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Volume 31,Issue 2,2023 Table of Contents

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  • 1  The digital intelligence method for stored grain supervision based on mechanism and data(Online First, Recommended Article)
    WU Wen-fu Wuyunshandan CHEN Kai CUI Hong-wei ZHANG Zhong-jie YIN Jun XU Qi-keng WU Xiao-ming
    2023, 31(2):11-17.
    [Abstract](65) [HTML](0) [PDF 6.68 M](337)
    The supervision of grain reserves is a major event of national food security. China has built the largest grain internet of things in the world. Although there are still have some problems such as low data quality, low utilization rate, and serious information islands, it still provides a basis for conducting digital supervision on grain reserves. On the basis of studying the multi-fields coupling and biological theory in stored grain ecosystems, the author team proposed the continuity, periodicity and coordination principles of the digital supervision of grain reserves, and further proposed 7 intelligent strategies using the big data analysis of grain situation and the intelligent analysis method of 10 modes of grain storage in the granary. In combination with the application cases of 10 provinces that participated in the policy oriented inventory check of grain reserves organized in 2018, this paper analyzes the principle of digital supervision of grain reserves and 7 intelligent methods, which will accelerate the transformation and large-scale promotion of relevant technological achievements, and accelerating the construction of a high-quality technical system for grain reserves supervision. This digital intelligence method will promote the transformation of grain reserve management from “human management" to "technology management”, and let data play its due role in grain reserve decision-making and management.
    2  The application of the event-correlation management method and its wisdom in the period of grain peri-harvest and storage(Online First, Recommended Article)
    WU Wen-fu ZHANG Na LI Shu-yao WANG Yu-jia HAN Jian MA Yun-zhao
    2023, 31(2):18-26.
    [Abstract](39) [HTML](0) [PDF 3.73 M](311)
    Compared with the advanced and sophisticated industrial production, agriculture and food production appear backward and sloppy, and agricultural production management methods are lacking. The fourth industrial revolution, represented by information technologies such as intelligent perception, Internet of Things, block chain, big data and artificial intelligence, has empowered traditional industries, and agriculture has stepped into a new digital, intelligence and even wisdom, which could provide a new opportunity to improve agricultural production management. Existing agricultural production management research is mostly limited to the study of concept definition, applicable theory and other issues. The development of information technology has built up a low-level Internet of Things with certain coverage, which brings some convenience, but cannot effectively support agricultural management and decision-making due to data silos, data waste, data abuse, data falsification and other thorny issues. From the perspective of top-level design and system management, this paper addressed the problems in the development of smart agriculture, conceptualized the characteristics of the event and natural event chains in the agricultural industry chain. This paper also proposed for the first time an event-correlation management approach and its wisdom strategy. The implementation of the event-correlation method included five aspects, including goal alignment, index systematization, asset linkage, process linkage and effect traceability. The application of the event-correlation management approach and its wisdom in the 5T management standard designation for Jilin rice brand building and the “six-step fresh rice precision control technology” innovation system of Wilmar rice industry have shown that it can improve the culture of rice cultivation, and systematically reduce losses to improve quality and increase economic benefits.
    3  Research and application of average density calculation method for particulate grain silo for grain processing enterprises(Online First, Recommended Article)
    XU Qi-keng LIU Yong-chao YUAN Qing-li WU Qiang ZHOU Zhi-yao WANG Jun-ling HAN Feng
    2023, 31(2):27-32.
    [Abstract](36) [HTML](0) [PDF 620.50 K](219)
    The average density of particulate grain pile is an important parameter for real-time online measurement of grain stock quantity. In order to solve the problem of calculating the average density of particulate grain pile in the inventory of grain processing enterprises, a calculation method for the average density of particulate grain pile in silos was proposed based on the comparison and analysis of the existing methods. Besides, a complete process of grain filling and discharging o f a rice silo was selected to verify the measurement accuracy and practicability of the method. The results shows the method meet the requirements of use. This method is simple, practical, and accurate. In addition, the method overcomes the shortcomings of the existing correction coefficient method and provides technical means for dynamic inventory count in grain processing enterprises.
