Semen ziziphi spinosae oil is a kind of safe edible oil for health care comes from Suanzaoren which have the functions of both medicine and food. This article reviews the extraction technology, composition analysis and biological activity of Semen ziziphi spinosae oil in recent years, and a reference was provided for the further development and application of Semen ziziphi spinosae oil. Existing research shows that the production process of Semen ziziphi spinosae oil is simple, and the refined oil contains a large amount of unsaturated fatty acids, among which the contents of oleic acid and linoleic acid are the highest, and it also contains a variety of fat-soluble components. Semen ziziphi spinosae oil has a variety of biological activities, such as sedation and hypnosis, memory improvement, antidepressant, antioxidant, lipid regulation and antitumor, etc., but the material basis and mechanism of its biological activity have not been fully clarified and need further study. The safety and multi-activity characteristics of Semen ziziphi spinosae oil have given it great development and application potential, and the related products have broad market prospects.