SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF CEREALS, OILS AND FOODS

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Issue 6,2023 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Effects of Different Storage Environment and Time on Rice Quality(Online First, Recommended Article)
    SHAO Ya-fang YU Jing ZHENG Xin ZHU Da-wei XU Qing-yu FANG Chang-yun WANG Yong CHEN Ming-xue
    2023, 31(6):1-9.
    [Abstract](101) [HTML](0) [PDF 3.46 M](193)
    Abstract:
    In order to study the quality variation of Longjing 31 rice in ordinary and negative-pressed rice bucket put in the environment with high temperature and high humidity and room temperature during storage, rice color parameters, fatty acid value, taste value, amylose content, protein content, fatty acid compositions, gelatinization characteristics of rice flour were measured. Two dimensions of rice quality under storage conditions and storage time were analyzed by radar analysis. It showed that high temperature, high humidity and storage time could step up the deterioration of rice quality. Different storage conditions and time had significant effects on peak (1 991~2 859 cP), final (2 650~3 334 cP) and trough viscosity (1 459~2 182 cP), fatty acid value (2.74~32.58 mg/100 g), oleic (1.12~1.81 mg/g) and linoleic acid (2.68~3.53 mg/g), as well as the taste value (68.72~80.30 score) (P < 0.05). The radar map analysis showed that quality deterioration indexes of rice stored in high temperature and high humidity ordinary rice bucket were mainly reflected in fatty acid value, oleic acid and linoleic acid; quality deterioration indexes of rice stored in high temperature and high humidity negative-pressed rice bucket were mainly reflected in peak viscosity and final viscosity; quality deterioration indexes of rice stored in common rice bucket at room temperature and negative-pressed rice bucket at room temperature were mainly reflected in peak viscosity and trough viscosity, respectively. For different storage time, the peak and trough viscosity showed a trend of first increase and second decrease, the fatty acid value increased continually, the oleic acid and linoleic acid contents sharply decreased after storage for a certain time, and the taste value gradually decreased. To sum up, it showed that the negative-pressed rice bucket could better maintain the rice quality for short time (15 days) storage, and there were no significant differences between ordinary and negative-pressed rice buckets for long periods (15 days or more) of rice storage.
    2  Analysis of Rice Quality Characteristics of Indica Rice Varieties of China in Recent 10 Years(Online First, Recommended Article)
    ZHU Da-wei ZENG Bo SHAO Ya-fang ZHANG Lin-ping CHEN Ming-xue YU Yong-hong
    2023, 31(6):10-19.
    [Abstract](53) [HTML](0) [PDF 840.04 K](111)
    Abstract:
    Based on the analysis of rice quality characteristics of indica rice varieties from regional trials in recent 10 years, we hope to provide references for quality improvement of indica rice varieties in the next stage. We analyzed 2 701 samples of early season, medium season and late season indica rice samples in 17 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government) from 2011 to 2020, and divided them into 8 groups according to maturity and regional trials group. Based on the agricultural industry standard “Cooking rice variety quality” NY/T 593, we analyzed the development trend of qualified rate and rice quality index of indica rice varieties in recent 10 years. The results showed that the quality of indica rice varieties in China presented a steady upward trend in recent 10 years, especially for late season indica rice, which improved the most significantly after 2017. The rice quality of mid-late ripe of late season indica rice and sensitive late season indica rice in south China was better than early ripe of late season indica rice; rice quality of medium season indica rice in the middle was better than that of medium season indica rice in the upper Yangtze River; the rice quality of early season indica rice in south China was better than that of other two early season indica rice varieties and has been improved steadily in recent years. Chalkiness degree, alkali spreading value and amylose content of quality indexes have been increasing steadily, gel consistency and brown rice rate keep high standard rate in recent 10 years, the variation of qualified rate in head rice rate and translucency above one level changed greatly from year to year, and there was no obvious trend of improvement. For rice quality index, in addition to keeping on reducing the amylose content and chalkiness degree of indica rice, it is also needed o strengthen the study on inter annual stability of head rice rate and transparency of indica rice. And the improvement of rice quality of medium season indica rice is the key direction for the improvement of indica rice quality in the future.
