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日本寒地北海道稻作极限地带糯米蛋白质含量和白度的年度间地区间差异及其产生因素(网络首发、推荐阅读)
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Variation of the Protein Content and Whiteness of Glutinous Rice Grains Among Years and Among Areas, and Its Occurrence Factors in the Coldest Regions for Rice Cultivation in Hokkaido, Japan(Online First, Recommended Article)
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    摘要:

    北海道在最寒冷的稻作地带种植糯稻,考察了产量和品质变动较大的4个年度及其6个种植地区。在种植年度之间,障碍型冷害危险期的气温越高,秕粒比率越低;出穗后40天之间的日平均累计气温(灌浆气温)越高,千粒重越重,产量越高,其蛋白质含量越低,糙米和大米的白度就越高。然而在种植地区之间,这些关系不是很明确。这是由于年度间的最小值与最大值之差以及变异系数和地区间的相比,大米蛋白质含量(蛋白质)分别是1.0、1.3倍,为相同或稍高,各生育期的气温和生育特性是1.3~8.5倍,米粒的两种白度是1.6~2.6倍。此外,综合年度间和地区间的所有数据,蛋白质在灌浆气温849 ℃时为最低,相互之间呈现二次回归关系。当年度和地区的各项平均值其障碍型冷害危险期的平均气温越低,秕粒比率越高,千粒重越轻,糙米产量越低,蛋白质越高,米粒的两种白度越低;即,各项指标越差时,同年度的地区间或同地区的年度间的变异系数越大。米粒的两种白度都与每平方米每粒稻谷的灌浆气温之间呈正相关关系,可以从达到目标糙米白度的每粒稻谷的灌浆气温以及该地区正常年份的灌浆气温求得每平方米的稻谷数量,从而推算出达到目标糙米白度的氮肥施用量。

    Abstract:

    Glutinous rice is produced in the coldest and the severest regions for rice cultivation in Hokkaido, Japan. The rice quality of four years and six cultivation areas with large fluctuation in yield and quality was investigated.. Among years, the higher the temperature during the stage sensitive to sterile-type cool injury, the lower the sterility. Moreover, the higher the cumulative daily mean temperature during 40 days after heading (grain-filling temperature), the heavier the 1 000-kernel-weight, the higher the grain yield, the lower was the protein content and the higher were the whiteness of both brown and milled rice. However, the correlation among different planting areas was not clear. This was because, compared to the range of the regional variation (differences between the two extreme values and coefficients of variation), the range of the yearly variation in protein content was 1.0 and 1.3 times larger, the mean temperatures during some growth stages and growth characteristics like grain yield were 1.3~8.5 times higher, and the whiteness of both brown and milled rice were 1.6~2.6 times larger. It should be noted that the protein content was the lowest in the quadratic regression relationship at a grain-filling temperature of 849 ℃, among the 6 areas during the 4 years. In addition, concerning the mean values for year and area, the lower the temperature during the sensitive stage to sterile-type cool injury, the higher the sterility, the lighter the 1 000-kernel-weight, the lower the grain yield, the higher the protein content, the lower the whiteness of both brown and milled rice; namely, the worse these characteristics, the larger the coefficient of variation among areas and years. Moreover, the whiteness of both brown and milled rice showed positive relationships with grain-filling temperature per one unhulled rice in one square meter. Therefore, the number of unhulled rice in one square meter could be calculated from the grain-filling temperature per one unhulled rice to reach the target value of whiteness of brown rice and the grain-filling temperature in a normal year in the target area, and then the amount of nitrogen fertilizer application to obtain the target value of whiteness of brown rice could be determined.

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丹野 久.日本寒地北海道稻作极限地带糯米蛋白质含量和白度的年度间地区间差异及其产生因素(网络首发、推荐阅读)[J].粮油食品科技,2022,30(5):26-34.

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  • 在线发布日期: 2022-09-26
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