    4  Research status and progress of dynamic monitoring technology of grain stock quantity(Online First, Recommended Article)
    CHUAI Jun XIANG Peng-fei XU Qi-keng WU Wen-fu YUAN Qing-li WU Qiang LIU Yong-chao ZHOU Zhi-yao
    2023, 31(2):33-40.
    [Abstract](37) [HTML](0) [PDF 6.53 M](324)
    Dynamic monitoring technology of grain inventory quantity has become a new technical demand of grain storage management. On the basis of the current situation of static monitoring technology of grain stock quantity, the difficulties of dynamic monitoring technology were analyzed and put forward. This paper mainly introduced the research progress and application of dynamic inventory quantity monitoring in the development of three-dimensional measuring device, data acquisition and fusion technology of multi- measuring stations of super large grain piles, high precision volume algorithm of irregular grain piles, average density evaluation method of complex heterogeneous grain piles, integrated management software platform and so on. The measurement error of the developed dynamic monitoring system for grain inventory quantity was less than 2%, which meet the application requirements. This new technology provides the technical support for the information management and digital transformation development of grain storage business.
    5  Research and application of portable grain inventory measurement equipment(Online First, Recommended Article)
    XU Qi-keng ZHOU Xiao-jun WU Qiang YUAN Qing-li LIU Yong-chao WU Wen-fu ZHOU Zhi-yao
    2023, 31(2):41-46.
    [Abstract](58) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.29 M](240)
    In order to improve the information and intelligent technology level of the national policy grain inventory, the portable grain inventory measurement equipment was developed by comprehensive application of modern technologies such as photoelectric detection, integrated circuit, software development, and mathematical modeling. On the basis of functional requirement analysis, the overall technical route of equipment research and development is formulated. The key problems and solutions such as high-precision measuring equipment and integrated control program, adaptive grain pile volume measurement scheme and algorithm and management software are focused. The application of equipment is briefly introduced. The equipment is advanced in technology, easy to carry, rich in functions and easy to operate. It provides a new measuring technology for the national grain clearance check.
    6  Development of basic data manual for intelligent analysis of grain condition(Online First, Recommended Article)
    LU Yan-hui LI Xin-ze WU Wen-fu CUI Hong-wei XU Yan HAN Feng LI Zhi-min FENG Bo SHI Jing-feng ZHANG Ji
    2023, 31(2):47-55.
    [Abstract](54) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.22 M](282)
    Based on the implementing grain security projects and instituting other relevant grain security policies, China has promoted the process of digitalization and intelligence of grain storage and built the world's largest grain Internet of Things, since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. But, the resulting large amount of grain data, mainly based on temperature, can not effectively support decision-making and management on grain storage. Based on the study of the multi-field coupling theory of grain pile ecosystem, our research team further extracted the continuity principle, periodicity principle, and coordination principle of digital supervision of grain reserves, and proposed a series of intelligent strategies such as AID, ABC, 6R, SIN, CAE, O, and U. However, the application of these strategies directly faces the original data, which has some problems such as low efficiency and large error. To apply the intelligent strategies efficiently and correctly, the basic data manual of intelligent analysis of grain condition has been developed, according to the original grain condition data of typical granaries and main grain varieties in different grain storage ecological regions in China. The development of this manual is expected to consolidate the foundation of intelligent analysis of grain situation, which could promote the digital monitoring of grain storage quantity and quality, and realize the transformation from "manual defense" to “technical defense”.mesoscopic, microscopic and nano-scale for the stability of whole grain drink and characterization methods of the characteristic chemical components were summarized. This paper summarized the stability of whole grain drink characterized with multiscale methods, which could provide methodological guidance for the development of whole grain drink and facilitate the rapid development of whole grain foods.
    7  Study on multifunctional analyzer for rapid detection of grain storage safety(Online First, Recommended Article)
    LIU Zhe CHEN Kai WU Wen-fu LIU Yu-juan HAN Feng XU Yan SUN Feng-yang SHI Jing-feng FENG Bo XU Qi-keng
    2023, 31(2):56-65.