    3  Determination of Five Selenium Species in Rice by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry(Online First, Recommended Article)
    CAO Zhao-yun LI Hong-yan CHAI Shuang-shuang XU Ping CHEN Ming-xue
    2023, 31(6):20-27.
    [Abstract](40) [HTML](0) [PDF 620.58 K](96)
    Abstract:
    A detection method for five selenium species in Se-enriched rice was established using HPLC-ICP MS/MS. The ion pair concentration of mobile phase, elution salt concentration, pH value were optimized by using a reverse C18 chromatographic column, and the final mobile phase composition was determined to consist of 15 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution, pH5.5and 0.2 mmol/L TBAH, the baseline separation of SeMeCys,SeCys, SeMet, Se(VI) and Se(IV) was obtained. Selenium species in rice were extracted by enzyme extraction method. The effects of enzyme selection, enzyme dosage and extraction time on extraction efficiency were investigated. The optimal ratio of sample to protein XIV enzyme content was determined to be 20∶1, and the optimal enzymatic hydrolysis time was 20 h. The method has high separation efficiency, good linearity, good precision, and high sensitivity, and the recovery was 77.1%~107.3%. The limits of detection and the limits of quantitation of SeMeCys (methylselenocysteine), SeCys (selenocystine), and SeMet (selenomethionine) were 0.001 5 mg/kg and 0.005 mg/kg, respectively, while the limits of detection and the limits of quantitation of Se (VI) and Se (IV) were 0.002 5 mg/kg and 0.009 mg/kg. The method provide technical support for objective and comprehensive evaluation of the quality of Se-enriched rice and subsequent assessment of dietary exposure to Se-enriched rice.
    4  Analysis of Four Arsenic Species in Different Types of Rice Based on Liquid Chromatography-Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry(Online First, Recommended Article)
    YANG Huan XU Ping LI Hong-yan CAO Zhao-yun
    2023, 31(6):28-34.
    [Abstract](37) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.01 M](109)
    Abstract:
    A fast analytical protocol for the simultaneous analysis of As(Ⅲ), As(Ⅴ), DMA and MMA in purple rice, red rice and common brown rice was established based on liquid chromatography-atomic fluorescence spectrometry. For the first time, three mobile phases (i.e. KH2PO4, (NH4)2CO3 and NH4HCO3) were examined to obtain separation conditions. The results showed that NH4HCO3 is the most effective eluent achieving the separation of As species with improved resolutions within 10 minutes. Bond elut carbon bulk, bond elut carbon and C18 were compared in view of their purification and adsorption capacities. The results showed that the C18 column can fully remove the pigment and macromolecular impurities. Four arsenic species had good linearity in the concentration ranging from 0 to 50 μg/L, and the correlation coefficients were all greater than 0.999 1. The limits of detection and the limits of quantification of the method were 0.002~0.01 mg/kg and 0.007~0.033 mg/kg, respectively. The recoveries of the four arsenic species at three spike levels in three rice matrices ranging from 75.2% to 104%, with the relative standard deviations is less than 9.9%. It is suitable for the analysis of the content of 4 arsenic species in various types of rice, and provides reliable technical support for accurately assessing the risk of arsenic intake in rice.
    5  Advances in Risk Assessment and Early Warning Techniques of Rice Quality and Safety(Online First, Recommended Article)
    WANG Yin WANG Hui-lai LIN Xiao-yan GUAN Mei-yan CHEN Ming-xue CAO Zhen-zhen
    2023, 31(6):35-42.
