    To further improve the gel properties of wheat starch, the effects of sodium alginate (AG) to locust bean gum (LBG) ratio on the viscoelasticity and gel texture of wheat starch were investigated by dynamic rheology, steady rheology and diffusing wave spectroscopy. The results showed that storage modulus, loss modulus and consistency coefficient of wheat starch gel were increased, while loss factor was decreased with the addition of AG and LBG with different ratio. The viscosity of wheat starch-gum blends decreased with the increase of shear rate, showing pseudoplastic behavior of shear thinning. This was in line with the power law model. The results of diffusing wave spectroscopy confirmed that elastic index and viscosity index of wheat starch gel were increased, while solid-liquid index was decreased with the addition of AG and LBG. When the mass ratio of AG to LBG was 1∶1, there was a synergistic effect between AG and LBG that could cause wheat starch forming dense and elastic gels with optimal viscoelasticity.
  • Grain Processing
  • Abstract
    Interaction between epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and millet bran protein under conditions that simulate human physiological conditions was investigated by Endogenous fluorescence spectroscopy synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, Three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The results indicated that EGCG can greatly quench the endogenous fluorescence of millet bran protein in the mixed of static mode and dynamic mode. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy indicated that EGCG changed the protein peptide backbone and microenvironment of aromatic amino acid residues of millet bran protein. The synchronous fluorescence results showed that they mainly affected the microenvironment around tryptophan residues and reduced the hydrophobicity of the surrounding microenvironment. The binding constants (KA) and site numbers (n) between EGCG and millet bran protein obtained at different temperatures were 8.691 6×104 L/moL, 1.084 8 (290 K); 1.317 0×106 L/moL, 1.300 9 (298 K); 7.868 6×106 L/moL, 1.489 3 (310 K), respectively. According to the thermodynamic parameters, EGCG and millet bran protein were combined by hydrophobic interaction to form a complex. The binding distance (r) between EGCG and millet bran protein was calculated to be about 2.341 8 nm based on the theory of Föster’s non-radiation energy transfer. The theoretical model of the binding ratio between EGCG and millet bran protein at different temperatures was established, and the binding ratio between EGCG and millet bran protein decreased as concentration of EGCG increased, while the temperature had effect on the binding ratio.
  • Research progress of Modifying Effect of Steam Blasting on Dietary Fibre

    TIAN Jing, NIE Jing, WANG Shu-lin, LI Chun-lin, SHAO Sheng-zhi, YUAN Yu-wei*

    2022,30(5):167-171, DOI:

    Abstract
    Dietary fiber has good physiological function and plays an important role in human health. This paper reviews the modification of dietary fiber in food by-products by steam explosion technology and its influence on structure, physical and chemical properties and functional properties of dietary fiber. Steam explosion treatment can change some insoluble dietary fiber into soluble dietary fiber. It’s expected to increase the content of soluble dietary fiber in food and its by-products and improve the quality of dietary fiber, so as to apply high-quality dietary fiber in food processing and improve the utilization rate of dietary fiber. Steam explosion treatment can significantly improve the physical and chemical functional characteristics of dietary fiber, helping to develop functional food of dietary fiber.
  • Process Optimization of Spirulina Taro Bean Flour Dumpling

    ZHANG Li, SI Jian-fang, LI Hong-xiao, ZHOU Ya-li, ZHANG Xi-xi, SHI Jia

    2022,30(5):172-177, DOI:

    Abstract
    High-quality black bean flour, spirulina, Laiyang taro and spinach were selected as the main raw materials in this study. Through the reasonable combination of black bean flour, spirulina and spinach, adding taro mud, the traditional practice of using glutinous rice flour as the main raw material was improved, and the best production process of spirulina and taro bean flour dumpling was explored through single factor test and response surface test. The results showed that when the content of black bean powder was 9%, the content of spirulina was 0.10%, the content of white sugar was 7%, and the steaming time was 14 minutes, the product had natural color of light green, tasting delicate and soft with suitable sweetness and strong bean flavor.
  • Food Processing
  • Application of Pre-soaking with Ethanol and Acetic Acid in Salted Duck Egg Desalination

    MO Xiao-hui, WANG Xing-yue, LI Xiao, DUAN Fei-xia*

    2022,30(5):178-187, DOI:

    Abstract
    Salted duck egg, as a traditional egg product, are very popular in China. However, its high contents of NaCl brings health hazard. In this work, the influence of successive presoaking with 0.01% acetic acid and 0.35% ethanol and desalination soaking on the water content, salt content, oil yield, maturity, sensory quality and eggshell membrane microstructure of salted duck eggs were explored using atomic absorption spectrometry, chromatic meter, texture analyzer, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and sensory evaluation. For pre-soaking samples, the redness and brightness of the yolk changed to 16.10 and 67.54 after 12-day salinization at 37 ℃, respectively, and the yolk index has reached 95%, suggesting that pre-soaking samples get salted after 12 days, while the control group needed 21 days to get ripe. The salt content of egg protein in the pre-soaking group was assayed to be 1.02% on the 6th day of desalting, which was 18% less than that in the control group, while the oil yield and the hardness of the pre-soaking group reached 50.82% and 2 604. 33 g. The appearance, smell, color, taste and other sensory indicators of the pre-soaking samples were similar to those of the control group, while the control group tasted much more salt. The microstructure observation of eggshell membrane showed that pre-soaking enlarged the space between inner membrane fibers, which improved the two-way permission of water and sodium chloride molecules, resulting in rapid salinization and desalting of pre-soaking samples.
  • Optimization of Enzymatic Hydrolysis Conditions and Micromorphology of Bone Collagen Peptides from Donkey with Iron Chelating Ability

    MAO Jia-min, CHEN Yu-yao, SONG Jie, ZHANG Yan, WANG Jing-xian, LI Xin-yu, FAN Liu-ping, CHENG Xiang-rong*

    2022,30(5):188-196, DOI:

    Abstract
    In order to make full use of donkey bone resources, a method was developed to hydrolyze donkey bone with protease to obtain donkey bone collagen peptide. The chelating ability of the enzymatic peptide with ferrous ions was investigated and its product was characterized. Using the ferrous ion chelation rate as the investigation index, the optimal enzyme species was screened, and the optimal enzymatic hydrolysis conditions of donkey bone were determined by single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment considering interaction. The results showed that the optimal pretreatment conditions for donkey bone were cooking at 121 ℃ for 30 min, papain was the optimal enzyme, and the optimized enzymatic hydrolysis process parameters were as follows: temperature of 50 ℃, pH of 7.0, enzyme-substrate ratio of 1 000 U/mL, time of 3 h, the chelation rate of donkey collagen peptide and ferrous ion was 38.40%, and the chelating product with sheet microstructure can be obtained. Papain enzymatic hydrolysis of donkey bone protein can prepare donkey bone collagen peptide with the ability to chelate ferrous ions, promoting iron absorption, and guiding the development of donkey bone collagen peptide related products.
  • Nutrition & Quality
  • Effect of Cordyceps militaris Noodles on Alleviating Physical Fatigue and Concentration of Serum Lipids in Mouse

    CAO Feng-hua, XIE Song-yu, LI Xiao-min, WU Wen-ya, WU Xiao-ping, ZHANG Jun-li, FU Jun-sheng*

    2022,30(5):197-204, DOI:

    Abstract
    This research studied the effect of cordyceps militaris noodles on alleviating physical fatigue and concentration of serum lipids in mouse. The mouse were divided into feed group, blank noodle group, low dose of C.militaris noodles group and high dose of C.militaris noodles group, and the animal model of swimming fatigue was established. The exhausted swimming time of mouse in each group was recorded, and the related indexes of alleviating physical fatigue and affecting lipid concentration in mouse were measured. The results show that there was no significant difference in body weight of mouse in each group. Compared with feed group and blank noodle group, cordyceps militaris noodles could effectively prolong the exhausted swimming time of mouse (P<0.01), and the average exhausted swimming time of mouse in high dose group was 3 817.50 s, which was 2.33 times of that in feed group and 2.35 times of that in blank noodle group. The adding of high dose of C.militaris to noodles significantly increased the contents of lactate dehydrogenase and high-density lipoprotein, increased the storage of glycogen, inhibited the accumulation of urea nitrogen in serum, and decreased the contents of triglyceride and total cholesterol (P <0.05). C.militaris noodles had no effect on normal growth and development of mouse, and could significantly relieve physical fatigue and maintain blood lipid concentration in vivo.
  • Research on Nutritional Components and Functional Properties of Dietary Fiber from Spirulina Alga Residue

    LI Xin-yue, PANG Si-si, WANG Xiao-mei, XIANG Wen-zhou, ZHANG Bing-quan, ZHANG Zhong-shan*

    2022,30(5):205-211, DOI:

    Abstract
    The nutritional components of Spirulina residue were determined and evaluated. The insoluble dietary fiber was prepared by alkaline acid treatment from algae residue. The swelling capacity, water holding capacity and grease holding capacity were determined. Insoluble dietary fiber was obtained from Spirulina residue after extraction of phycobiliprotein by alkali acid treatment. Its swelling capacity, water retention capacity and oil retention capacity were measured. The adsorption capacity of dietary fiber for sodium cholate and NO2– was studied. The adsorption capacity of sodium cholic acid and NO2- by dietary fiber was researched. The results indicated that algae residue was rich in nutrients, mainly including protein, carbohydrate and water. The content of phosphorus, magnesium and calcium in minerals was the highest. Algae residue was rich in essential amino acids (lysine, valine, leucine and isoleucine) and non essential amino acids (arginine, glutamine and glutamate). The insoluble dietary fiber had a certain water holding capacity, grease holding capacity and swelling capacity, and the adsorption capacity of sodium cholic acid was relatively obvious. In the simulated human gastric fluid environment of pH=2, it had better adsorption on NO2–. This study results will provide a basis for the high value utilization of Spirulina residue.
  • Abstract
    Physical fatigue is one of the important problems that plague public health. Our objective is to investigate the anti-fatigue effect of a botanical beverage with ginseng extract and pueraria extract, including ginseng, wolfberry, Polygonatum, Pueraria, and niacin. Sixty ICR male mice were randomly divided into 6 groups, namely blank control group, experimental control group (swimming group), positive control group (caffeine group), low-dose group (3.33 g/kg BW), medium-dose group (6.67 g/kg BW), and high-dose group (13.33 g/kg BW) of botanical beverage. Then we performed behavioral examination, including grip and turn-club test, and investigated fatigue-related biochemical indexes and behavioral tests after consecutive gavage administration for 30 days.. Results showed that the fatigue rotarod time and forelimb pulling force of the mice are significantly increased in the middle and high dose groups of botanical beverage and the caffeine group, compared with the blank control group. The contents of blood sugar level, liver glycogen, and muscle glycogen of the mice in the middle dose group increased by 53.58%, 18.75%, and 45.00%, respectively, compared with the swimming group. While the contents of blood lactate and urea nitrogen and the activities of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase in the middle-dose group decreased by 5.56%, 18.78% and 27.18%, 9.45%, respectively. It’s concluded that botanical beverage with ginseng extract and pueraria extract had the effect on relieving physical fatigue.
  • Abstract
    Food nutrition security is an important part of national food security. Based on the survey data of National Consumers’ grain (rice noodles) consumption behavior from 2015 to 2021, this paper empirically analyzed the grain consumption preference of Chinese residents, and put forward policy suggestions to improve the level of food nutrition security in China. The research showed that consumers' awareness of food nutrition demand had increased, but their cognitive depth was not enough, and their consumption concept needed to be upgraded; The current consumption preference of residents might lead to the reduction of nutritional intake of their own staple food and affect their health, resulting in the national physical quality lagging behind other countries in the world; At the same time, the main body of grain supply under the guidance of market, especially grain processing enterprises, would over process grain based on consumer preferences, resulting in the waste of grain quantity and nutritional loss, affecting grain industry and national food security. Based on this, the study put forward policy suggestions to realize China's grain nutrition security and promote the high-quality development of grain industry from the aspects of grain science popularization, technological innovation and macro-control guidance.
  • Food Safety
  • Abstract
    2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, a characteristic aroma component in rice, directly affects the quality and price of rice. Therefore, the research on the accurate detection method of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline is of great significance to clarify the aroma mechanism, improve the quality and promote import and export trade for rice. This paper reviews current major pretreatment methods, detection technologies by GC, GC-MS, GC-O-MS, GC-TOF-MS, and HPLC-MS/MS, the advantages and disadvantages of various methods and the research progress of the formation mechanism of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, aiming to provide reference for the accurate detection of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and the improvement of rice quality.
  • Abstract