    [Abstract](41) [HTML](0) [PDF 9.49 M](267)
    The grain storage process could be affected by many aspects such as biological field and non biological field, which will lead to the phenomenon of heating, mildew, dewing and pest damage in the grain storage process. It is urgent to develop convenient, fast, multi-functional and high-precision on-site detection tools. According to the requirements of actual grain storage management, the multi-functional grain storage safety on-site rapid detection analyzer could calculate the stored grain moisture, water activity, absolute humidity, accumulated temperature, accumulated humidity, J/Q value and absolute water potential with models and algorithms on the basis of multi-point high-precision detection of temperature, humidity and CO2 concentration, and could graphically expresse the calculated results to assist in the determination of stored grain conditions such as safety, condensation, heat, mildew, etc, which will have mechanical ventilation operation parameter selection and intelligent control. The preliminary application of the instrument shows that it can provide effective technical support for granary management and has a good application prospect.
    8  Research on Graphical Detection System for Multi-Filed Interaction in Grain Storage based on NMR(Online First, Recommended Article)
    WU Wen-fu ZHANG Ji XU Wen LI Jie MA Yun-zhao WANG Yu-duo LIU Zhe HAN Feng
    2023, 31(2):66-73.
    [Abstract](35) [HTML](0) [PDF 11.67 M](271)
    The stored grain can be regarded as a complex ecosystem, which exist a complex multi-field coupling interaction among the abiotic factors, the biotic factors, and the surrounding environment. In this system, only a few parameters such as temperature can be accurately detected, which causes the system to operate like a “black box” to the outside world. To truly and accurately detect various grain pile parameters, and further study the multi-field coupling interaction in grain piles, a graphical detection system for multi-filed interaction in grain storage based on NMR has been developed. The system consists of an NMR imaging analyzer, a test grain bin, and a data acquisition and processing system, which can accurately detect the grain pile temperature, humidity, and moisture simultaneously, and intuitively and vividly present the cloud map of the temperature field, humidity field, and moisture field in the grain pile through the cloud map drawing software. In this system, the NMR imaging technology was applied to the research field of multi-field coupling interaction in grain piles for the first time, which can provide a new technical means to find out the complex coupling relationship of stored grain ecosystem and further confirm the correctness of relevant theoretical research. The development of this system will be helpful in deepening the theory of multi-field coupling and biological field of grain piles, developed by the industry.
    9  Research on the purchase grading system of high moisture corn based on bionic intelligent algorithm(Online First, Recommended Article)
    WANG Rui WANG Gui-ying WU Wen-fu HAN Feng LIU Zhe MA Yun-zhao XU Yan ZHANG Ya-qiu
    2023, 31(2):74-82.
    [Abstract](28) [HTML](0) [PDF 3.20 M](303)
    Artificial intelligence technology has shown incomparable advantages in solving traditional agricultural problems. At present, the determination of moisture content and grade of high moisture corn in grain purchase is still mainly based on artificial sensory detection. There are many problems such as heavy workload, low efficiency, poor repeatability, and strong subjectivity, which will cause the loss of grain quantity and quality, and this problems even affect the benefits of enterprises and farmers. Aiming at the technical difficulties in rapid detection of high moisture maize, this study obtains enlightenment from the experience of front line personnel in visual measurement of moisture. Based on mining the rich information in corn kernel images, a new bionic image rapid nondestructive measurement method using the mutual information entropy as the coupling degree evaluation index, were studied then a intelligent purchase grading system of high moisture corn were developed and tested. The test results show that on the basis of realization of the bionic intelligent algorithm of ‘watching moisture by machine’, the purchase of high moisture corn is a technical path worth exploring.
    10  Simulation experiment system of grain continuous drying process and process control(Online First, Recommended Article)
    HAN Feng WU Wen-fu LIU Zhe ZHANG Ya-qiu WANG Gui-ying XU Yan JIN Yi CHEN Jun-yi YUE Zhong-fen
    2023, 31(2):83-89.
