SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF CEREALS, OILS AND FOODS

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Issue 1,2024 Table of Contents

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  • 1  The Background, Development Status and its Prospect of the Industry of Whole Grain in China(Online First, Recommended Article)
    TAN Bin ZHAI Xiao-tong
    2024, 32(1):1-11.
    [Abstract](84) [HTML](16) [PDF 566.84 K](189)
    Abstract:
    The development of whole grain industry in China, can not only improve the efficiency of edible utilization of grain resources and reduce food loss, but also minimize the natural micronutrient loss including B vitamins, bioactive compounds and dietary fibers, thus help to solve the hidden hunger problems among Chinese residents, as well as reduce the risk of suffering from the chronic diseases. It is one of the important measures to implement the "Anti-food Waste Law of the People’s Republic of China", the "Healthy China" strategy and the "Rural Revitalization" strategy, as well as practice the concept of all-encompassing approach to food. At present, Chinese whole grain industry has already demonstrated a trend of joint attention and linkage among academia, industry, government, media and consumers, however, the total whole grain consumption remains extremely low. In the near future, in order to guide the scientific diet and healthy lifestyle of Chinese citizen, ensure the national food security, a comprehensive multi-demensional layout of the entire industry chain is necessary for promoting the organization and implementation of the National Whole Grain Action Plan. The various measures include science popularization and consumption advocacy, collaborative technological innovation, standard identification and certification system development, as well as industrial production and typical application scenario promotion.
    2  Research on the Implementation Path of Whole Grain Food Consumption from the Perspective of All-encompassing Approach to Food(Online First, Recommended Article)
    CHEN Kuan-yu ZHAO Yi-lin ZHANG Di WANG Jian-hui WANG Ya-xuan ZHAI Xiao-tong TAN Bin WEI Xun
    2024, 32(1):12-20.
    [Abstract](39) [HTML](15) [PDF 523.48 K](141)
    Abstract:
    The consumption of whole grain foods has positive significance for reducing grain loss and enhancing national health, which is a crucial direction for future developments in the food industry. However, current whole grain consumption in China falls far below recommended levels. This study analyzes the overall quantity, structure, and policy environment of whole grain food consumption in major countries across North America, Europe, Asia, and Africa. It analyzes key factors influencing whole grain food consumption from the aspects of products, consumers, market and policy. In conclusion, great efforts should be made to raise consumer awareness regarding whole grain consumption, advance the processing technology of whole grain foods, and foster nutrition-oriented agriculture through policy initiatives. In this way, the way toward increased whole grain food consumption can be paved and the growth of the whole grain food industry can be promoted.
    3  The Current Progress in Research about the Effect of Phenolics from Brown Rice on the Digestibility of Starch(Online First, Recommended Article)
    WU Na-na WU Fei-fei QIAO Cong-cong ZHAI Xiao-tong TAN Bin
    2024, 32(1):21-27.
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](14) [PDF 583.93 K](120)
    Abstract:
    Chronic diseases inclding diabetes have been important public health problems worldwide. Starch intake is one of the main causes of postprandial blood glucose elevation. Recent studies have demonstrated that polyphenols can slow down the rate of starch digestion. Brown rice is rich in phenolics, and its nutritional health benefits are widely recognized around the world as an essential source of whole grains. The unique functional groups of phenolic substances in brown rice, such as phenolic hydroxyl, have a certain inhibitory effect on digestive enzymes. Changes in the structure of starch during processing also decrease the effect of digestive enzymes on it. This not only affects the digestion rate and digestibility of starch in an effective way, but also improves food quality. This paper reviews several aspects of phenolics in brown rice and their antioxidant activities, the process of starch digestion, the effects of brown rice polyphenols on starch digestive properties and their mechanisms of action. The aim of this review is to elucidate the scientific basis of whole grain brown rice polyphenols to retard starch digestion, and provide theoretical references for the development of whole grain brown rice-based and starch-based foods which are beneficial for populations of chronic disease, obesity, overweight, elderly, etc.
    4  Purification Process Optimization and Composition Analysis of Polyphenols from Black Wheat Bran(Online First, Recommended Article)
    ZHANG Hao WANG Li LI Yan
    2024, 32(1):28-35.