    [Abstract](28) [HTML](0) [PDF 487.71 K](104)
    Abstract:
    Rice quality and safety is important for achieving national food security and social stability. Rice has been contaminated with heavy metals, pesticide residues, and fungal toxins, which has affected the healthy development of China’s rice industry and raised public concerns about the quality and safety of rice. Studies on risk assessment and early warning techniques for rice quality and safety can not only contribute to formulating rice-related policies, regulations and standards, but also can timely identify and prevent the potential risks, which have become an important field in rice quality and safety control. In this article, the main hazards including heavy metals, pesticide residues, and fungal toxins in rice and their possible sources were analyzed. Moreover, rice risk assessment techniques including hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment and risk characterization, as well as rice early warning technologies including pre-harvest warning, post-harvest warning and whole course warning were summarized, aiming to provide reference for scientific supervision and effective control of hazards in rice.
    6  Research Progress on the Application of Resistant Starch in Elderly Food
    ZHOU Yu TONG Guan-quan YANG Ke YAN Yao ZHANG Yu-kun LIU Wen-meng CHEN Long
    2023, 31(6):43-50.
    [Abstract](39) [HTML](0) [PDF 722.70 K](128)
    Abstract:
    With the aging of the population, the incidence of chronic diseases in the elderly is also increasing, which is closely related to daily diet. Resistant starch (RS) is a new type of dietary fiber, which has become the focus of food science research in recent years because of its unique physical and chemical properties and physiological functions. Resistant starch can reach the colon without being hydrolyzed by digestive enzymes in human digestive tract, which has many benefits. It can be used for the development of functional products, and can also be combined with technologies such as microcapsules to embed nutrients. At the same time, it can play a variety of physiological functions and prevent various diseases. Therefore, this review mainly focuses on the research progress in the application of resistant starch in elderly foods. Firstly, the characteristics of elderly foods are summarized, and then the relationship between RS and human health is further discussed around the characteristics of these elderly foods. Then, based on the advantages and characteristics of RS, it summarizes the application of RS in food for the elderly, such as directly as functional raw materials, making reconstituted rice, flour products, milk drinks, etc., or as main raw materials through different means, including: microcapsule method, Pickering emulsion method and nanoparticle method, are summarized, so as to construct a special nutrient delivery system in the elderly, in order to provide ideas for the design and development of elderly foods and provide some reference for the elderly.
    7  Study on the Production Technology of Olive High Fiber Bread
    HUANG Xiao-yu LIU Yu-hong LI Jian-ke JIN Feng WU Gang-cheng ZHANG Hui JIN Qing-zhe WANG Xing-guo
    2023, 31(6):51-59.
    [Abstract](33) [HTML](0) [PDF 592.79 K](102)
    Abstract:
    In order to improve the utilization of olive pomace, single-factor experiments were set up to investigate the effects of the amount of water and olive pomace addition on the quality of bread. Firstly, the basic components of olive pomace were determined. Secondly, the effects of water addition (50%, 52%, 54%, and 56%) on bread quality were investigated. After that, the influence of added olive pomace (5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) was also studied. The quality of bread was evaluated by taste, aroma and surface color, while physical properties were analyzed by the texture and the specific volume of bread. Results showed that the quality of bread was the best under the condition of adding 52% of moisture and 10% of olive pomace. With the addition of olive pomace, the specific volume of bread decreased, and the cohesion of bread decreased while the values of hardness, chewiness and adhesiveness increased. considered the appearance, quality, aroma and fiber content of bread, it was thought as the best to add 10% of olive pomace to the bread.
    8  The Removal of Antinutritional Factors and Toxic Substances from Corn Steep Liquer and Its Utilization
    YIN Peng DU Wen LIU Hu-jun
    2023, 31(6):60-66.
    [Abstract](51) [HTML](0) [PDF 573.79 K](209)
    Abstract:
    Corn steep liquer, a byproduct of corn starch production, is highly productive and nutritious, containing a large quantity of amino acids, B vitamins and growth-promoting factors, which plays an important role in fermentation engineering, feed additives and pharmaceuticals. Due to sulfite residue, mycotoxin contamination and other issues, its application in various fields is seriously limited, resulting in resource waste, environmental pollution and economic loss. This paper reviews the techniques for removing antinutritional factors, phytic acid, and sulfites in corn syrup and the pollution, prevention of fungal toxins as well as the most recent application of it in single-cell protein, amino acid fermentation and biofertilizer, aiming to provide ideas for the comprehensive utilization of corn steep liquer and maximize its economic benefits.
