SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF CEREALS, OILS AND FOODS

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Volume 31,Issue 5,2023 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Improving the ‘Two Mechanisms’ and Mobilizing the ‘Two Enthusiasms’ to Provide Institutional Guarantee for All-round Consolidation of Food Security
    YAN Bo
    2023, 31(5):1-8.
    [Abstract](65) [HTML](0) [PDF 502.79 K](195)
    Abstract:
    Improving the “two mechanisms”: the income guarantee mechanism for grain farmers and the compensation mechanism for the main grain production areas is of great significance in mobilizing the “two enthusiasms”: farmers’ enthusiasm for farming and main production areas’ enthusiasm for grain production, which are vital for ensuring national food security. Since China’s reform and opening up, especially the market-oriented reform of grain purchase and sales, the “two mechanisms” and related policies have been gradually improved. The mechanism for farmers is getting more market-oriented, with greater emphasis on the “green-box” subsidy policies and agriculture insurances. The mechanism for main production areas, currently relying on “vertical” compensation from central finance, needs to be completed by more “horizontal” compensations from main consumption areas to production areas, which is of great imperative. It is recommended to intensify efforts to improve policy accuracy, the “trinity” policy system of prices, subsidies, and insurance, and continuously improving the mechanism for ensuring the benefits of grain farmers. Strengthen “vertical” compensation and innovate “horizontal” compensation, improve the comprehensive compensation mechanism of “horizontal” and “vertical”, and continuously improve the compensation mechanism for the interests of the main production areas. Based on domestic and international conditions, we should properly handle relations between national financial resources, industrial development and international rules to ensure the continuous improvement and long-term effectiveness of the “two mechanisms”.
    2  Review and Prospect of China’s Grain Storage Science and Technology Development in the New Century
    WU Zi-dan
    2023, 31(5):9-18.
    [Abstract](57) [HTML](0) [PDF 557.89 K](332)
    Abstract:
    Since the beginning of this century, there has been an acceleration in the scientific theory, study approaches and application technology research and development in the field of grain storage in China. This paper provides an overview of national grain storage science and technology development in the last century, and introduces new developments that have occurred this century. The progress of grain storage technology has been reviewed and prospected from three aspects, micro and macro dimension, as well as through dual-driven AI. In the micro dimension, there has been progress made in understanding grain bulk microorganism mechanism. The basic parameters of grain were researched, followed by the study of characteristics, metabolism, and quality laws for grain seeds, stored grain pests, and microorganisms, using biological science methods such as molecular biology, genetic engineering, proteomics, and metabolomics. Then, the basic parameters, characteristics, metabolism and quality laws for grain seeds, stored grain pests and microorgan-isms were studied, using biological science methods such as molecular biology, genetic engineering, proteomics and metabolomics. Additionally, methods for preventing and controlling mycotoxins in grain bulk were explored, leading to new achievements in these fields. In the macro dimension, interactions between environmental factors in grain storage and macro-level studies were conducted based on the theory of grain storage ecology. The achievements have been introduced based on grain bulk multi-fields between grain biological fields and its multi-physical fields. Furthermore, in the research area of the artificial intelligence (AI) in grain field, some new achievements have been reached through the theory of dual-driven AI for mechanism and data. In conclusion, the progress in grain technology was analyzed and prospects for the future were put forward. Finally, the development prospects are proposed by summarizing the progress of grain technology. At the level of development strategy, it is necessary to improve the management abilities of grain circulation system through science and technology, including the supervision technology of grain safety storage, the quality control and traceability of whole grain chains, and the sustainable development ability of grain industry. The major grain science and technology challenge and grain industry technology bottleneck will be continued to carry out. At the level of scientific theory and methods, theoretical innovation and technology iteration will be promoted through the advantages of ‘technology translation’ and interdisciplinary breakthrough benefits, with the ultimate goal of creating a highway of grain storage science and technology in China.
    3  Research on the Storage Scale and Application Technology of Grain Categorized Warehouse
    XU Yong-an YAN Xiao-ping WANG Zhong-ming
    2023, 31(5):19-24.
    [Abstract](45) [HTML](0) [PDF 358.32 K](163)
    Abstract:
    Bulk grain categorized storage, is a modern grain storage technology with the aims to meet the requirements of optimal purchase, storage, and sales, guided by grain usage and quality control. The increase of high-quality grain supply represents the development direction of refined management in grain storage. The determination of the storage capacity of a single warehouse is directly related to the types, grain varieties, uses of grain, and quality control technology in the process of discharging the warehouse. Based on the analysis of the grain storage use, the problems existing in the sales and the acceptance capacity of customers, it is addressed that the size of the grain storage single warehouse for different grain varieties and different uses should be matched with the acceptance capacity of the sales destination. Under the existing technical conditions, the relevant opinions and suggestions were preliminary proposed on the appropriate single warehouse capacity scale, which could match the customer acceptance capacity, the grain storage quality control technology and the research on grain warehouse type.
    4  Research on Intelligent Control Method of Grain Drying Based on LSTM-MPC
    JIN Yi XIE Hui-huang YIN Jun ZHANG Zhong-jie
    2023, 31(5):25-34.