    [Abstract](28) [HTML](12) [PDF 555.70 K](130)
    Abstract:
    In order to take full advantage of black wheat bran in the development of whole grain functional food, the crude polyphenols extracted from black wheat bran by ultrasonic-assisted method were purified, and the macroporous resin purification process was optimized to determine the optimal purification conditions. Moreover, liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS) technology were used to analyse the components of purified polyphenols in black wheat bran. The results indicated that when the concentration of sample solution was 1.20 mg/mL, and the concentration of elution solvent was 60%, with the injection flow rate of 1.50 mL/min, and the elution rate of 1.50 mL/min, the purification effect was better. The purity of polyphenols in black wheat bran before and after purification was 2.60%±0.28% and 14.27%±0.13%, respectively. The purity of polyphenols after purification was about 5.48 times of that before purification. Nine polyphenols contained probably in the purified black wheat bran were speculated. The above research showed that the macroporous resin purification process could purify the crude polyphenol extract of black wheat bran in an effective way, and maintain the diversity of polyphenols to some extent.
    5  Fungal Diversity of Traditional Oats Tianpei and the Fermentation Effects of Rhizopus Oryzae on Tianpei Properties(Online First, Recommended Article)
    REN Fei LI Wen-yi CHEN Shu LIU Ming TAN Bin
    2024, 32(1):36-43.
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](18) [PDF 1.12 M](112)
    Abstract:
    The fungal diversity of five sweet fermented oats samples in China was studied by Illumina sequencing. The results showed that the abundance of Mucoromycota and Ascomycota peaked in the oats Tianpei samples, and a bit Basidiomycota were also included. As to genus, Rhizopus had the highest abundance, followed by unclassified_p_Ascomycota, Saccharomyces and Issatchenkia. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that five kinds of oats Tianpei samples formed their own fungal clusters. The biomarker taxa of oats Tianpei were identified by Lefse, including Mucor and Pichia. The fungal composition of oats Tianpei was significantlly related to the chemical composition of oats Tianpei (lactic acid, free fatty acid, amino acid, reducing sugar, etc). The fermentation effects of Rhizopus oryzae on the chemical composition of oats Tianpei were studied also. The fermentation of Rhizopus oryzae significantly increased the chemical composition in oats Tianpei. The research provided a theoretical basis for the study of microbial flora, the discovery of related microbial resources, the fermented modification grains, and the improvement of oats Tianpei quality.
    6  Effect of Solid-state Fermentation on the Physico-chemical Properties of Wheat Bran(Online First, Recommended Article)
    ZHANG Du-qin SHEN Zhu-jiang TAN Bin
    2024, 32(1):44-49.
    [Abstract](11) [HTML](11) [PDF 2.36 M](148)
    Abstract:
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) and Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) were used in separate and mixed for solid-state fermentation (SSF) of wheat bran (WB). Effects of SSF on the physicochemical properties of WB and dietary fiber content and composition were determined, and the correlation between various indicators was analyzed. Accordingly, the possible reasons of SSF improving nutrition and processing qualities of WB were preliminary explained, which is to the benefit of expanding the utilization of SSF in whole grain processing. Results showed that soluble dietary fiber (SDF) and arabinoxylan content of the fermented WB increased by 40.6% and 15.2%, respectively. WB fermented with a mixture of S. cerevisiae and L. plantarum had the highest water- and oil-holding capacity. SSF significantly decreased the peak denaturation temperature (TP), enthalpy, and crystallinity of WB from 195.35 ℃, 3 869.50 J/g, and 15.86% to 178.30 ℃, 3 276.67 J/g, and 15.24%, respectively (P<0.05). Correlation analysis results showed that SDF content in WB had a remarkable negative correlation with crystallinity and TP, with the correlation coefficients of –0.959 47 and –0.950 7, respectively. After SSF, structure of WB changed from intact and compact to loose and dispersed one, and the clarity and uniformity of plant cells were significantly reduced. In conclusion, SSF reduces the density of the internal tissue structure of WB due to the metabolism of the microorganisms, which was not only beneficial to the release of bioactive components, but also significantly improved its processing qualities.
    7  Whole Grain Food Standard System Construction Status and Development Direction(Online First, Recommended Article)
    TIAN Xiao-hong ZHAI Xiao-tong TAN Bin
    2024, 32(1):50-58.