    [Abstract](59) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.55 M](293)
    Research on process parameter optimization and process intelligent control is an important element in the design and development of grain drying equipment. Existing methods mostly use simulation, device experiments or field experiments to obtain data, which have large differences with the actual drying results or the experimental process is time-consuming and vulnerable to interference. In this study, with reference to the process and structure of large continuous grain drying production equipment, a continuous grain drying simulation experimental system was developed and designed, including grain feeding equipment, dryer main body, grain discharge equipment, waste heat recovery, condensing device, hot air equipment and measurement and control system, which can simulate the grain drying operation process. This system can also optimize the drying process parameters, and carry out indoor grain drying quality change law, energy consumption law and production efficiency. The system can be used as the first-line staff post. The system could be used as the pre-service training for the workers on the production line, the experimental teaching of related majors in universities and colleges and the experimental research system of scientific research institutions.
    11  Research on intelligent test system for energy recycling and energy saving technology of agricultural products drying(Online First, Recommended Article)
    WANG Gui-ying HAN Feng LIU Zhe WU Wen-fu XU Qi-keng YUE Zhong-fen LU Bi-fa PAN Li-ping
    2023, 31(2):90-96.
    [Abstract](44) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.05 M](188)
    Hot air drying is the key link of bulk grain and agricultural product processing. Because of the adjustment of national environmental protection and energy utilization policies in the new era, it is required to research and develop the energy saving technology of hot air drying for agricultural product. The current research is mostly limited to practical work tracking and empirical design, and there are also numerical calculations by heat and mass transfer theory. However these approaches have some limitations. Physical simulation is an effective potential method. In the process of studying the condensation increasing efficiency and energy saving technology, this paper has developed a test system which can simulate the actual hot air drying recycling energy. It has multi-parameter adjustable, graphical display drying state, energy consumption monitoring and other functions, and it can also provide effective means to study energy saving technology of hot air drying of agricultural product. The corn drying test for this system showed that energy recycling energy-saving drying could save energy 32%~56% when compared with ordinary open hot air drying.
    12  Optimization of medium chain triglycerides microcapsules by response surface method
    WU Wen-jing ZONG Ai-zhen LI Zi-song WANG Ai-yue GAN Zhao-bo HUANG Feng-hong JIA Min XU Tong-cheng
    2023, 31(2):97-105.
    [Abstract](27) [HTML](0) [PDF 749.24 K](172)
    Medium chain triglycerides has the effect of reducing body weight, regulating lipid metabolism, relieving fatigue and so on, and it is liquid at room temperature. In order to facilitate its application in the field of food, the medium chain triglycerides microcapsules were prepared by spray drying with whey protein and inulin as composite wall materials. The effects of composite wall material proportion, wall material addition amount, core-wall ratio, emulsifier addition amount and composite emulsifier proportion on the embedding rate of medium chain triglycerides microcapsules were investigated by single factor experiment. Box-Behnken design response surface test was used to optimize the preparation formula of medium chain triglycerides microcapsules, and the basic physical and chemical properties of the prepared medium chain triglyceride microcapsules were determined. The response surface method results showed that the optimal preparation conditions of medium chain triglycerides microcapsules were as follows: whey protein: inulin ratio of 3∶1 (w/w), emulsifier supplemental amount of 0.4 g/100 mL, core wall ratio of 1∶1 (w/w), compound wall material (whey protein and inulin) supplemental amount of 14 g/100 mL, compound emulsifier (monoglycerol∶sodium carboxymethyl cellulose) ratio of 1∶1 (w/w), under this condition, the embedding rate of carbon chain fatty acid triglyceride microcapsules can reach 95%. The medium chain triglycerides microcapsules had good fluidity, dispersibility and solubility. The microcapsules had uniform particle size, the average particle size were 4.43 μm.
    13  Granary Philosophy——Philosophical Thinking on the Intelligence of Grain Storage Science and Technology(Online First, Recommended Article)
    JI Hang-yan
    2023, 31(2):1-10.