    [Abstract](60) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.31 M](230)
    Abstract:
    The current control methods in the grain drying process mainly focus on ensuring uniform moisture content, energy saving, and emission reduction. However, precise control of drying quality remains a bottleneck problem. To address issues such as strong coupling, nonlinearity, and difficult quality control in the grain drying process, this paper proposes the utilization of long and short-term memory neural network (LSTM) coupled with model predictive control (MPC) based on previous studies. This combined controller was applied to regulate the grain drying process according to a reference diagram for high-quality rice targeted regulation during the drying process. The simulation environment was used to compare the control accuracy of these two controllers. The effectiveness of system control was evaluated through continuous rice drying tests conducted both before and after the incorporation of the process reference diagram. Results demonstrate that compared to conventional PID controller, the LSTM-MPC controller exhibits stronger robustness and faster response speed. Furthermore, by incorporating the process reference diagram into control decisions, visualization of the drying process quality index can be achieved while significantly improving overall drying quality levels.
    5  The Progress on the Control of Stored Grain Pests by Cheyletus malaccensis
    WU Yi
    2023, 31(5):35-41.
    [Abstract](42) [HTML](0) [PDF 6.28 M](185)
    Abstract:
    Green ecological control of stored grain pests is one of the important tasks to promote green grain storage. Predator mite control of stored grain pests is a biological control technology that employs ecological factors to suppress the population of stored grain pests. Cheyletus malaccensis control the pest populations by feeding on the eggs and larvae of insect pests and mites. As Cheyletus malaccensis is the dominant predatory mites in Chinese grain warehouse, it has several advantages, including wide distribution, large quantity, significant quantities, a broad predation spectrum, and high predation levels. This paper briefly described the control technique for stored grain pests by C. malaccensis and the advantages of control by C. malaccensis based on our team's researches in recent years. In addition, low-cost and convenient artificial propagation and release technologies have been developed. These methods are non-polluting, residue-free and are effective in preventing resistance within warehouse applications. This paper provides guidance for the green, ecological and safe stored grain pests comprehensive control and for reduced application of chemical pesticides.
    6  Simulation Study on Long-Lasting Effectiveness of S-Methoprene on Tribolium Species and Activity of Detoxification Enzyme
    LI Yan-yu HU Tie-yuan JIANG Xue XIE Bing-bing WANG Sen-shan SONG Li-wen ZHANG Hong-qing MU Hai-liang WANG Ming-liang
    2023, 31(5):42-52.
    [Abstract](31) [HTML](0) [PDF 1012.88 K](171)
    Abstract:
    In view of the prevailing insecticide resistance and increasing safety and health concerns, there is an urgent need to develop effective and environmentally friendly methods to control stored-product pests. S-methoprene, a microbial volatile compound with insecticidal properties, has been identified as a potential candidate for this purpose. However, its efficacy against storage pests is not well understood. In this study, wheat was treated with S-methoprene at a rate of 5 mg/kg and stored in ambient conditions within a grain bin. Samples were collected after 90 and 365 days, and bioassays were conducted on 20 mixed-sex developmental stages of Tribolium castaneum and T. confusum. S-methoprene showed significant ovicidal, pupicidal, and adulticidal activity against T. castaneum and T. confusum. The efficacy of S-methoprene was found to be influenced by the developmental stage of the pests and the timing of its application. In the 90-day treatment group, the hatching rate of three T. castaneum strains was zero, while that of T. confusum strains from Guangdong and Beijing was (1.67±2.04)% and 0%, respectively. S-methoprene treatment in the 90-day group resulted in effective pupicidal activity against both T. castaneum and T. confusum, with the F1 generation of adults being unable to reproduce. However, in the 365-day treatment group, the pupicidal activity significantly decreased, and the F1 generation of adults were able to reproduce but their F1 generation pupae can not hatch. The adulticidal activity of both pests had some effects in both treatments, but the mortality rate significantly decreased in the 365-day treatment group. The F1 generation of T. castaneum only consisted of larvae, while some larvae of T. confusum were able to pupate but could not further develop into adults. T. castaneum was found to be more susceptible to S-methoprene than T. confusum. After S-met hoprene induction, the activity of three detoxification enzymes in Tribolium species was affected in varying degrees and had different variation patterns. The activity was positively correlated with induction time.
    7  The Research Progress on Moisture Content of Grain Safe Storage
    TANG Fang FU Peng-cheng ZHANG Hai-yang QI Zhi-hui TIAN Lin LEI Yu-qing
    2023, 31(5):53-60.