    [Abstract](27) [HTML](11) [PDF 539.37 K](124)
    Abstract:
    Existing studies have clearly demonstrated that people eating more whole grains have reduced risks of many chronic metabolic diseases compared to those eating less. In the past 20 years, the whole grain industry has developed so rapidly in major developed countries and regions. In recent years, whole grains have also attracted extensive attention in our country. The research and development efforts of the whole grain standards in China have been strengthened. This paper introduced the progress of the global definition consensus of whole grain and whole grain food, summarized the international development status of whole grain raw materials and whole grain food related standards in many countries and institutions, such as the Working Group of ISO Whole Grain, the United States, Canada, the Netherlands, Codex Alimentarius Commission, and so on. This paper also reviewed the present situation of definition of the whole grain and whole grain food related standards in China. More than 20 relevant raw materials, food related standards and production technical regulations and the publishment situation of other whole grain standards in China, including national standards and industry standards and local standards and group standards, were summarized, and some whole grain related standards under formulation were also introduced. Finally, the paper puts forward the development direction and suggestions for the construction of whole grain standard system in China, including fully combining with the actual production situation of China’s whole grain food industry, integrating with international standards, and combining standard testing and certification. On the whole, the gradual improvement of the standard system of the whole grain food industry will help guide and regulate the high-quality and healthy development of the whole grain industry in China, and promote the creation of a diversified and healthy grain food ecology, and provide a technical basis for the development of the whole grain industry.
    8  Research Progress on Whole Wheat Frozen Dough
    LI Yi TIAN Xiao-hong TAN Bin LIU Ming JIANG Ping KANG Zi-yue LIU Yan-xiang
    2024, 32(1):59-65.
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](10) [PDF 748.40 K](122)
    Abstract:
    Frozen dough is a good carrier for whole wheat food, which simplifies production operations, reduces processing difficulties, and steps up the industrial production of whole wheat food. This paper reviewed the effects of dietary fiber on the quality of dough and frozen dough, the changes of fermentation characteristics and Rheology characteristics of whole wheat frozen dough in the process of freezing and cold storage, and the research on the quality improvement of whole wheat frozen dough by food improvers. By analyzing the deterioration reasons of gluten protein, starch, fermentation properties, Rheology properties, etc. in the whole wheat frozen dough during freezing and cold storage, the theoretical basis and practical reference for improving the quality of whole wheat frozen dough were provided.
    9  Effects of Planting Density on Starch Particle Size Distribution and Pasting Properties of Maize Kernels along Huaihe River
    ZHANG Ya-ting LU Meng-li YU Meng-qi CHENG Jia-hui LI Wen-yang
    2024, 32(1):66-76.
    [Abstract](11) [HTML](13) [PDF 567.14 K](116)
    Abstract:
    The effects of different planting densities on the particle size distribution and pasting properties of starch granules in maize grains along the Huaihe River were analyzed. Taking 13 maize hybrids such as Yudan 132 and Jingke 968 as materials, three planting densities of 56 250 plants/hm2, 67 500 plants/hm2 and 77 250 plants/hm2 were set up. The effects of different planting densities on grain quality, starch particle size distribution and gelatinization characteristics of maize in the region along the Huaihe River were analyzed. The results indicated that the protein and fat content of maize grain decreased with the increase of planting density in the range of 56 250 ~ 77 250 plants/hm2. The starch content showed an increasing trend, which means, the starch/protein ratio increased. The volume and surface area percentage of large starch granules in maize grains increased significantly, while the small starch granules decreased significantly. At the same time, it was found that the peak viscosity, trough viscosity, final viscosity and breakdown value of corn starch increased significantly after rising planting density. Relevant analysis showed that the viscosity parameters such as peak viscosity of corn kernels were positively correlated with the volume percentage of small and large starch granules. There was a significant or extremely significant negative correlation with the volume percentage of medium starch granules. It shows that planting density affects the starch particle size distribution starch viscosity parameters and chemical components of corn kernels.
    10  Study on the Process of Pressing Camellia Oleifera Seeds with Daily 10t Twin-screw Oil Press(Online First, Recommended Article)
    ZHOU Wan-meng ZHANG Xin-wen SHI Sheng-yu CHEN Bo-yu NI Er-mao JIN Jun WU Gang-cheng
    2024, 32(1):77-81.
    [Abstract](12) [HTML](11) [PDF 482.73 K](109)
    Abstract:
    In order to improve the quality and reduce the loss of the nutritional content of camellia oil with the traditional press, this paper studied the process of pressing Camellia Oleifera Seeds with 10t/d Twin-Screw Oil Press. The results demonstrated that the best conditions for this article were: 9% moisture content of Camellia Oleifera seed kernels and 8% content of Camellia oleifera seed shell. The oil content of Camellia oleifera seed cake was reduced to 2.49%, and the produced camellia oil could meet the standard of first -class oil. In comparison to the camellia oil sold on the market, the retention rate of α-tocopherol in the camellia oil obtained through this process was higher, and the nutritional value of camellia oil has been further improved, which could provide technical guidance for the high-value processing of camellia oil in China.
