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日本寒冷地带北海道注重粳稻米粒外观品质的育种研究历程(网络首发、推荐阅读)
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Breeding Research for Good Appearance Quality of Non-glutinous Rice Grain in Cold Region of Hokkaido in Japan(Online First, Recommended Article)
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    摘要:

    长期以来,北海道为了使米粒的外观品质不逊色于日本东北以南地区的水平,主要通过米粒外观品质的目测选拔,来减少乳白粒、腹白粒等未熟粒比率,进而提高整粒比率和糙米、大米等的白度。其结果是,在1903年以后培育出的新老品种中,随着培育年度的更新,大体上整粒越来越多,未熟粒、受害粒和着色粒逐渐减少。特别是1961年培育的“尤卡尔”,整粒比率比同时代和以前的品种显著提高,从系谱来看其优良特性被后来培育的很多优质优良食味大米品种所继承。1984年以后培育的主要品种与东北以南的品牌米品种相比,整粒比率稍低,未熟粒比例略高。关于糙米和大米的白度,1971年之前培育的品种由于腹白粒等多,白度提高,和培育年份没有一定的关系。1971年以后越是新品种,越是大米蛋白质含量低,糙米和大米的白度就越高。目前北海道的主要品种与东北以南的品牌米品种相比,糙米白度稍差,但大米白度、糙米透明度和大米透明度没有明显差异。并且,只是整粒时的糙米白度也没有差异。综上所述,现在北海道主要品种的米粒外观品质,除了与东北以南的品牌米品种相比未熟粒稍多、整粒略少之外,已没有明显的区别。

    Abstract:

    In Hokkaido, improving appearance quality of non-glutinous rice grain nearly up to those of varieties in the area south of Tohoku district has been the important breeding objective for a long time. For decreasing immature grain such as milky white and white-belly rice so on, increasing whole grain and heightening the whiteness of brown and of milled rice, selections mainly by visual estimation have been used up to the present time. The results was that, in the new and old varieties cultivated after 1903, with the renewal of breeding year, the whole grains were become more and more, and the immature grains, damaged grains and colored grains gradually decreased. In particular, genetically “Yukara” bred in 1961 had extremely more whole grains comparing to varieties bred in, before or the same age. From the pedigree, its excellent characteristics were inherited by many rice varieties bred after “Yukara” with good quality and good taste. The main varieties bred in 1984 and after had rather less whole grain, and had rather more immature kernel than the main brand-name varieties in the area south of Tohoku district. Varieties bred before 1971 had many white-belly rice so on, and in new and old varieties bred lately didn’t have higher whiteness of brown and milled rice. In varieties bred in 1971 and after, varieties bred lately, however, had higher the whiteness of brown and of milled rice, and negative correlation was found between protein content and the whiteness of brown and of milled rice. Although the present main varieties of Hokkaido had lower whiteness of brown rice comparing to main brand-name varieties in the area south of Tohoku district, those varieties of Hokkaido had the same whiteness of milled rice, the same transparency of brown rice, the same transparency of milled rice, and the same whiteness of brown rice especially with only whole grain. Although the present main varieties of Hokkaido had rather more immature kernel and rather less whole grain comparing to main brand-name varieties in the area south of Tohoku district, in grain appearance quality there weren’t clear differences between those varieties of Hokkaido and of the area south of Tohoku district.

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丹野 久,吉村彻,木下雅文.日本寒冷地带北海道注重粳稻米粒外观品质的育种研究历程(网络首发、推荐阅读)[J].粮油食品科技,2020,28(6):20-28.

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  • 在线发布日期: 2020-11-20
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