    [Abstract](79) [HTML](0) [PDF 562.48 K](281)
    Abstract:
    In recent years, with the implementation of grain safety engineering and high-quality grain engineering, grain storage enterprises have carried out research and application of multiple green grain storage technologies such as air conditioning temperature control, grain cooling temperature control and humidity control, internal circulation moisture and temperature control, controlled atmosphere, and comprehensive pest and mold prevention and control based on different regional climate conditions and the storage variety, storage scale, and enterprises processing. These efforts have effectively improved the level of grain storage safety guarantee in China. The safety of grain storage is closely related to moisture content. High moisture content in the grain may cause mold growth or even hotspots, which can endanger the safety of grain storage. On the other hand, low moisture may affect the quality of food consumption and processing. Thus, it is crucial to establish a scientifically and reasonably determined safe storage moisture content of grain under the premise of ensuring the safety of grain storage. This will effectively promote the “green warehousing improvement action” and help save grain to reduce losses. This paper focused on the research process of grain safe storage of moisture in China after more than a decade of research and expert argumentation, key indicators and detection methods that affect the safe storage of grain moisture have been determined, as well as the criteria for determining the safe storage of grain moisture content, in combination with the actual storage situation at home and abroad. Research on the safe storage of grain moisture content in conventional storage and temperature-controlled storage has been systematically carried out, and the relationships between grain moisture content and temperature have been established. The threshold for safe storage of grain moisture content in the region under the new situation has been proposed, which could provide technological support for the formulation of green grain storage related standards.
    8  Development and Its Prospect of Grain Processing Field in Academy of National Food and Strategic Reserves Administration in the Last 30 Years
    TAN Bin ZHAI Xiao-tong
    2023, 31(5):61-72.
    [Abstract](43) [HTML](0) [PDF 577.53 K](230)
    Abstract:
    On the occasion of the 30th anniversary for the publication of “Science and Technology of Cereals, oils and Foods”, the development and achievements in the field of grain processing of the Academy of National Food and Strategic Reserves Administration (Academy of NFSRA) in the past 30 years are recorded and summarized. Four content are described. Firstly, the development of grain processing field in China since the 1990’s was reviewed. Secondly, the important achievements and the contributions for promoting the development of this area from the Academy of NFSRA in the past 30 years were summarized. In terms of the policy suggestions, scientific and technological innovation and standard leading, Academy of NFSRA promoted the extension of Chinese grain processing chain from primary processing to food processing in the 1990s. During the 10th and 11th “Five Year Plan”, it supported the improvement of Chinese food supply security capacity. Since the 11th “Five Year Plan”, it has focused on the nutritional and healthy grain food processing field via the health grain food studies on miscellaneous grains and whole grains, which has strongly promoted the upgrading of Chinese grain processing industry. Thirdly, the challenges and opportunities of grain processing area in China in the new period were analyzed in the context of ensuring national food security and public nutrition and health. In addition, further outlook to the key points of work and mission of the Academy of NFSRA in grain processing field was discussed in response to the strategic layout of China. As the only national public institution for scientific research in the grain industry of China, the Academy of NFSRA will further strengthen the scientific and technological innovation, standard system construction, popularization and promotion in the area of whole grains. This may be beneficial to assist in the construction of Healthy China as well as food saving and loss reduction, and promote the high-quality development of the Chinese grain processing industry.
    9  Effect of freezing temperature on re-steaming quality and component properties of frozen whole wheat steamed bread
    WANG Li-ping WU Yuan-ning LI Xiao-ning TAN Bin
    2023, 31(5):73-82.
    [Abstract](28) [HTML](0) [PDF 7.00 M](184)
    Abstract:
    The effects of different freezing temperatures (–20 ℃, –40 ℃, –80 ℃) on the re-steaming quality and component properties of frozen whole wheat steamed bread with different whole wheat flour replacement rates (30%, 50%, 100%) were analyzed. The results showed that the specific volume retention of the re-steamed whole wheat steamed bread was higher and the texture quality of the re-steamed whole wheat steamed bread was better with the lower freezing temperature and the faster freezing speed. Freezing temperature had no significant effect on the height/diameter ratio of frozen steamed bread with different whole wheat flour replacement rate. At –20 ℃, the hardness of frozen steamed bread with different whole wheat flour replacement rate was significantly higher than that of fresh steamed bread after re-steaming. At –80 ℃, the hardness of steamed breads is similar to that of fresh steamed bread after re-steaming. With the decrease of freezing temperature, the starch gelatinization enthalpy of frozen whole wheat steamed bread was lower, and the index value of starch gelatinization characteristics of 100% frozen whole wheat steamed bread was similar to that of fresh steamed bread, 30% and 50% whole wheat steamed bread were closer to that of fresh steamed buns at –40 ℃ freezing temperature. The lower the extractability of gluten protein was in frozen steamed buns at lower freezing temperature, the smaller the damage of gluten protein structure was. The damage to the internal microstructure of whole wheat steamed buns was smaller at lower freezing temperature, and its quality was closer to that of fresh steamed buns. In short, the lower freezing temperature is conducive to keeping the better quality of whole wheat steamed buns. To provide basis and reference for frozen whole wheat steamed buns processing and quality improvement.
    10  The Current Progress in Research on the Mechanism and Control Techniques of Quality Deterioration of Fresh Brown Rice Noodles
    WU Na-na QIAO Cong-cong TIAN Xiao-hong TAN Bin
    2023, 31(5):83-92.