    11  The Effects of Different Total Acid Content in Malt on the Physicochemical Properties and Flavor of Beer
    LI Xiao-yan ZHAO Kai DU Yi-jun CHEN Wen-bo LI Hui YU Zhong-zhao
    2024, 32(1):82-90.
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](11) [PDF 644.73 K](105)
    Abstract:
    Different malt samples with various total acid content were used to brew beer. The organic acid content in both the malt and the brewed beer was measured by using high-Performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to establish the correlation between the total acid content in malt and the organic acid content in the beer. Additionally, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to detect the components of volatile compounds in the beer, and sensory evaluation was employed to assess the brewed beer's qualities. The results indicated that as the total acid content in malt increased, the pH value gradually decreased, and the content of succinic acid, malic acid, lactic acid, and acetic acid increased. There was a significant positive correlation between the total acid content in malt and the total acid content, malic acid content, and lactic acid content in the beer, with correlation coefficients of 0.94, 0.94, and 0.92, respectively. Different malt samples with varying total acid content demonstrated different characteristic aroma compounds in the brewed beer, contributing to differences in sensory attributes. As the total acid content in malt increased, the perceived acidity score of the brewed beer increased, while the scores for hop/fruit aroma, phenolic aroma, and alcohol perception decreased.
    12  Food Image Classification Based on CBAM-Inception V3 Transfer Learning(Online First, Recommended Article)
    DU Hui-jiang CUI Xiao-yi WANG Yi-meng SUN Li-ping
    2024, 32(1):91-98.
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](11) [PDF 14.12 M](156)
    Abstract:
    To improve the accuracy of automatic recognition and classification of food images, a classification model CBAM- InceptionV3 is proposed, which embeds the Convolutional Block Attention Module. The specific method is to split the Inception V3 model with ImageNet pre-trained weight parameters into blocks, embed CBAM modules after each Inception block, and reassemble them into a new model, embedding a total of 11 CBAM modules. This new model is used for transfer learning of Food-101 food image dataset padded and scaled to 299 pixels in both length and width, with the highest accuracy of 82.01%. Compared with the original Inception V3 model, the CBAM module can effectively improve the model's feature extraction and classification capabilities. At the same time, transfer learning can significantly improve the accuracy rate and shorten the training time compared with the training from scratch. Compared with several other mainstream convolutional neural network models, the results show that this new model has higher recognition accuracy and can provide strong support for food image classification and recognition.
    13  Preparation and Stability Evaluation of Black Rice Anthocyanin Microcapsules
    PENG Wen-ting LI Shi-peng WANG Yong PANG Shao-jie SONG Ge FANG Wei QI Wen-tao
    2024, 32(1):99-104.
    [Abstract](9) [HTML](12) [PDF 1.58 M](119)
    Abstract:
    The stability of black rice anthocyanin microcapsules at high temperature, light and pH, and their release in simulated gastroenteric fluid were studied by emulsification and gelation of black rice anthocyanin microcapsules with calcium alginate as wall material. The stability of black rice anthocyanin in microcapsules prepared under the process parameters of sodium alginate concentration of 15 g/L, water oil volume ratio of 1∶3, wall to core ratio M (C3G)∶M (NaAlg) of 2∶1, and solution pH of 4.5 was significantly higher than that of uncoated free black ones under different pH, temperature, and light conditions. The microencapsulated anthocyanin could be kept for 4 hours in simulated gastric fluid, and the wall material was slowly decomposed and released in simulated intestinal fluid. The microencapsulation technology based on emulsified gel can improve the stability of anthocyanins, and achieve their intestinal delivery and sustained release in vivo.
    14  Study on the Quality Changes of Coffee Malt Premixed Powder Applied to Baking Products during Storage
    YAO Qian-ru YU Zhong-zhao ZHANG De-peng ZHANG Yi DU Yu-meng LI Hui YANG Hai-ying DU Yi-jun
    2024, 32(1):105-112.
