SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF CEREALS, OILS AND FOODS

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  • 1  Separation and extraction of oat protein components and analysis by SDS-PAGE
    王美玉 粱亚萍 王 愈 陈振家
    2018, 26(5):1-5. DOI: 10.16210/j.cnki.1007-7561.2018.05.001
    [Abstract](760) [HTML](100) [PDF 1.01 M](1461)
    Abstract:
    The separation and extraction process of protein components in oat were optimized by single factor experiments and the protein subunit components of oat were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The results showed that the optimal temperature for extraction of oat albumin was 40 ℃, the optimal salt concentration for globulin was 7%, the optimal ethanol concentration for prolamin was 75%, the optimal alkali concentration for glutenin was 0.05 mol/L, the extraction rate of oat protein 83.1%. The results of SDS-PAGE showed that the oat albumin distributed in the range of 10~100 kD; the oat globulin was composed of two subunits with molecular weight in the range of 97.4~100 kD and 43~ 66.2 kD respectively; the distribution range of most oat prolamin subunits was 18.39~40.72 kD; and the distribution range of some oat glutenin subunits was between 20.67~26.66 kD and 43.29~50.80 kD.
    2  Analysis on fatty acid components and physical-chemical indexes of hempseed oil
    伍先绍 凌 海 胡 蓉
    2017, 25(1):24-28.
    [Abstract](798) [HTML](92) [PDF 1.11 M](1412)
    Abstract:
    The characteristic indexes, physical-chemical indexes, and main food safety indexes of hempseed oil which were produced in Guangxi were determined. The results showed that the refractive indexes (n40) were between 1.4698~1.4702, relative densities (d2020)0.9230~0.9261, iodine values 162.8~168.2g/100g, saponification values 189.9~197.0mg/g. 12 kinds of fatty acid compositions, including myristic acid,palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, heptadecanoic acid, cis-10-Heptadecenoic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidic acid, cis-11-Eicosenoic acid and behenic acid, could be detected in hempseed oil by gas chromatography. The total amount of unsaturated fatty acids accounted for 83.6%~90.4%, and the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids were 71.6%~79.1%. The unsaturated fatty acids were mainly oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, accounting for 9.6%~14.7%, 52.2%~58.2% and 15.2%~23.9% respectively. The total saturated fatty acids accounted for 9.3%~12.0%. The main components of the saturated fatty acids were the palmitic acid and stearic acid. The results of characteristic indexes showed that hempseed oils were rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, and were rich in linoleic acid and linolenic acid simultaneously, which had high nutritional and health value. The results of physical-chemical indexes and food safety indexes showed that the contents of moisture and volatile matter, acid value, benzo(α)pyrene and lead should be monitored and controlled, especially for acid value and benzo(α)pyrene.
    3  Research on baking quality of thirty-three varieties of wheat grown in Anhui province
    李艳敏 李 珊 王月娥 沈家成 张文明 郑文寅 姚大年
    2017, 25(6):26-32.
    [Abstract](670) [HTML](95) [PDF 733.36 K](1407)
    Abstract:
    In order to provide reference for the quality utilization of wheat varieties (lines),thirty-three wheat varieties harvested in Anhui province in 2016 were selected as materials to evaluate the grain quality,dough properties,bread baking quality,flour whiteness,lipoxygenase (LOX) activity,and carotenoid content and other quality characters.The results showed that there were extremely remarkable differences in grain quality,bread baking quality,flour whiteness,LOX activity,and other quality characters among varieties.The texture of crust and shape of bread were positively correlated to LOX activity and b value.The colour of bread crumb had an extremely significantly positive correlation with stability time of dough,while significantly negative correlation with the degree of softening.There was a significant positive correlation between smoothness and a value,b value,LOX activity,while significantly negative correlation with L value and whiteness;the texture of bread had significantly positive correlation with b value,and total evaluating score of bread with stability time.Five wheat varieties,including guomai 182,su 4095,yangmai 23,zhoumai 28 and Anke 157,were selected as varieties with good baking qualities.In addition,the quality characters and utilization of wheat grown in Anhui province were discussed.