    [Abstract](27) [HTML](0) [PDF 3.96 M](179)
    Abstract:
    Whole grains have gained great attention due to their important roles in nutrition and health. Fresh brown rice noodles, which have been considered as a nutritious and healthy whole grain staple food, are more prone to be spoiling, aging, hardening and easy broken with high cooking loss rate. The factors affecting the quality of fresh brown rice noodles were systematically described, and the changes in water content, pH value, cooking quality, water migration, texture and microstructure of fresh brown rice noodles during storage were also summarized. The mechanism of quality deterioration of fresh brown rice noodles was elaborated and analyzed. Furthermore, the latest research progress (from the year 2016 to 2023) on the quality control technology of fresh brown rice noodles was reviewed, including the selection of raw materials for brown rice, the addition of exogenous additives, the whole grain grinding of brown rice, and the backfilling method of rice bran for preparing brown rice noodles. This review could provide the references for the quality control and improvement of fresh brown rice noodles.
    11  Effects of Different Sprouted Degrees on the Quality of Whole Wheat Bread
    GAO Kun WEI Min WANG Li-ping LI Xiao-ning TAN Bin
    2023, 31(5):93-100.
    [Abstract](39) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.96 M](175)
    Abstract:
    The sprouted degree had a great effect on the edible quality of whole wheat bread. This study investigated the morphological changes of sprouted wheat with the different sprouted degree. The effect of whole wheat flour from whole wheat with different sprouted degree on the quality characteristics of whole wheat bread were assessed, including the specific volume, weight loss rate, color, moisture content, texture quality and sensory quality. The addition of sprouted whole wheat flour (50% and 100%) in whole wheat bread was investigated. The results showed that the quality of whole wheat bread was significantly improved by controlling the sprouted degree of whole wheat flour (revealing stage) compared with the unsprouted group. This study aimed at providing reference for realizing precision control production and product application development of sprouted whole wheat as raw materials, which could provide an important guidance for the future development, and high value utilization of sprouted whole wheat.
    12  Research and Prospect on Quality Evaluation Standards of Oilseeds and Oils in China
    DUAN Zhang-qun XYE Ya-lin
    2023, 31(5):101-109.
    [Abstract](29) [HTML](0) [PDF 554.93 K](227)
    Abstract:
    The team of oil chemistry and processing technology from Academy of National Food and Strategic Reserves Administration (Academy of NFSRA) has made great contributions to the research and establishment of the quality evaluation standard for main oilseeds and oils in China. A series of standards have been developed or revised based on: (1) investigation and quality analysis of main oilseeds varieties in China, (2) tracking and referencing the development trend of international standards and advanced foreign standards, (3) database of oilseeds qualities and processing formed through undertaking the national and industrial research projects, (4) establishment of the inspection techniques and evaluation methods for vegetable oil qualities. Accordingly, the quality standard systems for oilseeds and oils have been improved, and the processing technology levels have been promoted. The sound and rapid development of industries happened because the market has run in a more and more standardized way. All the standards of oilseeds and oils have served the economic construction generally, and are also providing technical support for safeguarding national interests and the safety of the oil industry.
    13  Review and Prospect of Oil Chemistry and Processing Technology Research in Academy of National Food and Strategic Reserves Administration
    LUAN Xia ZHU Ying-dan ZHAO Ying-nan DUAN Zhang-qun
    2023, 31(5):110-117.
    [Abstract](42) [HTML](0) [PDF 491.89 K](195)
    Abstract:
    On the occasion of the 30th anniversary of the journal “Science and Technology of Cereals, Oils and Foods”, this paper summarized the development and prospects in the field of oil chemistry and processing technology in Academy of National Food and Strategic Reserves Administration (Academy of NFSRA) over the past 30 years. This scientific research carried out by the Academy of NFSRA in the field of oil chemistry and processing technology over the past 30 years and its outstanding contributions to promoting the development of the industry were also reviewed. According to the development strategy under the new situation of China, the highlighted work in the field of oil chemistry and processing technology was summarized, and the new opportunities and challenges faced by the field of oil chemistry and processing technology research was further prospected.
    14  Profile Analysis of Free Lipids and Starch Binding Lipids in Rice Based on High Resolution Mass Spectrometry
    ZHANG Dong HUANG Shan-shan DUAN Xiao-liang SUN Hui
    2023, 31(5):118-125.
    [Abstract](34) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.54 M](166)
    Abstract:
    Four varieties in Northeast China rice were used as research materials, and starch bound lipids and free lipids in the rice were detected based on high-resolution mass spectrometry. A total of 371 types of free lipids (including glycerol phospholipids, glycerol esters, ceramides, and fatty acids) and 14 types of starch bound lipids (phospholipids) were detected from the four varieties of rice. The partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) results showed that the four different varieties of rice grains can be distinguished by starch bound lipids and free lipids. The results of this study provide technical support for revealing the lipid composition and lipid analysis of rice.
    15  Study on Controllable Preparation Technology of Edible Starch/Guar Gum Composite Nanofiber Delivery Carrier
    YANG Wei-qiao  WANG Wen-juan  ZHAO Ru-xia  ZHANG Zhi-hang DUAN Xiao-liang
    2023, 31(5):126-132.