    [Abstract](11) [HTML](13) [PDF 622.57 K](112)
    Abstract:
    In order to study the quality change of coffee malt premixed powder with the extension of storage period, the coffee malt premixed powder was stored at the environment where the temperature is 25 ℃ and 35 ℃, respectively, and the relative humidity is 50% respectively. Its moisture, fatty acid value and falling value were monitored during the whole storage period. The volatile compounds were separated and identified by solid phase microextraction accompanying gas chromatography-mass spectrometry during the whole storage period. The results demonstrated that with the extension of storage period, the overall moisture content shows a falling trend, while the fatty acid value and falling value show an overall rising trend. The higher the storage temperature, the more significant the change is 41 kinds of main volatile compounds of coffee malt ready mixed powder were identified. It mainly includes 13 kinds of aldehydes, 15 kinds of heterocycles, 7 kinds of esters, 4 kinds of alcohols and 2 kinds of ketones. Among them, the relative concentration of aldehydes (n-hexanal, nonanal, trans-2-nonenal) showed an increasing trend with the extension of storage period.
    15  Creation of an Early Warning Platform for Risks to the Quality and Safety of Stored Grain(Online First, Recommended Article)
    LIU Mei-chen GUO Jian GENG Jian-qiang GUO Qin
    2024, 32(1):113-119.
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](12) [PDF 1.05 M](116)
    Abstract:
    Based on the fast detection of mycotoxins and heavy metals in grain by each storage enterprise of Beijing reserve grain, the real-time migration of monitoring data is realized by adopting the B/S architecture, terminal WEB browser, and using the wireless transmission function of the rapid detection equipment to collect and transmit the data through the encryption algorithm; by using P2MP point-to-multipoint network communication, the data collected by multiple devices online/offline are uploaded through the file uploading system and the relational database extraction tool to achieve synchronous integration of data from multiple sources; by using relational database MySQL, column storage database HBase and distributed file system HDFS, distributed full-text search ElasticSearch and distributed memory database Redis to achieve cloud storage; by using Storm for real-time computation, Streaming for streaming operation, Spark for memory computing, and MapReduce for batch computing to achieve rapid processing of monitoring data; by using artificial intelligence technology and MLlib/Mahout for data mining and modelling to form a spatial and temporal sequence model of Beijing's grain producing areas and credit evaluation model of grain purchasing and marketing enterprises, so as to achieve the dynamic early warning of grain quality and safety and visual expression of the data, and provide early warning judgments to facilitate real-time control by government departments and real-time response to the situation. It promotes real-time control, real-time response and traceability management of grain quality and safety by management departments, enhances healthy competition and the establishment of an integrity system in grain circulation and storage, and provides a scientific basis for government decision-making.
    16  Recent Progress on Degradation of Mycotoxins by Cold Plasma
    LEI Yu-qing ZHANG Hai-yang TIAN Lin QI Zhi-hui LI Jin-dong TANG Fang
    2024, 32(1):120-128.
    [Abstract](9) [HTML](11) [PDF 783.04 K](141)
    Abstract:
    Mycotoxins are toxic, which can endanger health of animals and humans, causing a lot of economic losses to the food industry. Cold plasma is an emerging non-thermal technology featuring green and high efficiency, which can degrade mycotoxin in an effective way. To provide a theoretical reference for the application of cold plasma in the degradation of food mycotoxins, this paper first summarized the mycotoxins degradation mechanisms after cold plasma treatment. The key point is the structure of degradation products and possible degradation pathways of aflatoxin, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone after cold plasma treatment under different discharge modes and treatment conditions. What’s more, the degradation effect of cold plasma on pure mycotoxins and mycotoxins on food matrix were reviewed. Finally, the safety and feasibility of cold plasma treatment was talked about from the perspective of toxicity, which was separated into structural, cellular and animal toxicity of the mycotoxin degradation products.
    17  Study on Storage Quality Change and Microstructure of Maize with Different Moisture Content under Quasi-low Temperature
    TAN Xiao-yu DING Yu-qin DING Ming-jun ZHANG Zhong-jie YIN Jun
    2024, 32(1):129-138.