    4  Research on adsorption removal of phthalic acid esters in oil
    张明明 刘玉兰 杨金强 刘必衍
    2015, 23(5):32-36.
    [Abstract](852) [HTML](0) [PDF 5.29 M](1197)
    Abstract:
    The effects of adsorbent type (10 types of adsorbents), adsorbent dosage, adsorption temperature and adsorption time on the removal of 5 plasticizers in camellia oil were investigated. The results showed that the optimal adsorbent was H-2 activated carbon, followed by 55F-A activated carbon, 55JN-C activated carbon, attapulgite and activated clay, when the adsorption temperature was 110 ℃, the adsorption time was 30 min and the dosage of adsorbent was 2.0%. Under the optimal condition (the adsorption temperature was 130 ℃, the adsorption time was 50 min and the dosage of the H-2 activated carbon was 2.0%), the removal rates of DMP, DEP, DIBP, DBP and DEHP were 76.7%, 50.7%, 52.4%, 22.2% and 6.1%, respectively. Removing DMP, DEP and DIBP from camellia oil by adsorption was efficient, while inefficient for high molecular weight DBP and DEHP.
    5  Effect of additives on cooking quality and sensory quality of whole-wheat flour noodle
    吴洋
    2016, 24(3):39-44.
    [Abstract](758) [HTML](96) [PDF 2.66 M](1108)
    Abstract:
    The whole-wheat noodles were prepared with wheat bran, wheat germ and flour, the improvement effect of different food additives (salt, wheat gluten and xanthan) on the quality of whole-wheat noodles was compared. The effect of compound of two or three of the above additives was reviewed. The results showed that each of salt, wheat gluten and xanthan can improve cook quality and sensory score. Among them, the optimum proportion of salt, wheat gluten and xanthan were 1%~2%, 1.5%~2.5% and 0.15%~0.2%, respectively. The quality of whole-wheat noodles mixed with two or three of above additives was significantly better than that with only one additive. Among them, the compound of xanthan and salt had the most obvious effect on reducing the cooking loss rate of noodles. The compound of the three above additives showed the highest sensory score.
    6  Construction and practice of intelligent grain depot
    陈赛赛 王力 胡育铭 尹道娟 王伟宇 焦义文
    2016, 24(2):97-101.
    [Abstract](717) [HTML](82) [PDF 1.15 M](910)
    Abstract:
    As intelligent construction for grain depot can improve the level of warehouse management, save the cost of labor, make scientific business decision, and guarantee the safety of grain storage, it has been increasingly concerned in various fields such as grain purchasing and storage enterprises. The construction and application of intelligent grain depot was summarized. Its application status in grain monitoring, intelligent ventilation, intelligent air conditioning, intelligent entering and exiting warehouse, video monitoring, warehouse information management and other aspects were introduced. The prospect of the construction of intelligent grain depot was also presented at the end of the paper.
    7  Simultaneous and rapid determination of propionic acid, sorbic acid,benzoic acid and dehydroacetic acid in food by gas chromatography
    高海军 范自营 张红云 高敬铭 郭 静
    2017, 25(5):47-51.
    [Abstract](846) [HTML](93) [PDF 1.64 M](905)
    Abstract:
    The method of simultaneous and rapid determination of propionic acid, sorbic acid, benzoic acid, dehydroacetic acid and their corresponding salt content in food by gas chromatography was established by liquid-liquid extraction purification, which was applicable to the detection of solid non ester kind food. The result showed that the recovery rate of propionic acid was 85.1%~91.3%, the average recovery of the other three kinds of preservatives was 95.2%~99.4%; the maximum coefficients of variation (CV, n=6) in laboratory were less than or equal to 4.7%; the detection limit of the four kinds of preservatives were all below 0.002g/kg. With the interference of impurity, they can be further confirmed by different polar capillary column. The method has the advantages of wide application range, high detection efficiency, good reproducibility, high accuracy and low detection limit, and the application is of great significance for the supervision and inspection of food safety in China.
    8  Simultaneous determination of deoxynivalenol and ramification in wheat by immune affinity column and high performance liquid chromatography
    王培 徐广超 尹丽梅 黎睿 谢刚
    2015, 23(1):63-66.