    9  Optimizing Formulation of Instant Powder of Ejiao, Vigna Angularis and Semen Coicis
    CHEN Chao JIA Min QIN Nan
    2023, 31(6):67-74.
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.02 M](87)
    Abstract:
    The instant powder of Ejiao, vigna angularis and semen coicis (IPEVS) were prepared with Ejiao Low Mol.Wt. Peptid, vigna angularis and semen coicis as main raw materials, maltodextrin, xylitol and β-cyclodextrin as auxiliary materials. The effects of processing technology of raw material powder and the amount of excipients on IPEVS were tested by single factor and response surface method. The results showed that the optimum technological conditions were as follows: the ratio of vigna angularis to semen coicis was 1∶1, baking time was 50 min, baking temperature was 120 ℃, the addition amount of Ejiao Low Mol.Wt. Peptid was 4%, maltodextrin was 24%, xylitol was 10%, β-cyclodextrin was 9%. Under this condition, the wettability of IPEVS was 129 s, the dispersibility was 5 s, and it had good taste and toning property. The moisture content is 2.3%, the protein content is 13%, the content of polysaccharide is 47%, the total number of colony is less than 3 000 cfu/g, the number of coliform is less than 90 MPN/100 g, which accords with the national requirement.
    10  Influence of Initial Moisture Content on Freeze-Dried Quality of Instant Tremella fuciformis Soup
    YU Qun ZHANG Tao FAN Liu-ping
    2023, 31(6):75-83.
    [Abstract](16) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.01 M](107)
    Abstract:
    The drying time was decreasedby concentrating T. Fuciformis soup before drying. Effects of removing moisture content (10%~50%) on the quality of the instant T. Fuciformis soup was explored. Compared with the samples without pretreatment, when the water content of the soup was removed within 40%, rehydration capacity, rheological properties and tribology properties of instant T. Fuciformis soup showed no significant difference. In addition, drying time could be reduced by up to 9.5 h per batch. When 50% of the water in the soup was removed, the tremella pieces were seriously agglomerated during the initial rehydration time, the water absorption rate and the rehydration rate of the product were slow. The rehydration capacity decreased significantly compared with other samples. Therefore, drying time of instant T. Fuciformis soup could be reduced by removing less than 40% of the water in the soup through pretreatment.
    11  Review of Extraction Method of Insoluble Dietary Fiber from Wheat Bran and Its Effect on the Quality of Facial Products
    YANG Ke-wei LIU Fang-fang ZHENG Yan
    2023, 31(6):84-90.
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](0) [PDF 428.64 K](105)
    Abstract:
    Wheat gluten insoluble dietary fiber has special physiological functions. In recent years the attention of domestic and foreign scholars to insoluble dietary fiber from wheat bran has also been increasing year by year. In this paper, the composition and function of wheat bran dietary fiber and wheat bran insoluble dietary fiber were introduced in a brief way. The extraction methods of wheat bran insoluble dietary fiber, such as physical method, chemical method, biological method and chemical-enzymatic method, were introduced briefly. The effect of insoluble dietary fiber from wheat bran on the quality of flour products, such as noodles, steamed bread and bread, was elucidated in order to provide a reference for further research on the extraction method of insoluble dietary fiber from wheat bran and its application in flour products.
    12  Research Progress on Source of Flavoring Substances in River Snails Rice Noodle
    QING Ming-yi YE Yin-feng LI Yu-can CHEN Qing-qing YU Xin-yao LAI Mei-jin CUI Na XIONG Jian-wen
    2023, 31(6):91-97.