    [Abstract](13) [HTML](11) [PDF 4.94 M](126)
    Abstract:
    Corn is abundant in carbohydrate, protein, carbohydrates and other nutrients. However, because of its large embryo, it is easy to be infected by microorganisms and insects, which leads to the deterioration of corn quality. Therefore, the quality preservation and storage of corn is a challenge. So it is necessary to clarify the rule and change of corn storage quality. Corns with initial water content of 13.04%, 14.03% and 14.99% were taken as reasearch objects in this paper. During storage between 70% relative humidity and 20 ℃ (quasi-low temperature environment) , the changes laws of quality indexes such as bulk density, fatty acid value, germination rate, mold activity and microstructure of corn grain were studied emphatically. Otherwise changes of storage quality of corn at 70% relative humidity and 25 ℃ (room temperature environment) were compared. Therefore it can provide reference for safe storage of high-quality corn. The results demonstrated that the germination rate, fatty acid value and bulk density of corn under 20 ℃ were slower than those under 25 ℃. And they were in the suitable storage range in accordance with the national standard. The number of fungal spores increased sharply with the prolonged storage time. Meanwhile it showed significant correlation with the initial moisture content of corn. In other words, the number of fungal spores for corn under 14.99%w.b was stored for 120 d, and the safe storage periods of corn under 13.04%w.b, 14.03%w.b and 14.99%w.b were 180 d, 180 d and 100 d, respectively. The microstructure of corn kernel changed gradually during storage. It means the appearance changed from smooth and tidy to concave and convex folds. Furthermore, the arrangement of starch granules changed from tight structure to sparse and disordered structure. The main factors of corn quality and microstructure change were corn initial water content and storage time, during storage at quasi-low temperature environment. So the change laws of corn storage quality with different water content were explored, so as to provide new research perspective for maize post-harvest to reduce loss and guarantee qualtiy.
    18  Effects of House Warehouse Storage on Fungal Community Diversity of Imported Soybean
    LI Xin-wei LI Jia LIN Lin CHEN Yi-cen CAO Yi ZHAO Xu
    2024, 32(1):139-145.
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](13) [PDF 1.78 M](118)
    Abstract:
    In order to explore the effects of house warehouse storage on fungal community diversity of imported soybean, Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing was employed to analyze the fungal community structure and diversity of newly harvested imported high oil soybean for 3 months with periodic sampling for moisture determination. The result demonstrated that the fungal communities in different storage periods in the high oil soybean belonged to 4 phyla, 9 classes, 14 orders, 15 families, 21 genera and 19 species in accordance with the 97% sequence similarity level. The four dominant phyla of soybean in different storage periods were Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Mortierellomyco and Mucoromycota. At the species level, classification statistical analysis showed that the 10 strains with relatively high abundance presented an increasing trend with the extension of storage time (C47>B47>A47). In addition, quarantine pathogenic fungus gibberella were found. Through the analysis of Ven map and Beta diversity, it was found that the fungal community structure of soybean samples in the first two storage periods was relatively similar. The fungal community structure of soybean samples in the third storage period was significantly different from that in the first two storage periods with the storage of house warehouse. It could be concluded that the fungal community diversity of soybean samples in the third storage period not only increased significantly, but also experienced obvious succession of fungal community structure.
    19  Automated Three-dimensional Warehouse in the Field of Grain Storage Application Prospects
    ZHANG Bo-qiang YAN Jin-hao WU Lan HAN Zhi-qiang SUN Peng
    2024, 32(1):146-152.
    [Abstract](36) [HTML](13) [PDF 656.30 K](145)
    Abstract:
    The development of grain storage warehouses has low high-tech coverage because of the special features of grain products. Traditional grain warehouses are facing problems including limited land resources, increased labor costs, and poorer health indicators. Accompanied by the development of information technology and the Internet of Things, automated three-dimensional warehouses have been widely used in industry with the advantages of unmanned, informationized, intensive, high-speed and seamless. In the field of grain warehousing, the finished grain three-dimensional warehouse based on mechatronics, automation, control and logistics is expected to solve the problem of grain warehousing. The traditional grain storage industry will be driven by new technology to ensure national food security.
    20  Numerical Analysis of Temperature Field of Static Grain Storage in Semi-underground Double-storey Squat Silos(Online First, Recommended Article)
    JIN Li-bing ZHU Dou-dou LI Chuang WU Qiang WANG Yu-hang ZHANG Wei-bo
    2024, 32(1):153-160.
