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日本の寒地,北海道におけるうるち米粒外観品質の年次間地域間差異とその発生要因(日文)(网络首发、推荐阅读)
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Variation of the Appearance Quality of Nonglutinous Rice Grains Among Years and Among Regions, and Its Occurrence Factors in Cold Region, Hokkaido in Japan (Japanese text)(Online First, Recommended Article)
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    北海道では,米粒外観品質である整粒,未熟粒,被害粒,着色粒および死米の各歩合および玄米白度と精米白度のいずれも,年次間差異(1999—2006年の6~8年間)は地域間差異(15地域)より大きく,最大値最小値の差異と標準偏差の両比の平均で1.5~6.4倍であった。これは障害危険期(出穂前24日以降30日間)の平均気温および登熟気温(出穂後40日間の日平均積算気温)で,年次間差異は地域間差異に比べ3.0~3.7倍,不稔歩合,千粒重および玄米収量の生育特性や精米蛋白質含有率(蛋白)で,1.4~3.3倍と大いためであった。年次間で,整粒歩合は千粒重が重いほど高く,また整粒歩合が高いほど多収で蛋白が低かった。また,障害危険期気温が高く不稔歩合が低く蛋白が低く,さらに登熟気温が高いほど,玄米白度が高く精米白度が高くなった。被害粒と着色粒歩合の間には正の相関関係があり,両歩合は登熟気温がそれぞれ890,850 ℃になるまで高いほど低くなった。また,未熟粒歩合は登熟気温が808 ℃で最低となる二次曲線の関係がみられ,とくに登熟期間40日の前半よりも後半の影響度が大きかった。日射量不足も未熟粒を多発させた。地域間では,年次間に比べこれらの関係は概して明確でなかったが,死米歩合は灰色低地土比率が低く泥炭土比率が高い地域ほど高くなる傾向があった。現在,これら米粒外観品質を向上させる栽培技術が開発され,生産者に普及、指導されている。

    Abstract:

    In 1999—2006(6~8 years), appearance quality of rice grains, namely percentages of whole, immature, damaged, colored and opaque grain, and whiteness of brown, milled rice were examined in 15 areas of Hokkaido. The range of the yearly variation in those appearance qualities was 1.5-6.4 times respectively, larger than that of regional variation. That was because the range of the yearly variation in the mean temperature during of some growth stages such as both the temperature during the sensitive stage to stelile-type cool injury (TSSC) and the cumulative daily mean temperature during 40 days after heading (CTAH) and in growth characteristics like grain yield and protein content (PC) was 3.0-3.7, 1.4-3.3 times, larger than that of regional variation. Among years, the lower the sterility, the heavier the 1000-kernel-weight; the higher was the percentage of whole grain. Higher the percentage of whole grain, the higher the grain yield; the lower was the PC. The higher the TSSC, lower the sterility, the lower the PC; the higher the CTSH, the higher the whiteness of brown rice, the higher was the whiteness of milled rice. Moreover between the percentages of both damaged and colored grains a positive correlation was found, and the higher the CTAH to 890, 850 ℃ respectively, those percentages were the lower. At 808 ℃of the cumulative daily mean temperature during CTAH, the percentage of immature grains were lowest in the quadratic regression relationship, and the latter half of CTAH affected greater on percentage of immature grain than the first half of it. Poor sunshine increased number of immature grains, too. The regional variation of appearance quality of rice grains did not correlate with these growth characteristics, but the lower the ratio of peat soil in the paddy field, the higher the ratio of gray lowland siol, the lower was the percentage of opaque grains. At the present cultivation techniqures that improve those appearance quality of rice grains have been developed and have disseminated to farmers.

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丹野 久.日本の寒地,北海道におけるうるち米粒外観品質の年次間地域間差異とその発生要因(日文)(网络首发、推荐阅读)[J].粮油食品科技,2020,28(6):86-96.

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  • 在线发布日期: 2020-11-20
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