    [Abstract](1714) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.59 M](880)
    Abstract:
    The method to determine deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyl- deoxynivalenol (3-A-DON) and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15-A-DON) in wheat simultaneously by immune affinity column clean-up and high performance liquid chromatography was established. The wheat samples were extracted by ultrapure water, cleared up with the immuno-affinity column (IAC). After drying and constant volume, three toxins, DON、3-A-DON and15-A-DON, were detected simultaneously by high performance liquid chromatograph with UV detector, and compared with that by Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The result showed that the detection limit of method was 100 μg/kg for DON, 3-A-DON and 15-A-DON respectively. Recovery rates in wheat spiked with DON, 3-A-DON, and 15-A-DON, ranged from 86.6% to 96.5%. The variation coefficient was less than 10%. This method was suitable for determination of DON, 3-A-DON, and 15-A-DON in wheat, with the advantages of simplicity, rapidness, sensitivity and good selectivity, veracity and precision.
    9  Talk about the characteristics of grain storage in squat silo
    张来林 蔡育池 许国川 苏瑜敏 刘育森
    2019, 27(5):97-100.
    [Abstract](601) [HTML](0) [PDF 198.67 K](827)
    Abstract:
    According to the structure of squat silo, the characteristics of large grain heap and experience in the past 20 years, the characteristics of grain storage in squat silo were summarized. By utilizing favorable conditions for playing good thermal insulation of squat silos and complete facilities, improving the management mode during processing,the grain temperature in squat silo was controlled, therefore some problems,such as agglomeration, moisture condensation, grain hanging on the silo wall, were avoided to ensure the safety of grain storage in squat silo.
    10  Development trend of precise nutrition and healthy food of grain and oil
    姚惠源
    2019, 27(1):1-5. DOI: 10.16210/j.cnki.1007-7561.2019.01.001
    [Abstract](647) [HTML](74) [PDF 2.94 M](803)
    Abstract:
    Healthy China is a great development strategy of our country, which is expounded in the aspects of healthy China's 2030 key indicators, main measures, and Chinese dietary guide construction. The development trend of the precise nutrition healthy food was prospected from the development stage of nutritional healthy food, the change of disease spectrum in China, the year by year rising of chronic non-communicable diseases, the urgent demand on food nutrition science supporting by the systematic foundation database, and so on. The integration innovative development on the whole chain is becoming a new model of innovative development on the industry of the precise nutrition and grain & oil healthy food. Some suggestions were raised on development of the precise nutrition and health food in China.
    11  Effect of Lingwu long jujube flesh on the baking quality and texture characteristics of biscuit
    刘紫韫 李喜宏 李文瀚 朱 刚 汤 尧 班兆军
    2018, 26(6):14-18.
    [Abstract](482) [HTML](73) [PDF 346.92 K](803)
    Abstract:
    The biscuits were made of Lingwu long jujube as the main raw material, low-gluten flour, butter, corn oil, white granulated sugar and baking powder as the auxiliary materials. The effect of the addition of Lingwu long jujube flesh (0 g、15 g、30 g、45 g、60 g、75 g) on baking quality and related physical characteristics of the biscuits were studied. The results showed that adding proper amount of Lingwu long jujube flesh not only improved the sensory quality of biscuits, but also improved the texture, water absorption and color. The biscuits had improvement in sensory quality with low dosage of Lingwu long jujube flesh, but when the adding amount exceeded 45 g, the sensory quality of biscuit decreased. The addition of Lingwu long jujube flesh promoted the hardness and chewiness of the biscuits, and the elasticity had a downward trend. The viscosity and water absorption of the biscuits increased first and then decreased, and the effect on the color value of the biscuit was less. The comprehensive analysis of the addition of Lingwu long jujube flesh with 30~45 g was suitable. In this condition, the biscuits had rich aroma, delicate taste with sour and sweet, suitable brightness and brown-yellow color. All the related physical characteristics were improved compared with ordinary cookies.