    [Abstract](14) [HTML](14) [PDF 4.18 M](121)
    Abstract:
    Grain temperature is one of the most important factors that affect the safety of grain storage. In order to reveal the distribution rule of grain storage temperature field in semi-underground double-storey squat silos(SUDSSS), the mathematical analysis models of the grain piles of the ground squat silo and the underground silo are established respectively in this paper, and the validity of the models is verified by the field test results. A numerical model of the SUDSSS was established. Through numerical analysis, the temperature field variation rule of the grain pile during the 1-year static storage of the SUDSSS after low-temperature grain storage was acquired by numerical analysis. The research demonstrates that the grain temperature within 2 m of the above-ground part of the SUDSSS close to the silo wall varies significantly because of the influence of the outside air temperature, and the temperature from 10.62 to 27.37 ℃. The grain temperature in the underground part is in a quasi-low temperature state all the year round, and the average temperature does not exceed 17 ℃ of the temperature in the underground constant temperature zone. At the beginning of the winter, a heat accumulation area will be formed in the upper storey of the ground between 1 ~ 3 m from the warehouse wall in a short period of time, leading to a large temperature difference in the grain pile near the warehouse wall, and then the temperature in the peripheral area will slowly decrease, forming a ‘hot core and cold skin’, and the thermal insulation measures of the silo wall can effectively reduce the influence of temperature on the grain temperature. The highest grain temperature in the upper storey in summer is about 3.86 ℃, lower than that of the shallow silo without thermal insulation. The research results can provide technical support for the popularization and application of the SUDSSS.
    21  Resistance of Stored Grain Pests to Phosphine and Its Integrated Management Strategy
    ZHANG Hui-yan CHEN Xin ZHANG Hong-qing LI Yan-yu TIAN Xiao-wei ZHOU Gui-ming TAO Hai-hua GONG Jian-min
    2024, 32(1):161-167.
    [Abstract](32) [HTML](14) [PDF 551.00 K](120)
    Abstract:
    The fumigant has been approved by the World Health Organization for use in grain storage, targeting the eradication of pests in areas where grain is stored or transported to reduce insect and mold activities, thereby minimizing storage losses. Phosphine is featured by its economic viability, application readibility, rapid diffusion, and lack of residue, making it advantageous for comprehensive pest control. It demonstrates high efficacy against various harmful organisms in storage, making it one of major fumigants worldwide. However, the elimination of some fumigants has increased dependence on phosphine. The lack of standardized guidance and inappropriate use of phosphine have led to severe resistance among stored grain pests, posing a threat to the effectiveness and sustainability of phosphine treatment. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the current status and trends of phosphine resistance in stored grain pests on the global. It analyzes the genetic basis of resistance, focusing on respiratory and cuticle-related gene expression and detoxification enzyme mechanisms. A comparison of four resistance detection methods—FAO, discriminating does bioassay, rapid knockdown, and molecular identification—is rendered. The study explores key strategies for resistance management, including optimization of fumigation protocols, laboratory and field validations, and application recommendations. The aim is to offer reference information for the scientific and rational use of phosphine and the development of alternative pest control methods in the future.
    22  Progress in Research and Application of Insect-resistant Packaging for Grain Storage
    ZHANG Yuan-quan LV Jian-hua BAI Chun-qi HAN Zhi-qiang GUO Ya-fei
    2024, 32(1):168-174.
    [Abstract](16) [HTML](13) [PDF 472.17 K](116)
    Abstract:
    Stored grain is extremely vulnerable to the storage insects during storage and processing. At present, chemical control is still the main method for controlling stored grain insects. However, the increasing resistance of insects caused by long-term use of chemical control raises unprecedented challenges. Insect-repellent packaging, as a traditional and emerging physical insect prevention method, has increasingly attracted widespread attention among people. The types and characteristics of food packaging materials, the types and application of insect-repellent packaging, the research and evaluating methods of insect-repellent packaging at home and abroad, and the problems existing in the practical application of insect-repellent packaging were reviewed, and the development trend of insect-repellent packaging was prospected, so as to provide reference information for the scientific and efficient use of insect-repellent packaging, development of new insect-repellent packaging to control stored grain insects in the future.
    23  Resources Industrialization Channels and Strategies of Wheat Starch Based on Analysis of Domestic and Foreign Intellectual Properties
    JI Xiao-long SONG Xing FANG Lian-sheng GAO Bo WANG Wen-tao LIU Yan-qi
    2024, 32(1):175-184.