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.27 M](168)
    Abstract:
    The use of electrospinning technology to construct edible nano-delivery carriers has been one of the most important way to improve the utilize efficiency of novel localized drugs or food active components. However, it is still challenging to develop nanofibers with natural polymers due to many problems such as the toxicity of organic reagent and difficulty in forming the nanostructure. In this study, natural plant polysaccharide guar gum (guar gum,GG) were selected as the fiber forming substrate to co-load corn starch(starch,ST), and successfully developed a edible GG/ST composite nanofiber delivery carrier. The results showed that the minimum molecular entanglement concentration of GG as a fiber forming matrix was 1.1 wt%. A series of GG/ST composite solution were prepared (4∶1, 2∶1, 1∶1, and 1∶4). Through static and dynamic rheological testing of GG/ST solution and characterization of fiber microstructure, it was found that the ratio of GG/ST at 2∶1 was the optimal concentration to obtain the uniform and smooth fiber nanostructure. When the ST content is 5w%~10w%, beaded fiber morphology in the structure and unnormal distribution of diameter was observed, and electrospinning process had little effect on the improvement of the fiber structure. This study provide a support for developing edible nano carriers and offered a basis for developing targeted drugs or functional foods in the future.
    16  Effect of Brown Rice and Whole Wheat on Gut Microbiota and Lipid Metabolism in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats
    WANG Yong SONG Ge PANG Shao-jie QI Wen-tao
    2023, 31(5):133-141.
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](0) [PDF 3.87 M](170)
    Abstract:
    为评价糙米和全麦对肠道菌群及脂代谢的调节作用,以 SPF 级 SD 大鼠为研究对象,随机分为 6 组,每组 12 只,包括空白对照组、糙米组、全麦组、高脂模型组、糙米高脂组、全麦高脂组,实验周期为 12 周。实验结束后对大鼠血清生化指标、肝脏和结肠组织病理学指标及结肠微生物多样性进行检测分析。结果表明,糙米可降低高脂饮食诱导的大鼠体质量增加,并降低血清总胆固醇(Total cholesterol,TC)和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol,LDL-C)水平,缓解结肠组织炎细胞浸润(P<0.05)。全麦降低大鼠血清游离脂肪酸(Free fatty acid,FFA)水平并抑制肝脏脂质蓄积(P<0.05)。在正常饮食组中,糙米可降低结肠内厚壁菌门/拟杆菌门比值,并增加布劳特氏菌属(Blautia)和乳杆(Lactobacillus)
    17  Effects of Fat and Carbohydrate Energy Supply Ratio on Fat Metabolism and Intestinal Microbiota in Rats
    WANG Wei-wei YANG Ying WANG Li SONG Dan LI Ai-ke
    2023, 31(5):142-151.
    [Abstract](28) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.13 M](166)
    Abstract:
    The proportions of fat and carbohydrate in diet have an important impact on lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism and health. On the premise of consistent dietary available energy (metabolic energy), the effects of different fat and carbohydrates energy supply ratios in diet on fat metabolism and gut microbiota were studied. Sixty-four 9-weeks-old SPF grade male SD rats aged 9 weeks were randomly divided into 4 groups including: HFf group (energy supply ratio of fat to carbohydrate (F/C) 40% : 45%), MFf group (F/C 31% : 54%), LFf group (F/C 21% : 64%) and CON group (control diet). The results showed that there were no significant differences in body weight, blood glucose, blood lipid and liver steatosis among all groups (P > 0.05). The liver triglyceride and abdominal adiponectin of HFf group were significantly higher than those of the other three groups (P < 0.05). Compared to the CON group, the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) gene expression in the liver of HFf group decreased, while the expressions of lipid synthesis genes, fatty acid transporter (FAT/CD36), sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP1), and adipocyte differentiation gene peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ) increased in HFf group (P < 0.05). Compared with CON group, the cholesterol synthesis factor hydroxymethylglutarate monoacyl CoA (HMG-CoA) gene expression in the liver of HFf, MFf and LFf groups were all increased (P < 0.05). In addition, the higher dietary F/C (40% : 45% and 30% : 55%) resulted in impaired gut villi development, which led to decreasing abundance of beneficial bacteria but increasing abundance of potentially pathogenic bacteria. In conclusion, under the same dietary available energy, although the diet of the high-fat group contained a high proportion of fat, it also contained a high content of cellulose, which effectively alleviated the weight gain and blood glucose and lipid abnormalities caused by the high-fat diet. However, there were still symptoms such as increased liver fat and impaired intestinal health, and the F/C in the diet of rats should not exceed 30%. This provides a theoretical reference for the appropriate proportion of macronutrients in the diet.
    18  Research Progress on the Application of Biotechnology in Value-added Conversion of Grain, Oil and Feed Resources
    WANG Yong-wei SHI Jing-jing DUAN Tao HE Bei-bei LIU Kuan-bo WANG Li LI Ai-ke
    2023, 31(5):152-159.