    [Abstract](39) [HTML](0) [PDF 453.37 K](119)
    Abstract:
    Liuzhou river snail rice noodle is a local characteristic food of Liuzhou with fresh, spicy, sour and “smelly”. With the rapid development of pre-packaged river snail rice noodle, the concerns such as unstable quality and inconsistent standards have begun to emerge. The quality and unique flavor of Liuzhou river snail rice noodle are closely related to the flavor substances of its raw materials. The detection and analysis of its flavor substances is one of the key factors to measure the quality of river snail rice noodle. In this paper, based on the features of flavor substances of raw materials such as snails, sour bamboo shoots and chili oil in Liuzhou snail powder, the sources of its flavor substances were reviewed mainly according to the current research on river snail rice noodle and the related techniques of flavor substances detection. The effects of flavor substances of raw materials and excipients were systematically expounded. The development prospect of common detection techniques of flavor substances in the analysis of flavor substances and the key flavor substances of raw materials and excipients were further reviewed. The disadvantages of the research on the flavor substances of were pointed out, and the future research direction of its flavor substances was put forward, aming to provide theoretical support for the improvement, standardization and development of new products of Liuzhou river snail rice noodle.
    13  Effect of Sample Pretreatment on the Detection of Aflatoxin in Grain by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography
    JIAO Zi-yi LI Li LIU Jin-yang YE Jin LI Zong-wang WANG Song-xue
    2023, 31(6):98-106.
    [Abstract](31) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.02 M](110)
    Abstract:
    To optimize and establish the pretreatment method for aflatoxins (AFS) in grains, the method was optimized by using naturally contaminated grain samples. The grains were extracted by crushing, cleaned up by immunoaffinity column, and quantified by ultra performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector. The results showed that the extraction efficiency of 84% acetonitrile water was better than that of 70% methanol water, without soaking, and more than 99% of aflatoxin B1 could be extracted from the samples by vortex shaking for 20 min or high-speed homogenization for 2 min. The method has good accuracy and reproducibility. The results of the determination of aflatoxin B1 components in corn flour, brown rice flour, rice flour and other grain matrices of the national certified standards were within the range of standard values and their extended uncertainties, with a coefficient of variation of 5.2%, and the determination results were more satisfactory. Using this method to participate in the FAPAS (PT04359) proficiency testing, |Z|<2, and the results were satisfactory. Aflatoxin in grain by 84% acetonitrile water vortex extraction 20 min or homogenization extraction 2 min extraction efficiency and accuracy, the literature recommended the use of 70% methanol water extraction solution, and the use of ultrasound and other extraction methods may lead to low determination results, which cannot truly reflect the content of aflatoxin in the sample. Therefore, the unification of sample pretreatment methods is important for the accuracy and comparability of aflatoxin assay results in raw grains, and this study can provide reference for the selection of sample pretreatment methods for aflatoxin in grains.
    14  Effect of Grinded Particle Size on the Determination of Aflatoxin B1 in Maize Evaluated by Fractional Preparation Method
    ZHANG Yan WU Qian-kun HAN Yi-tao JIANG Yan XIE Gang
    2023, 31(6):107-112.
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](0) [PDF 759.19 K](82)
    Abstract:
    To evaluate the influence of grinded particle size on the determination of aflatoxin B1(AFB1), improve the sample preparation method and the repeatability of the current national standard detection method for the determination of AFB1 of corn raw grain samples, this study uses natural AFB1-positive corn as experimental material, and four grades of samples with different particle size ranges were obtained by means of graded preparation, so as to maximize the differences of particle size distribution of samples at all levels. The influence of sample preparation on AFB1 determination values was evaluated by AFB1 determination values and coefficient of variation in samples of all levels, and the optimal sample preparation requirements and sample size were obtained and verified. The AFB1 content of different particle size samples was inversely proportional to that of the sample after grinding. When the sample weight is 5 g, it should be crushed until all through the 0.6 mm sieve. When the sample weight is 10 g, it should be crushed until all through the 0.9 mm sieve, so that the test results meet the requirements of GB/T 32465—2015《Requirements for verification & validation of detection methods and internal quality control on chemical analysis》. The results give consideration to the determination accuracy and operation efficiency of AFB1, which can be applied to the detection of other mycotoxins and has important significance for improving the detection methods of mycotoxins in foodstuff.