    [Abstract](114) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.59 M](323)
    The influence of science and technology on cognitive change has a long history, which lead to forming philosophy of science and philosophy of technology respectively. The development of grain storage technology in China has gone through three stages: the initial exploration before the reform and opening up, the construction of intellingence in the past 10 years modern granaries in 30 years after the reform and opening up, and the creation of digital. The scientific and technological progress of grain storage in China has been witnessed by all, including building a modern granary with "four in one" new grain storage technology, to forming the world's largest grain and food networking with information technology, original multi-field coupling and bio-field theory, and realizing the dynamic supervision of grain reserves with grain cloud image scanning technology. In the new era, the political and economic situations have not changed significantly in the past century, and the new requirements of China's second centenary goal for food security and the impact of the fourth industrial revolution have made the trend of food science and technology becoming more and more intelligent. Based on the accumulation of scientific and technological achievements in grain storage practice for more than 40 years in China, combined with the team's research on multi-field coupling and bio-field theory of grain storage, dynamic supervision of cloud image of grain reserves, 5T information management of natural block chain for grain storage, and intelligent EAT window measurement and control methods for grain drying, this paper attempted to take the basic idea of "one divides into two, two divides into three, and three generates changes" on the basis of deconstructing the micro and macro ternary microstructure of grain storage system. Taking the joint driving of mechanism and data as the intelligent strategy, the granary philosophy is introduced to improve the recognition of existing scientific and technological achievements. The granary philosophy also guided the exploration of grain storage technology in the new era, and provided support for building a high-quality intelligent food system. The granary philosophy is a deep reflection on the practical situation of grain storage, and has certain universality, which originates from grain storage practice, but is not limited to grain storage practice
    14  Research on physicochemical properties and molecular structure of black rice flour mixed with different starches
    JIN Feng-fang NIU Li-ya ZENG Zi-cong TU Jin YU Li-li XIAO Jian-hui
    2023, 31(2):106-115.
    [Abstract](45) [HTML](0) [PDF 857.72 K](165)
    In order to improve the gel properties of black rice, mung bean starch, potato starch and corn starch were mixed with black rice flour. The pasting properties and texture properties of compounded system, and the molecular structure characteristics of the complex system were tested, and further analyzed by low-field NMR analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that with the increase of starch concentration, the pasting viscosity of the starch-black rice flour complex system increased significantly, while the pasting time and temperature were reduced. Mung bean starch and potato starch significantly enhanced the water holding capacity and swelling capacity of the compound system, while potato starch and corn starch significantly reduced the solubility. All three starches promoted the formation of the gel network structure and improved the texture properties of the gel, including the hardness, elasticity, chewiness and resilience of the gel. In addition, the three starches enhanced the hydrogen bond interaction between the starch chains of the compound system, reduced the water holding capacity of the gel, and enhanced the molecular short-range structure order and relative crystallinity of the system. The above research showed that three kinds of starch improved the quality of black rice gel, and mung bean starch had the best improvement effect.
    15  Research progress of typeⅢresistant starch in fermented milk
    ZHAO Jing LIU Xin-yu ZHANG Zhen-yu WANG Hong-mei ZHANG Lan ZHU Meng-meng
    2023, 31(2):116-123.
    [Abstract](16) [HTML](0) [PDF 506.33 K](151)
    Resistant starch has the benefits in the regulation of intestinal flora, improvement of intestinal function, control of cholesterol levels and glycemic index. In recent years, the most concerned is the prebiotic effect of resistant starch. Fermented milk has been considered as the best carrier of probiotics and prebiotics. Adding type III resistant starch to fermented milk could not only improve the quality of fermented milk, but also enhance the functionality of fermented milk. This paper briefly introduced the relationships between resistant starch and prebiotics, and summarized the application of type III resistant starch in fermented milk. This paper also expounded the effect of type III resistant starch on the quality of fermented milk and its probiotic evaluation, which could provide reference for the application and development of type III resistant starch in functional fermented milk.
    16  Study on variation law of strong gluten wheat quality after unsealing of controlled atmosphere with nitrogen
    HONG Yu CHANG Liu DUAN Xiao-liang SUN Hui WU Hai-bin ZHOU Gui-ying JIE Yu LIU Hui
    2023, 31(2):124-130.