    [Abstract](33) [HTML](0) [PDF 545.03 K](164)
    Abstract:
    The shortage of high-quality protein feed resources has become an important variable affecting food security in China. Grain and oil processing by-products are abundant in China, but the feeding value is low. If these resources are processed through modern biotechnology, such as biofermentation, enzymolysis technology or synthetic biology, their quality and efficiency will be improved and can be used to replace the soybean meal. This paper summarized the production process, feed value and its application in soybean mealreplacement of fermented feed, enzymolysis feed and microbial protein feed, and also introduced the research progress of microbial adsorption, degradation, or enzymes on removing mycotoxins, finally put forward the research prospect of development, industrialization application, standard establishment, and industry supervision for biological fermentation feed. This paper can provide guidance for the application of biotechnology in grain and oil feed resources.
    19  Preparation and Application of Aflatoxin B1 Single Sample Pretreatment Kit Based on Aptamer Affinity Magnetic Beads
    LIU Hong-mei SHEN Wen-jie XUAN Zhi-hong NI Bao-xia SHI Ya-kun YE Jin
    2023, 31(5):160-169.
    [Abstract](37) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.53 M](163)
    Abstract:
    In this study, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) aptamers were covalently coupled on the surface of magnetic beads to prepare aptamer affinity magnetic beads (AAMBs). Furthermore, the AAMBs, incubation solution, washing solution and eluate were pre-encapsulated in reagent strips to develop a single sample pretreatment kit of AFB1. The automatic pretreatment of AFB1 was realized through the automatic mycotoxin purifier. The content of AFB1 in the eluate was determined by ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). The preparation conditions of AAMB and the use conditions of AFB1 single sample pretreatment kit were determined by optimizing the particle size of magnetic beads, the indirect arm length of aptamer, the amount of AAMB, and the volume of incubation solution. Recoveries was compared by manual and automatic pretreatment methods. Under the optimized conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) was 25 pg/mL, and the spiked recoveries at low, medium and high levels in corn and wheat ranged from 92.8% to 110.1%, with the relative standard deviation (RSD) of intra-day precision less than 5.1% and the RSD of 6.7% in term of inter-day precision, which showed good sensitivity, accuracy and repeatability. The results of AFB1 in the national certified reference materials of grain and oil substrates (corn, brown rice, peanut oil and peanut butter) were within their extended uncertainty range. The single sample pretreatment kit developed could automatically complete the pretreatment of 10 samples within 20 min with the aid of mycotoxin automated purification instrument. This method has the advantages of short time, high throughput, small batch-to-batch variation and no need of cold chain storage and transportation. It has a good application prospect in the quantitative detection of mycotoxins, and could lay a foundation for the development of automatic pretreatment methods for other targets.
    20  Accurate Determination of Aflatoxin in Grains and Oils use Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Purified by Automatic Solid Phase Extraction Instrument and Quantified by Fully 13C-Labelled Internal Standards
    YE Jin LIU Tong-tong LUO Li-juan WU Yu LI Li WANG Song-xue
    2023, 31(5):170-178.
    [Abstract](14) [HTML](0) [PDF 628.79 K](149)
    Abstract:
    An UPLC Quadrupole Orbitrap high resolution mass Spectrometry method for accurate quantification of aflatoxins in grains and oils was established, which were purified by automatic immunoaffinity column. The sample was extracted with 84/16(V/V) acetonitrile/water and centrifuged. The supernatant was diluted 10 times with 0.1% PBST. Aflatoxin immunoaffinity column without background and recovery greater than 90% was chosen for purification automatically. UPLC-Quadrupole Orbitrap HRMS was used for quantitative analysis. Results showed that recoveries for aflatoxins were 84.7%~104.6%. The intra-day relative standard deviations were 1.7%~9.4%, and the intra-day precision were 0.7%~8.4%. The developed method can minimize the workload, improve work efficiency and avoid the result deviation caused by operation manually. It is suitable for the accurate determination of aflatoxins in grains and oils, and meet the requirement of the daily test and monitoring aflatoxins.
    21  Identification and Biochemical Characterization of a PQQ-dependent Deoxynivalenol (DON) Dehydrogenase
    WANG Yang ZHAO Dong-lei WANG Nan-xi YANG Yong-tan GUO Bao-yuan
    2023, 31(5):179-187.
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.83 M](185)
    Abstract:
    Deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination in cereals and cereal products has the potential to pose a threat to human health. The biodetoxification technique, which uses biological enzymes to transform mycotoxins into less toxic product, is an environmentally friendly and highly effective approach to detoxifying mycotoxins. In this study, a gene designated adh2, encoding DON detoxifying enzyme, was identified by homology search from the genome sequence of DON-detoxifying strain Devosia sp. FJ2-5-3. Subsequently. The adh2 gene was cloned and expressed. Then, the enzymatic properties of its encoding enzyme was further characterized. The results showed that the length of the adh2 gene in Devosia sp. FJ2-5-3 was 1770 bp and the encoded ADH2 enzyme consisted of 589 amino acids, with a signal peptide of 24 amino acids length present at the N-terminus and belonging to type I of the PQQ-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase family (Type I PQQ-ADH). The enzyme exhibited the optimal activity at pH 9 and a temperature of 35 °C, and it retained over 50% of enzyme activity after incubation at 65 ℃ for 4 hours, indicating its good thermal stability. In addition, Ca2+ was found to be an essential cofactor for ADH2, while both 1% of ethanol and isopropanol showed significant inhibitory effects on its activity. The Km and Kcat values of ADH2 for DON were 708.00±47.01 μg/mL and 3.37±0.11 S–1, respectively. These results could provide reference information for the subsequent industrial application of DON detoxification enzymes.