    15  Research Progress of Hydrogels-Based Materials and Their Application for Electrochemical Sensing of Hazardous Substances in Foods
    XU Ruo-xuan HE Jin-xing
    2023, 31(6):113-118.
    [Abstract](12) [HTML](0) [PDF 517.33 K](81)
    Abstract:
    Due to the advantages of large surface area, easy functional structure, good biocompatibility, and easy integration into signal transduction system, hydrogel-based nanocomposite is an excellent electrode modification material. Several common synthesis strategies of hydrogel-based nanocomposites and their significance as electrochemical modified electrode materials were summarized in this paper. The preparation of hydrogel-based nanocomposites modified electrode and their sensing mechanism for the electrochemical detection were discussed. Finally, the preparation of hydrogel-based nanocomposites and their applications in electrochemical sensors are summarized and prospected, which will have importance to promote the development of electrochemical sensing detection technology.
    16  Screening of Plant Growth Regulators and Antibiotics in Sprout Vegetables by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry
    ZENG Xue-fang QI Chun-yan XIE Ai-hua LEI Yi
    2023, 31(6):119-130.
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.21 M](92)
    Abstract:
    In this study, chromatographic and mass spectrometry conditions, sample cleanup and extraction, composition and ratio of salt and purifiers were optimized, which established a high-throughput screening method for 11 plant growth regulators and 79 antibiotic drugs in sprout vegetables by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Samples were extracted by 1% acetonitrile-EDTA-mcllvaine buffer solution, purified by QuEChERS, and separated by ACQUITY UPLC HSS T3 column with gradient elution. Electrospray positive and negative ion mode was used in multi-reaction monitoring mode, and matrix curve external standard method was used to quantify. The limits of quantitation of 90 compounds were in the range of 0.1~15.4 μg/kg. The average recoveries were in the range of 42.2%~138.6% with relative standard deviations lower than 17.2%. In this study, simultaneous, rapid and high-throughput screening and detection of 90 high-risk substances in sprout vegetables were established, which is conducive to a more full understanding of the quality and safety problems of sprout vegetables.
    17  Construction and Management of Hazardous Waste Storage Sites in Wheat Milling Factories(Online First, Recommended Article)
    LI Dong-liang LIU Yao
    2023, 31(6):131-137.
    [Abstract](14) [HTML](0) [PDF 835.56 K](105)
    Abstract:
    China’s flour industry has gradually transformed from small and scattered to intensive and large-scale production, the types and amount of hazardous waste generated during the process have also increased. However, the foundation of hazardous waste storage management in flour industry is weak, and it is urgent to standardize and strengthen the selection, construction and operation management of hazardous waste storage sites. Through the analysis of the characteristics of hazardous waste in flour industry, the types of storage location are reasonably selected. The construction elements are decomposed and refined from five dimensions: building requirements, packaging containers, electrical safety, material allocation, and visual identification. The safety and environmental measures are proposed, and the construction model for hazardous waste storage sites in flour processing industry has been constructed. At the same time, in order to address the issue of non-standard management, a full process compliance management approach for hazardous waste storage has been proposed from three aspects: inbound management, storage management, and outbound management. This paper will provide reference for promoting and guiding the flour industry to construct and manage hazardous waste storage sites standardizedly and systematically.
    18  Study on Evaluation of Different Low-Temperature Storage Period of Milled Rice(Online First, Recommended Article)
    TIAN Lin QI Zhi-hui ZHANG Xiang ZHAO Xin-ning XIE Wen-jun TANG Fang
    2023, 31(6):138-147.
