引用本文:元世昌,黄亚伟,王若兰,胡玉兰,杨卫民.充氮气调对优质稻黄变及品质的影响研究[J].粮油食品科技,2019,27(4):57-61.
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充氮气调对优质稻黄变及品质的影响研究
元世昌1, 黄亚伟1, 王若兰1, 胡玉兰2, 杨卫民3
1.河南工业大学 粮油食品学院,河南 郑州 450001;2.贵州播州红食品有限公司,贵州 遵义 563100;3.国家粮食和物资储备局标准质量中心,北京 100037
摘要:
以常规储藏(空气组)作对照,将水分13.5%的优质稻在温度为35、40、45 ℃下进行氮气储藏,通过测定黄度指数、脂肪酸值、出糙率、整精米率研究优质稻黄变程度及黄变过程中的品质变化。结果显示,高温可使优质稻发生黄变,温度越高,黄度指数越大,黄变程度越深。在35、40、45 ℃下储藏45 d,氮气组优质稻黄度指数比对照组分别低1.2、2.2、3.0,说明氮气气调可有效降低优质稻的黄度指数。在优质稻黄变过程中,温度与脂肪酸值成正比,与出糙率,整精米率成反比。在45 ℃下储藏45 d,氮气组和对照组优质稻品质变化最明显,其中氮气组脂肪酸值比对照组低7 mgKOH/100g,出糙率高0.20%,整精米率高16.05%,说明氮气气调可抑制优质稻脂肪酸的生成和整精米率的下降,但对出糙率影响不大。因此,在实际储藏优质稻中,应尽量避免高温,若无法避免,可通过氮气气调延缓优质稻的黄变及品质劣变。
关键词:  优质稻  氮气  黄变
DOI:
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基金项目:
Effects of controlled atmosphere storage with nitrogen on yellowing and quality of high quality rice
Abstract:
High-quality rice with moisture content of 13.5% was tested at 35 ℃, 40 ℃ and 45 ℃ storage with nitrogen, compared with the control group without nitrogen. The degree of yellowing of high-quality rice and the quality change during the process of yellowing were researched by detecting yellowness index, fatty acid value, brown rice rate and head rice yield. The results showed that high temperature can cause yellowing of high quality rice. The higher the temperature, the higher the yellowness index, the deeper the yellowing degree. After storage at 35 ℃, 40 ℃ and 45 ℃ for 45 days, yellowness index with nitrogen was 1.2, 2.2 and 3.0 lower than that without nitrogen, which indicated that nitrogen gas regulation can effectively reduce the yellowness index. In the process of high-quality rice yellowing, the temperature was proportional to the fatty acid value, but inversely proportional to brown rice rate and head rice yield. After 45 days of storage, the difference of quality of the rice between nitrogen group and control group was most obviously, in which the fatty acid value of the nitrogen group was 7 mgKOH/100g lower than that of the control group, the brown rice rate was 0.20% higher and the head rice yield was 16.05% higher, which indicated that nitrogen gas can inhibit fatty acidsformation in high-quality rice, and decrease ofthe head rice yield, while have a little affection on brown rice rate. Therefore, in thepractical storage of high-quality rice, high temperature should be avoided as much as possible. If it is unavoidable, storage with nitrogen can be selected to postpone the yellowing and quality deterioration of high-quality rice.
Key words:  high quality rice, nitrogen, yellowing