    22  Development, Application and Prospects of Matrix Reference Materials for Grain and Oil
    ZHOU Ming-hui WU Yan-xiang LI Li LI Peng WANG Song-xue
    2023, 31(5):188-195.
    [Abstract](35) [HTML](0) [PDF 645.03 K](159)
    Abstract:
    Grain and oil matrix reference materials are commonly used in the evaluation of analysis methods, capability verification, and quality control of laboratory analysis and testing processes, due to the consistent composition with actual samples. They play irreplaceable roles in ensuring the accuracy and reliability of test results and are important “measuring instruments” in the field of analysis. In recent years, the domestic and international development status, types, and typical applications of reference materials for grain and oil matrices were reviewed in this paper. Based on the analysis of the main problems existing in this field,the demand and trend of the RMs for grain and oil matrices were prospected,which can provide more meaningful reference for the future research on grain and oil RMs
    23  Review, Latest Progress, and Future Direction of Grain Logistics Development in China
    JI Liu-guo QIN Bo LIU Cheng-long LYU Chao ZHANG Lu LIU Jie ZHENG Mo-li
    2023, 31(5):197-203.
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](0) [PDF 442.42 K](170)
    Abstract:
    The world today is experiencing a great change that has not happened in a century. China ispromoting the construction of a new development pattern with domestic systemic circulation as the main body and domestic and international double cycles promoting each other. Ensuring national food security has new historical characteristics. Grain logistics connects grain production, circulation, and consumption, as well as highly integrates transportation, warehousing, deconsolidation, distribution, information and other service functions. It plays a leading, fundamental, and strategic role in building a modern grain circulation system, and is of great significance for ensuring national food security, maintaining the safety and stability of the grain industry supply chain, and accelerating the high-quality development of the grain industry. This article reviewed the development of grain logistics in China, and analyzed the prominent problems by comparing the latest progress of grain logistics industry with foreign grain logistics research. It proposed the development priorities and recommendations for China's grain logistics, including improving the layout of grain logistics facilities, developing grain logistics nodes and parks, improving the technical level of diversified grain logistics, optimizing multimodal transport connection and logistics control technology, accelerating the upgrading of technical equipment, leading intelligent technology, promoting food logistics standards, improving supporting policies, and accelerating talent training. These results could provide useful references for innovation in grain logistics technology and equipment, optimization of logistics systems, construction of logistics facilities, and formulation of national food security policies.
    24  The Current Status and Development Trend on High Efficiency Grain Intermodality Connection
    XING Yong QIU Ping
    2023, 31(5):204-207.
    [Abstract](14) [HTML](0) [PDF 333.90 K](187)
    Abstract:
    This article reviewed the development status and existing problems of the technology, equipment and management mode of multimodal grain logistics in terms of efficient connection and standardized operations, environmental protection and high efficiency, quality assurance and loss reduction, quality control, circulation supervision, and information fusion. It is also proposed the research on technology and equipment for the efficient connection of bulk grain multimodal transportation and environmental protection loss reduction, quality supervision of multimodal transportation of finished grains and intelligent and efficient loading and unloading, quality control of multimodal transportation and integrated quality supervision in the future. The technical development trend of the research on the efficient connection technology system of grain multimodal transportation based on the national comprehensive three-dimensional transportation network was carried out, and the innovative direction of the research on related technologies, equipment, andmanagement models was also suggested.
    25  International Experience in the Management to Reduce Food Loss and Waste and Its Enlightenment to China
    LI Teng-fei
    2023, 31(5):208-216.
    [Abstract](31) [HTML](0) [PDF 511.52 K](165)
    Abstract:
    Food loss and waste is a global problem, and there are significant differences in the governance models of mangement to reduce food loss and waste among different countries. This paper analyzed the theoretical basis for opposing food loss and waste in various countries, and summarized into three types. Firstly, food loss and waste cause a huge burden on resources and environment. Secondly, food loss and waste cause huge lossness social and financial lossless. Thirdly, food loss and waste leads to a decrease in the self-sufficiency rate of food security. Based on these analysis, it is believed that there are three typical governance models in the worldwide, namely the sustainable development of European countries, the public wealth management model of American, and the resources and security model formed by Japan and Republic
    26  Practical Exploration of Promoting High-quality Development of Enterprises with Scientific and Technological Innovation
    SHI Cui-xia ZHANG Yue XIE Gang
    2023, 31(5):217-221.