    [Abstract](29) [HTML](0) [PDF 849.61 K](158)
    High gluten wheat Jimai 44 was used as the experimental material ,and stored in a controlled atmosphere box with a nitrogen concentration of 98%. After storage for 1 month, it was unsealed. The quality change law of 6 months after unsealing was studied, and the samples stored in self sealed bags were used as the control. The results showed that the moisture content, water absorption of gluten, falling number, gluten content, gluten index, peak viscosity, final viscosity, farinograph parameters and tensile parameters of wheat after controlled atmosphere unsealing all showed the same changes as those of the control samples. The falling value of wheat flour has significant difference at the end of storage period (i.e. the sixth month) at 20 ℃, and there is no significant difference at 30 ℃, while there is no significant difference among the whole storage period, which does not mean that the falling value of wheat flour is affected after controlled atmosphere with nitrogen. The short-term storage after controlled atmosphere with nitrogen may have a certain water retention effect, but the absolute difference is small. The absolute difference of moisture content between the samples after controlled atmosphere with nitrogen and the control samples in the sixth month at 20 ℃ and 30 ℃ is 0.3% and 0.4% respectively, which has little impact on actual production. Except for water content and falling number, there is no significant difference in other indicators.
    17  Study on the variation of processing quality of high moisture wheat during ventilation drying
    SONG Yu LIU Chao SHAO Zi-han TAO Shu CAO Lei HONG Ying DUAN Yi-meng
    2023, 31(2):131-136.
    [Abstract](29) [HTML](0) [PDF 553.26 K](154)
    In this study, fresh harvested high moisture wheat was placed in a simulated warehouse for ventilation drying experiment, and the moisture content change in each layer of the wheat grain pile, the wheat crude protein, wet gluten content, flour properties, falling value, etc. were measured. The results showed that the longitudinal ventilation technology could reduce the wheat moisture content to safe moisture content in a short time for the wheat with moisture content more than 20% in the simulated warehouse, and had no significant adverse effect on the processing quality of wheat. The use of ventilation technology not only reduced the wheat moisture content effectively, but also restrained the deterioration of high moisture wheat quality, providing a theoretical basis for the actual warehouse drying of high moisture wheat.
    18  Study on the applicability of simultaneous determination of three mycotoxin in maize by superconductor coated immunofluorescence rapid detection(Online First, Recommended Article)
    GU Yu-xi MA Zhi TANG Yan-ping YANG Ying-kang LI Li WANG Jin CHEN Jing-ying
    2023, 31(2):137-145.
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 1018.30 K](141)
    In order to rapidly determine aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEN) and deoxynivalenol (DON) in maize, a AFB1-ZEN-DON three-in-one combined detection method has been established. This quantitative immunofluorescence assay based on superconductor coating was used to detect multiple maize samples. Combined with the recovery rate, stability, detection limit, precision and other indexes, the applicability of the method were evaluated and compared with the results of liquid chromatography. The results showed that the AFB1-ZEN-DON three-in-one combined detection method had the good linearity in the range of 0.5~30 µg/mL for AFB1, 5~200 µg/kg for ZEN and 100~2 500 µg/mL for DON, respectively. The relative deviation of AFB1, ZEN and DON detected by this method was –2.84%~11.91%, –3.43%~18.12% and 1.83%~12.91%, respectively, which were within the allowable deviation of 20%, 15% and 23%. The detection limit of AFB1 was 0.41 μg/kg and the corresponding limit of quantification was 1.12 μg/kg. The limit of detection of ZEN was 3.22 μg/kg and the corresponding limit of quantitation was 9.15 μg/kg. The detection limit of DON was 35.42 μg/kg and the corresponding limit of quantitation was 100.84 μg/kg. Compared with the results of liquid chromatography, the superconductor coated immunofluorescence test strip method is an effective, practical, rapid and quantitative analysis method within the allowable deviation range, suggesting that it could meet the requirements of simultaneous detection of AFB1, ZEN and DON in maize.
    19  Rapid determination of peroxide value and acid value in rice bran oil using near infrared spectroscopy coupled with partial least squares regression
    PENG Zhi-bing ZHANG Chen XU Xiong XIN Di-wei
    2023, 31(2):146-153.