    12  Study on safety protection distance of phosphine fumigation and exhausting operation in high & large warehouse
    张 涛 刘帅冰 李 娜 陈 鑫 曹 阳 高玉树
    2019, 27(1):70-74. DOI: 10.16210/j.cnki.1007-7561.2019.01.013
    [Abstract](714) [HTML](91) [PDF 239.27 K](802)
    Abstract:
    In recent years, the safety accidents in warehouses caused by fumigation and exhaust have attracted great attention by people from grain industry and society. But there are few literature reports on safety during fumigation and exhaust operation, which needs to be further researched and pay more attention. The concentration of phosphine both inside and outside of the warehouse were detected in real warehouse experiment during fumigation and exhaust operation to explore the effective safety protection distance and protective measures, in order to provide reference for strengthening safety precautions against the safety accidents, reducing or avoiding personal injury and economic loss. The results show that the safety protection distance is related to the concentration of phosphine gas in the warehouse (in the grain pile), and the fixed safety protection distance can not be used as the basis to judge whether it is safe or not. The concentration of phosphine must be detected before approaching the fumigation area.
    13  Analysis of relativity between wheat flour quality indicators and bread sensory quality
    张强涛 丁卫星 王圣宝 贾祥祥 张 涛 韩耀光 田红玉 曹 阳
    2017, 25(1):44-47.
    [Abstract](835) [HTML](89) [PDF 1.23 M](802)
    Abstract:
    11 different varieties of wheat flour were selected to determine the quality characteristics, and to evaluate the quality of toast bread made by laboratory method. According to the correlation analysis and regression analysis between wheat flour quality characteristics and score of toast, the wet-gluten, stability time, degree of softening, extension area, extensibility, the maximum resistance to extension have a remarkable effect on the total score of toast bread. The regression equation between these quality indicators and toast total score is: total score of toast bread=-248.26+6.389×wet-gluten+0.755×stability time+1.243×degree of softening-0.283×extension area +0.236×extensibility+0.078×maximum resistance to extension. The coefficient between the total score of bread and the predicted by equation is 0.9624, which has very significant positive orrelation.
    14  Study on optimization of the technological formulation of pentosan cookie by response surface method
    张 强 赵卉珉 梁 进
    2019, 27(1):24-29. DOI: 10.16210/j.cnki.1007-7561.2019.01.005
    [Abstract](571) [HTML](95) [PDF 5.02 M](800)
    Abstract:
    In order to improve the production process of traditional cookies, the optimal process formula of cookie with pentosan was explored. The effect of pentosan powder and soft sugar and baking time on the quality of cookies were determined by single factor test. The quality of the products were analyzed by the experiment designed by Box-Behnken. The result showed that the optimal formula of the cookies was: the percentage of pentose 10.85%, soft sugar 27.58% and baking time 18.93min. The pentosan cookie not only has the crisp and sweet taste of traditional cookies, but has the effect of dietary fiber of pentosan, which was complement for human body.
    15  Latest development of new resource foods regulation in developed countries and regions and inspiration for China
    肖平辉
    2016, 24(5):1-5.
    [Abstract](687) [HTML](89) [PDF 1.21 M](795)
    Abstract:
    Though the supervision measures to new resource food are different in each country, the ideas are similar, such as risk and safety assessment and list system. The application of new technologies such as nanotechnology, biotechnology, cloning technology, coupled with varied definitions of new resource food among the countries, makes the issue more complex.The relatively stringent regulation of new resource food executed in developed regions and countries like the European Union, Canada and Australia, and development of their supervision systems are summarized, in order to inspire China by the experience.
    16  Effect of sprouting on processing quality of wheat flour products
    孙辉 段晓亮 常柳 陈瑶 方秀利
    2015, 23(4):55-58.
    [Abstract](790) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.38 M](795)
    Abstract:
    Sprouting will degrade the harvested wheat caused by higher unsounded kernels as well as defect the end-use quality of wheat. The effects of sprouting wheat in different sprouting stages on processing quality of steamed bread and noodle were studied. The sprouting wheat were divided into two classes, shooting wheat and germinating wheat, according to whether the plumule or radicle was visible or not. The result showed that germinating wheat and shooting wheat had different influence on the quality of wheat flour and its products. Germination in a certain degree benefited the milling quality. Sprouting had a little effect on gluten quality but relatively high effect on starch quality, for specific performance, falling number value and RVA viscosity values decreased significantly along with the sprouting rate increased. The steamed bread quality was affected significantly by obviously sprouting wheat, while a little on noodle quality. Germinating wheat had a little effect on either steamed bread or noodle quality. Falling number of wheat seeds might be a good factor to measure the effect of sprouting on the quality of steaming and boiling food, without obvious impact until the falling number lower than 131 s for noodles and 175 s for steamed bread.