    [Abstract](26) [HTML](0) [PDF 458.83 K](150)
    Abstract:
    With the forward pace of national modernization, the core position of science and technology innovation has become increasingly prominent. High-tech enterprises should take the needs of the country and the industry as their responsibility and adhere to the development driven by technological innovation. By giving full play to their own advantages, including building innovation platforms, focusing on independent scientific and technological innovation, paying attention to intellectual property protection, upholding an open attitude to seek win-win cooperation with the outside world, promoting the process of technology standardization, and really working hard to explore a road of scientific and technological innovation to help the high-quality development of enterprises, innovation-driven scientific and technological progress and enterprise development resonate at the same frequency created good social value.
    27  Research on Supply Pattern Changes and Future Demand of Global Cobalt Ore
    ZHOU Yuan-yuan ZHAO Zi-ming
    2023, 31(5):222-228.
    [Abstract](30) [HTML](0) [PDF 810.66 K](166)
    Abstract:
    The global supply of cobalt ore was highly dependent on the Congo (Kinshasa). In 2022, Congo (Kinshasa)’s production accounted for about 72% of the world’s output, with the main focusing on mining high-grade copper cobalt ore in the open air. After 2020, the production of cobalt from intermediate products in Indonesia’s nickel hydrometallurgy continued to increase, accounting for 6% in 2022. The global cobalt consumption structure is mainly in the fields of batteries and high-temperature alloys, with a combined production of about 83% in 2022. According to our prediction, the global demand for cobalt will reach 249500 tons by 2030, and after 2023, the global supply of cobalt ore will reach over 250000 tons. In the future, the global supply of cobalt ore will be able to meet consumers’ demand.
    28  Review of the Development of Science and Technology of Cereals, Oils and Foods in the Past 30 Years
    LI Si-yuan TAN Hong-zhuo YOU Meng-chen
    2023, 31(5):229-235.
    [Abstract](16) [HTML](0) [PDF 413.35 K](148)
    Abstract:
    文化传承是一本期刊可持续发展的精神谱系和生命源泉,本文以《粮油食品科技》(以下简 称“本刊”)为例,以创刊历史的发展脉络为根基,划分酝酿期(1991—1992 年)、初长期(1993—1996 年)、成熟期(1997—2018 年)和新发展时期(2019 年至今)四个阶段,回顾了本刊在我国 30 多年 的社会时代变迁与科研体制改革中的重要表现和成长进步。通过梳理创刊发展历程与办刊经验,概述 了本刊在运行特点、办刊特色上取得的阶段性成果和实质性进展,总结凝练了历史贡献、耕耘收获, 为本刊继续发扬优良传统、促进品牌文化建设奠定重要基石,推动期刊发展迈上新台阶,也为同行期 刊梳理历史发展提供参考借鉴。
    29  Analysis of the Comprehensive Influence of Science and Technology of Cereals, Oils and Foods in the Past 10 Years
    YOU Meng-chen LI Si-yuan TAN Hong-zhuo
    2023, 31(5):236-243.
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.42 M](163)
    Abstract:
    Through the research on academic, social and industrial influences of Science and technology of cereals, oils and foods, focusing on the situation of journal manuscripts, academic influence indicators, new media indicators and industrial influence indicators, this papre systematically analyzed 17 items including the structure and number of papers, downloads and citations, publishing timeliness, WeChat and official website operation, authors and distribution groups, domestic and foreign media attention, database inclusion and awards, et al, which were collected from the past 11 years and new media since its establishment. The practical effects of the journal's reform measures from multiple dimensions since 2019 have beencomprehensively verified and objectively evaluated, which grasped the development trend of the journal. These analysis could provide a data reference for adjustment the focus of journal work, optimization reform measures, improvement the quality of journals, expansion academic influence and enhancement the status of disciplines.
    30  Exploring Practice of the Characteristic Development Route of Chinese Science and Technology Journals in the New Era ——Taking Science and Technology of Cereals, Oils and Foods as an Example
    TAN Hong-zhuo
    2023, 31(5):244-253.
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](0) [PDF 474.96 K](169)
    Abstract:
    Considering the development dilemma of general Chinese science and technology journals faced, and combining with the development trends of Chinese journals in new era, the reforming of Science and Technology of Cereals, Oils and Foods was taken as an example to introduce its route of exploring featuresaccording to itself situation. At first, we needed to raise the political standing, and deeply understood President Xi Jinping’s important instruction guide spirit about Chinese science and technology journals, and the main direction and practice of national policy files related to journal development. Second, it’s important to grasp the ideology, and strengthen the political, mission and innovation consciousness. It is necessary to find the journal’s correct positioning, and firmly hold the journal position of the correct public opinion orientation. Third, it’s key to use consciousness guide action, integrate political theory into reforming practices, and combine layout and idea into supporting measures. As a result, the reforming practices generated unique internationalization, special column and visual features of the journal and largely improved academic and industry influences, due to the condition support from internal and external circumstances. Finally, it is discussed that Chinese science and technology journals should discard “examination-oriented education”, pursue all-around development of “quality education”, and strive to achieve self-reliance and self-improvement, with a firm cultural confidence to take the road of characteristic development. This paper is for displaying a trial of a kind of thought and route to run the journal, and for providing a reference case to assist construction of strong nation for Chinese science and technology journal.

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