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 997.69 K](203)
    Near infrared spectroscopy was applied to the rapid determination of peroxide value and acid value in rice bran oil. Using chemical titration to determine the content of peroxide value and acid value in rice bran oil as a reference method, using near infrared spectroscopy analysis technology combined with partial least squares regression, established the near infrared quantitative analysis model. The correlation coefficients of the established peroxide value and acid value quantitative analysis models were 99.11% and 99.72%, the standard deviation of prediction were 0.436 7% and 0.044 78%, and the cross validation standard deviation were 0.452 2% and 0.046 69%. The calibration model was independently verified externally with 78 samples. The absolute errors of peroxide value and acid value were –0.78%~0.82% and –0.142%~0.139%. The relative errors of peroxide value and acid value were –13.21%~14.44% and –14.85%~12.46%. The established quantitative analysis model and method is simple, rapid and accurate in the content determination of peroxide value and acid value in rice bran oil.
    20  Determination of ethylene oxide residue in sesame and tea by headspace gas chromatography
    LU Ya-ning ZHANG Yi-jun HU Ya-rong ZHAN Hao YAN Min HAN Fang
    2023, 31(2):154-162.
    [Abstract](44) [HTML](0) [PDF 914.62 K](200)
    Ethylene oxide is often used as a food bactericide and is easy to cause residues in food. At present, there is no relevant standard for the determination of ethylene oxide content in food in China. To solve the problem of determining ethylene oxide residues in imported and exported foods, a method for the determination of ethylene oxide residues in different kinds of food was established by headspace gas chromatography. The extraction conditions and parameters of ethylene oxide were optimized by orthogonal design, and it has found that the ultrasonic extraction method with dimethylacetamide was the best. The extraction temperature had the most significant effect on the recovery of ethylene oxide, followed by ultrasonic power and time. The optimum extraction conditions were 40 ℃ of the temperature, the 200 W of the ultrasonic power and 30 min of the time. Under this condition, the recovery was the highest up to 89.25%. Using HP-PLOT\Q Column, the separation effect of ethylene oxide was the best when the flow rate of carrier gas was 2 mL/min. Under the determination conditions of this method, the linearity of ethylene oxide was good in the concentration range of 0.01~1.0 mg/L, and the correlation coefficient was 0.999. The relative standard deviation was lower than 2.96 and the overall recovery was between 76.9% and 91.6%. All these results suggested that, this method has met the requirements for the detection of ethylene oxide content in food. This method is the first time used to determin the ethylene oxide in food by headspace gas chromatography. The experimental process is si mple and can quickly detect and quantify ethylene oxide in food.
    21  Research progress on preparation and hepatoprotective effect of food-derived high fischer ratio oligopeptides
    JIANG Li-na ZHANG Xiu-qin PEI Hai-sheng LI Yuan-yuan LIANG Liang ZHAI Xiao-na
    2023, 31(2):163-171.
    [Abstract](56) [HTML](0) [PDF 3.49 M](361)
    As a high-quality peptide source with rich sources, natural environmental protection and none side effects,high Fischer ratio oligopeptides widely exist in natural animals and plants.High Fischer ratio oligopeptides have a variety of biological activities, such as anti-fatigue, anti-oxidation, sobering up, adjuvant treatment of liver disease and phenylketonuria. Because of its high content of branched chain amino acids, high Fischer ratio oligopeptides can improve the imbalance between branched chain amino acids and aromatic amino acids in patients with liver disease, and play an important role in the adjuvant treatment of chronic liver disease and its complications. This paper mainly reviews the raw materials, preparation, separation and purification methods, liver protection efficacy and action mechanism of food-derived high Fischer ratio oligopeptides, focusing on the introduction of several raw material proteins including plant protein, aquatic product protein and milk derived protein in animal protein, two preparation methods including enzymatic hydrolysis and microbial fermentation, several separation and purification methods including membrane separation, activated carbon adsorption and chromatographic separation, and the liver protection effect of high Fischer ratio oligopeptides and three ways to play the role of liver protection. This review is trying to provide a theoretical reference for the future development and application of food-derived high Fischer ratio oligopeptides in the field of food and medicine.
    22  The storage technology for fresh-reserving of high-quality indica rice by air-regulating agent(Online First, Recommended Article)
    JIE Yu LI Qian-qian YIN Jun WANG Fa LIU Bei-chen FANG Yu-qiang ZHANG Guo-hong ZHANG Zhong-jie
    2023, 31(2):172-177.