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.27 M](106)
    Abstract:
    Through the detection of quality indicators such as physicochemical, appearance, taste and gelatinization of two kinds of milled rice under three quasi-low temperature conditions of 16, 18 and 20 ℃ during storage for 6 to 12 months, the results showed that the fatty acid value, content of yellow-colored kernel and setback of rice starch all increased gradually with the increase of storage temperature and storage time, but the taste value decreased gradually, especially at 20 ℃. There were significant correlations among multiple quality indicators. After dimensionality reduction treatment by principal component analysis, 4 and 3 principal components were extracted from indica rice and japonica rice, respectively. The comprehensive scores of the principal components decreased gradually with the increase of storage temperature and time. The results of cluster analysis showed that the quality of low-moisture indica rice stored at 16 ℃ for 8 to 12 months was equivalent to that at 18 ℃ for 6 to 8 months and at 20 ℃ for 6 months. And keeping the quality of 10 to 12 months at 18 ℃, the storage period at 20 ℃ was about 8 months. The quality of high-moisture japonica rice stored at 16 ℃ for 10 to 12 months was equivalent to that at 18 and 20 ℃ for 6 months. It provides a theoretical basis for the fine control of temperature conditions in the practice of low-temperature storage of milled rice.
    19  Effect of Helium Cold Plasma on the Moisture Sorption Isotherms of Milled Rice
    CAO Zi-yi LI Xing-jun SONG Hong-dong ZHAO Ming-hui
    2023, 31(6):148-156.
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](0) [PDF 847.73 K](100)
    Abstract:
    The low-pressure radio-frequency (RF) cold plasma equipment has been developing in China for over 20 years. This equipment can significantly shorten rice cooking time and increase the solid solubility in the porridge. The safety evaluation of cold plasma technology in food industry is being carried out during the recent five years. This study measured the moisture desorption/adsorption isotherms of milled rice treated zero to four times by 120 W-20 s helium cold plasma (CP, 140 Pa, 13.56 MHz, the distance from plasma resource to the samples is 3 cm, 300 g samples were treated each time). In the range of 5 to 45 ℃ and 10% to 90% RH, in contrast to the untreated samples, CP repeat treatments did not change the hygroscopic properties such as monolayer and multilayer moisture properties and the moisture content of safe storage, but they increased hydrophilicity and water absorption rate of milled rice with a significant decrease in water contract angle. This study gives basic data for the safe storage of CP-treated milled rice.
    20  The Food Reserve Management System and Characteristics of the Governments of the United States, Japan, and India(Online First, Recommended Article)
    ZHANG Shu-juan LI Teng-fei
    2023, 31(6):157-162.
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](0) [PDF 462.93 K](119)
    Abstract:
    Food reserves are the “reservoir” and "regulator" for maintaining national food security. Considering multiple factors comprehensively such as the different degrees of self-sufficiency in grain production and population density, this paper selects three countries, namely the United States, Japan, and India, as cases to systematically sort out and compare the management experience and practices of governments in the reserve system, functional positioning, and collaborative mechanism of grain reserves, and summarized the characteristics of government grain reserve management in various countries, which can guide market expectations, stabilize domestic markets. Therefore, it is of great significance to enhance the ability and resilience of reserves to respond to major risks and challenges. To further clarify the logical relationship between various types of government grain reserves in China, and continuously improve the collaborative mechanism of government grain reserve management, this provides valuable optimization ideas for reference.
    21  Analysis and Future Prospects of Supply and Demand of Chinese Corn Seeds
    QIU Jun WANG Shu-kun JING Qi ZHANG Li-ke SUN Quan
    2023, 31(6):163-168.
    [Abstract](28) [HTML](0) [PDF 635.13 K](98)
    Abstract:
    Since 2016, the corn seed industry has gradually passed the stage of overcapacity, and the area and output of seed production have shown a trend of first decline and second rise. The ratio of seed supply and demand reached a record low after the 2022 sales season. The seed production situation showed the characteristics of concentrated distribution of seed production bases, polarization of variety demand, and continuous increase in seed sales prices and production costs. In 2023, the supply of corn seeds is sufficient, and a few high-quality varieties are in short supply, with slight differences in different regions. From the current situation and domestic development, it is expected that the market value of corn seeds will remain above CNY 30 billion in the future; the supply-demand relationship of seeds will remain stable in the benign development range; the variety selection will shift from supply-oriented to demand-oriented; the seed market price will continue to increase; industry mergers and reorganizations will accelerate, and concentration will gradually increase.