    The aim of this study is to develop a method for the determination of chlormequat (CCC) residues in grain and oil. The pretreatment by using QuEChERS and Gas Chromatography-Tandem Massspectrometry (GC-MS/MS) analysis were optimized. The samples were extracted from wheat flour, rice, corn, soybean, soybean oil, rapeseed, and rapeseed oil with acetonitrile and salted out with anhydrous magnesium sulfate, and sodium chloride, then cleaned up by a mixture of N-propyl ethylenediamine (PSA) and octadecyl silane (C18) adsorbents. The matrix effects of different substrates (wheat flour, rice, rapeseed, rapeseed oil) were investigated by derived mass spectrometry and matrix-matched calibration combined with external standards was used for quantitative analysis. The results showed a good linearity in the range of 0.05~2 μg/mL for CCC in different matrixes, with correlation coefficients (R2) of more than 0.9980. The limits of detection (LODs) and the limits of quantification (LOQs) of the method were 0.004~0.009 mg/kg and 0.01~0.03 mg/kg, respectively. The averagerecoveries at three spiked levels were 73.6%~99.1%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 2.34%~7.78% (n = 6). The method was efficient and sensitive, and satisfied the testing requirements for chlormequat residues in grain and oil samples.
  • Abstract
    Through sampling the four main high-quality varieties of early and late indica rice, Yexiangyou, NO.2 Guangliangxiang, Baixiang and Sixiang, that are promoted and planted in Guangxi in 2021, doing tests according to the quality indicators stipulated and the methods specified in the standards of ‹High Quality Paddy› ‹The Grain & Oil Products of China-Paddy› ‹The good grain products of Guangxi—Guangxi fragrant rice› and analyzing the test data, this article compared and researched the quality change of the four main rice varieties in different seasons, different planting areas, as well as in the same planting area and different planting seasons, explored the influence laws of varieties, regions and planting seasons on the high-quality rice varieties, provided scientific basis and data support for the selection and promotion of high-quality rice varieties, and promoted the further development of industries in Guangxi’s high-quality rice and Guangxi fragrant rice.
  • Abstract
    The traditional potassium permanganate consumption (COD) test method is the detection method which has been widely used for many years. It has been applied to the detection of food contact materials and its products because it has some advantages, such as experimental operation, simple experimental principle and low experimental cost. But when dealing with a large number of samples, the traditional COD test method seems to be not very well. The traditional COD test method has some big disadvantages, such as low detection efficiency and high manpower cost investment. Therefore, some COD automatic titrators based on potentiometric titration technology have been invented in recent years. However, this type of COD automatic titrator is fundamentally different from the traditional COD test method in principle. The COD automatic measuring instrument based on color recognition technology can replace manual work while maintaining the same principle with the traditional COD test method, meeting the test requirements on technical indicators, realizing automation and improving the detection efficiency. This paper introduces a kind of COD automatic measuring instrument based on color recognition technology, and improves and optimizes the automatic titrator by experimental data.
  • Abstract
    This research confirmed the indicator and its weight for constructing the network of the food safety grass-roots responsibility, established the evaluation indicator system and performed empirical analysis. By combining with the “three sets” scheme of food safety grass-roots responsibility network and local standards, and using the balanced scorecard theory, we determined the evaluation index system by AHP, and carried out the evaluation in 11 regions of Zhejiang Province. The evaluation system consisted of 4 first-level indicators, 11 second-level indicators and 27 third-level indicators. The weights of first-level indicators from high to low were performance evaluation (0.512 7), internal management (0.260 5), related stakeholders (0.150 4), and learning and growth (0.076 4). The top three third-level indicators were high public satisfaction (0.244 9), resource security (0.138 3) and no food safety incidents (0.099 3). The evaluation results of the order of 11 regions were consistent with the evaluation results of Zhejiang. The evaluation index system was feasible, effective, scientific and reasonable, thus could provide direction for the construction of food safety grass-roots responsibility network in various places, and provide scientific decision-making and objective basis for the evaluation of the performance of the responsibility network.
  • Storage logistics
  • Abstract
    With the continuous expansion of Grain Wheat processing capacity and the increase of bulk grain vehicle transportation volume year by year, it needs to promote the use of bulk grain unloading system based on hydraulic turnover in factories in order to promote the safety, environmental protection, efficiency and economy of bulk wheat unloading. Taking bulk grain unloading system as the research and analysis object, this paper compared and analyzed the data before and after the application of the system, and designed different experimental groups for the fan opening to explore the influence of the fan on the dust concentration. The results showed that the system can significantly improve the grain unloading efficiency per capita, the investment return period was short, the system design was safe and reliable, and the dust concentration during grain unloading decreased significantly with the increase of fan opening (P<0.05). At the same time, it was found that the bulk grain unloading system based on hydraulic flap can reduce the loss rate of grain transportation and help to improve grain circulation, save grain and reduce loss. The above analysis can provide reference for the application of bulk grain unloading system based on hydraulic flap in wheat processing industry, and provide new ideas for the research of bulk grain unloading in other industries.