    [Abstract](52) [HTML](0) [PDF 495.49 K](149)
    The innovative development of green technology is the permanent scientific research topic in the field of grain storage, and the controlled atmosphere is one of the green grain storage technologies. This paper carried out the research on the storage technology of high-quality indica rice in the fifth ecological area of grain storage (medium temperature and high humidity) by air-regulating agent. The concentration of oxygen, temperature and relative humidity of the storage environment were monitored, and the quality of high-quality indica rice was also evaluated. The results showed that the technology of air-regulating could effectively delay the quality deterioration of rice. Compared with the controlled group, the experiment group can maintain the concentration of oxygen in the confined space below 0.1% and the relative humidity at 70% during the 5-month storage period. The moisture content of the controlled atmosphere group was 0.98% higher than that of the controlled group. The fatty acid value was 1.34 mg (KOH)/100 g lower than that of the controlled group, while the freshness was 7 points higher than that of the controlled group. The above results showed that the air-regulating agent can adjust and control the oxygen concentration and relative humidity in the confined space according to the demand, which could achieve the purpose of preserving the quality and freshness of grain. It is a green, low-carbon and fresh-reserving new grain storage technology.
    23  The quality of wheat after unsealing of controlled atmosphere by nitrogen
    WANG Li-na GUO Chao CHEN Liang LU Ying-xin XU Miao-xia ZHENG Xiao-shan GUO Hong-hong HE Meng-ting
    2023, 31(2):178-184.
    [Abstract](33) [HTML](0) [PDF 509.39 K](164)
    The processing quality of wheat before and after unsealing of controlled atmosphere storage under the conditions of temperature of (30±2) ℃ and relative humidity of 75% were studied. Such processing and storage indicators of wheat as the moisture, protein, wet gluten, falling number, gluten water absorption, doughs rheological properties determination were evaluated. The results showed that, there were no significant change in the quantity and quality of protein, dough rheological properties of wheat flour stored in nitrogen controlled atmosphere for 60 d storage and 60 d unsealing. There were no significant differences in protein, wet gluten (ground wheat), gluten index, gluten water absorption, wet gluten (flour) and water absorption in the initial stage, modified atmosphere storage stage and nitrogen exhaust stage. The dough formation time and dough stability time of wheat flour before unsealing of nitrogen increased gradually with time, and the growth rate in the modified atmosphere storage stage was higher than that in the nitrogen exhaust stage. The energy value, extensograph resistance, and stretching ratio of wheat flour dough gradually increase with the extension of air dispersion time. The gluten strength of the dough increases during the process of wheat from hypoxia to oxygen enrichment, and the energy required for the dough from stretching to breaking increases gradually, but its extensibility does not change much.
    24  Quantitative evaluation of the “grain to feed” policy based on the PMC index model (Online First, Recommended Article)
    HAN Cheng-ji YANG Yu-ping SUI Jian-li LIU Ying
    2023, 31(2):185-193.
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.82 M](290)
    Based on the 47 “grain-to-feed” policies issued by the central and local governments in the country from 2015 to 2019. The text mining analysis methods have been used to extract high -frequency keywords, and then the “grain reform” policy evaluation index system with reference to existing research and policy characteristics was comprehensively constructed. A PMC index model was also built, and the randomly extracted 6 sample policy policies were quantified. The results showed that the average PMC index of each policy was 7.25, and 4 policies were rated as excellent and 2 were acceptable, suggesting that the overall situation was excellent. Among the two acceptable policies, although P2 was lower than the average in terms of policy areas, policy tools, policy audiences, policy evaluations and policy effects, it still served as a reference to a certain extent because it was released earlier than the national guidance documents. The policy content of P6 was relatively simple, leading to its score was lower than other policies. The common problem of the existing policies was that the time limit was short-term and temporary, and the policy of medium and long-term time limit was blank, which restricted the function of "grain to feed" and related industries to some extent. Finally, in view of the common and individual problems of various policies, optimization suggestions were also put forward.

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