    22  Promotion to the High-Quality Development of Storage Facilities by the Construction of Well-Facilitated Grain Granary
    HU Xiao-zhong QIU Ping XING Yong
    2023, 31(6):169-174.
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](0) [PDF 426.23 K](106)
    Abstract:
    20 million tons of well-facilitated grain storage granary (WFGSG) will be finished in the 14th Five-year Plan period. Based on the experience of compiling the technical points and regulations, this paper proposed the specific requirements of WFGSG, including excellent building performance, advanced loading and unloading processes, green technology of grain storage, intelligent management, safe and friendly operation, intensive land use. On the basis of the current situation and existing problems, the connotation of high-quality development of grain storage facilities is mainly manifested in five aspects, including high-quality warehouse, advanced equipment, efficient management, reasonable layout, and friendly environment. Taking the construction of WFGSG as an opportunity, promotion to the high-quality development of warehouse facilities provides strong support for improving the modernization level of grain warehouse facilities and the ability to ensure food security, and accelerates the construction in a higher level, higher quality, more efficient, more sustainable food security guarantee system.
    23  Research on the Application of the Beidou Third Generation in Grain Logistics Information System
    LI De-yan WANG Tao SHANG Xiao-dong XING Yong
    2023, 31(6):175-178.
    [Abstract](14) [HTML](0) [PDF 726.52 K](94)
    Abstract:
    This article elaborates the Beidou third-generation satellite navigation positioning and its application advantages on the advantages application of logistics tracking and emergency command and dispatch in the grain industry. Through the basic principles and unique information transmission advantages of the Beidou third-generation satellite positioning and navigation technology, along with the unique features and future development needs of grain in the logistics transportation process, the article takes the tracking of bulk grain logistics and emergency command and dispatch of military grain as examples for explanation. This reflects the application prospects of the third generation of Beidou in the logistics information system of the grain industry, proposing the application of Beidou’s third-generation in the grain industry management models, technical equipment issues, and development prospects for the future.
    24  Study on the Countermeasures for the Food Reduction of the Front-end Storage Stage of Farmers’ Grain After Delivery(Online First, Recommended Article)
    PENG Yu-qing FAN Qi TANG Si ZHANG Da-qin XIAO Na-na HUANG Yi-bo ZHANG Xu-bo
    2023, 31(6):179-184.
    [Abstract](15) [HTML](0) [PDF 422.72 K](99)
    Abstract:
    In recent years, with the continuous improvement of China’s urbanization level, the transfer of agricultural population to cities has stepped up, and the number and scale of grain stored by farmers have shown a significant downward trend. However, the problem of grain postpartum loss caused by improper storage of farmers is still prominent every year. This paper mainly conducts in-depth investigation and analysis on the characteristics, loss rate and loss causes of the front-end storage links of farmers’ grain in China. The study found out that at present, the scale of grain storage of farmers in China is gradually decreasing, but the total scale is still large. The purpose of grain storage of farmers is mostly used for rations and feed grain, and a small amount is to wait for a better time to sell grain. There are regional differences in the number and scale of grain storage of farmers, which is mainly manifested in the fact that the main production area is higher than the production and marketing balance area and the main sales area. The study also found that the loss rate of grain storage in China’s farmers showed a downward trend, and there were significant differences in the loss rate of grain storage among farmers. Due to the poor storage facilities of farmers, improper storage management, weak scientific storage awareness, lack of storage technology and other reasons, the loss of rodents, mildew and pests is large, among which the loss of rodents is the most serious. Finally, the study also puts forward some countermeasures and suggestions for targeted derogation management.

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