    [Abstract](10) [HTML](13) [PDF 1.37 M](108)
    Abstract:
    Wheat starch is the main business material in wheat. It has a variety of functional characteristics and broad development and utilization prospects. This article is based on a comprehensive and in-depth analysis of wheat starch patent literature. For global patent output, the current patent situation of wheat starch is clarified from many aspects such as distribution, time latitude, and patent applicants in the technical field. We focus on analyzing the public trend of patents in China, revealing the development trend of wheat starch industry in China. At present, the research on the impact of wheat starch has been slower than before, and the development trend is stable. The research institutions are mainly domestic; however, the industrialization of wheat starch is lacking in the industrialization of the application of the application of wheat starch. There is still a large room for the industrialization of wheat starch in many fields. In this paper, the functional properties of wheat starch, such as gelatinization, retrogradation, freeze-thaw stability and gel property were summarized. According to the functional characteristics of wheat starch, the quality of wheat starch-based food was improved to broaden the development channel of wheat starch. On this basis, this article proposes the potential direction and industrialization of wheat starch industrialization and industrialization, so as to provide scientific basis for discovering the value of wheat starch and the use of development of wheat starch in various aspects of my country’s wheat starch.
    24  Research on the Current Situation of Wheat Production and Development Strategies for High Quality Wheat in Henan Province
    LU Hui-li PENG Xing-xing YIN Hao GENG Li-na LI Min
    2024, 32(1):185-192.
    [Abstract](11) [HTML](13) [PDF 422.23 K](110)
    Abstract:
    The current situation of wheat production were analyzed in Henan Province, investigation and research were conducted on the current wheat planting situation, and main varieties and distribution of high-quality specialized wheat were conducted in Henan Province. Deeply analyzed the role, impact, and main problems of the current wheat standards on wheat in Henan Province. By investigating the relationship between the quality indicators of wheat varieties, quality indicators, Rheology indicators, baking, cooking indicators and the quality of final processed food, we determined the core quality indicators to improve the quality of different food. With the increasing improvement of people’s living standards, the market demand for high-quality specialized wheat was also increasing. However, a few of problems in the development of wheat in our province, such as unreasonable planting structure, breeding of specialized wheat, disconnection between promotion and planting and market demand, as well as a large variety of wheat varieties in stock, unstable quality, and other factors, had influced the development of high-quality wheat. Therefore, a high-quality development path and policy recommendations for Henan wheat were proposed: adhering to market orientation, adjusting the wheat planting structure; adjust the wheat purchase policy and vigorously develop high-quality wheat; give full play to the leading role of the brand and create the “Yumai” brand. Through these policies, we wanted to drive the adjustment of wheat planting structure, improve the core competitiveness of high-quality wheat in our province, promote the increase of farmers’ income and enterprise efficiency, and accelerate the high-quality development of high-quality wheat industry in our province.
    25  Development Characteristics and Trend Prediction of Prefabricated Dishes Industry in China(Online First, Recommended Article)
    WANG Jing-xiang ZHANG Zhong-ming LI Ji-yue LI Yi ZHOU Dan-dan GAO Feng
    2024, 32(1):193-200.
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](11) [PDF 510.17 K](116)
    Abstract:
    Prefabricated dishes are an effective carrier for the foodization of agricultural products, which is an industry that is gradually moving towards a trillion-level market scale, playing an important role in ensuring food security. The prefabricated dishes industry develops modern agriculture with the concept of industrialization, promotes the further agglomeration and development of upstream and downstream supporting enterprises in the agricultural industry chain, which is the link connecting the primary, secondary and tertiary industries and the endogenous driving force to promote their innovation and development, and is an important bridge connecting the integrated development of multiple industrial chains such as production and sales between rural and urban areas. This paper introduced the development status of the prefabricated dishes industry, analyzed the problems facing by the prefabricated dishes, predicted the future development trend, and made a suggestion for the future development of the prefabricated dishes industry, so as to provide reference for the healthy and sustainable development of the prefabricated dishes industry.
    26  The Risk of Food Safety in Prefabricated Dishes Industry and Its Countermeasures(Online First, Recommended Article)
    ZHANG Li-li ZHANG Chu-chu
    2024, 32(1):201-208.
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](12) [PDF 430.01 K](123)
    Abstract:
    The prefabricated dishes industry has food safety risks in production licensing, processing and operation, storage, transportation and sales, etc. Currently, the laws, regulations and industry norms dealing with food safety risks in the prefabricated dishes industry in China are not perfect, and the supervision of the prefabricated dishes industry has defects. It is imperative to protect the rights and interests of consumers as the core, improve the relevant standard system of the prefabricated dishes industry, build the basic system of the prefabricated dishes industry supervision as a specific measure, and use digital technology to enable the management of the prefabricated dishes industry to promote the standardized and healthy development of the prefabricated dishes industry.

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