    17  Effects of yeast characteristic of gas production on the acidity of steamed bread dough
    宋金丽 郑心羽 张佩
    2015, 23(6):12-14.
    [Abstract](703) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.25 M](771)
    Abstract:
    In aim to identify the gas characteristics produced by different species of yeasts and their influence on fermented dough acidity, the curves of gas production, under the condition of 28, 32, 35,38 and 40 ℃, were determined respectively. The acidity and pH value of dough during fermentation were determined as well. Results showed that the optimum temperature for gas production was 38 ℃. The gas properties of dough, fermented by different yeasts, were obviously different. The acidity and pH value of dough was relevant to both adding amount of yeast and sugar resistant characteristics of yeast. The acidity was increasing during fermentation process, thus the pH value declined.
    18  Determination of calcium in sesame seeds, peanuts and walnuts by microwave digestion with standard addition direct reading method
    高向阳 高遒竹 姚艳苹
    2018, 26(6):49-53.
    [Abstract](532) [HTML](108) [PDF 528.82 K](770)
    Abstract:
    A new, rapid, simple, accurate analysis method to detect calcium in foods was established. Some oily nuts were selected as samples, dissolved by microwave, and detected by ion selective electrode and standard concentration direct reading method. The results indicated that the conversion coefficient of calcium electrode was 98.61% and the relative standard deviation was less than 4%. The method is rapid, simple, direct reading, low cost and less sample consumption. It provides a new analytical technique for the determination of calcium in foods. The method has a strong creative and application value.
    19  Study onmoisture variation and migration during tempering
    陈成
    2018, 26(4):6-12.
    [Abstract](641) [HTML](80) [PDF 5.65 M](762)
    Abstract:
    The purpose of tempering is to change the moisture content of wheat and improve the processing quality of grain. Three kinds of representative domestic wheat (soft, medium and hard) were used as experimental materials, and the temperature gradient was set, and the water state change under different conditions was studied by using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technology; the water migration patterns under different conditions were studied by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI).The results showed that: T21 and A21 of the samples showed a significant upward trend under different tempering temperature; T22, A22 first decreased and then increased; T23 was positively correlated with temperature, and A23 reached the peak at the preliminary stage of tempering then decreased gradually. NMRI showed that there were two major pathways of moisture and one ancillary path in wheat kernel. One was moisture diffused through the nucellar layer into the germ line, the other was moisture infiltrated through the cell wall of the aleurone layer; the auxiliary path was moisture diffused from the fuzzy end to the endosperm center.
    20  Effects of three kinds of edible oil and triolein on blood lipids of mice
    曾臣红 郭丽娜 刘焱 高建平
    2015, 23(3):36-39.
    [Abstract](795) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.14 M](755)
    Abstract:
    The effects of lipin on blood lipid were compared by gavaging mice with lard, peanut oil,olive oil or the triolein with high cholesterol emulsions or high dose of one of the edible oils, respectively. Results showed that the serum total cholesterol (TC) and liver index increased significantly, and the level of total triglyceride (TG) in serum decreased, after the mice were gavaged with one of the three edible oils or the triolein with high cholesterol emulsions. After being gavaged with one of the three oils, TC of the mice was increased by each of the oils. The serum levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and body weight were all increased because of the three oils or triolein. Meanwhile, olive oil, lard and triolein increased the liver index. In conclusion, lard, peanut oil, or olive oil mixed with cholesterol can increase serum total cholesterol level; however, there was no evidence showing that high dose of oils caused hypertriglyceridemia; peanut oil was most not likely to cause fat accumulation in the liver; triolein has no obvious influence on increasing TC, and no significant improving effect on the rise of total cholesterol level caused by cholesterol mixed with oils.

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