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Volume 31,Issue 1,2023 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Food science and technology of future cereal and oil: development and challenges(Online First, Recommended Article)
    LIU Yuan-fa SUN Yan-wen XU Yong-jiang
    2023, 31(1):1-5.
    [Abstract](113) [HTML](143) [PDF 376.21 K](351)
    As an important national strategy, the security of cereal and oil plays a key role in maintaining social stability, promoting the rural revitalization strategy and keeping a sustained, rapid and sound development of national economy. With rapid increase of global population and continous development of food industry, the more diversified, healthy and low-carbon cereal and oil products have been preferred by consumers. However, in China, the development of cereal and oil industries is constrained by many problems, including limited cereal and oil processing resources, poor green processing technology, lack of moderate processing means, unclear mechanism of nutritional factors, and difficulty in hazard risk control. With the development of life science, information technology and materials technology, future food science and technology of cereal and oil based on food omics, synthetic biology, nutrition and materials science are expected to meet the above challenges from the technical level. This paper outlined the status and role of cereal and oil food industries in the national economy, and summarizedthe development trend and market conditions of cereal and oil industries. In China, the technical challenges faced by cereal and oil in China, grain, oil and food science and technology were also introduced, and the future development trend of grain, oil and food science and technology will also be prospected, including moderate oil processing, green grain production, intelligent safety control, and precise nutrition supply.
    2  Future healthy oil: precision nutrition and moderate processing(Online First, Recommended Article)
    XU Yong-jiang LEI Jin-nan ZHANG Ze-hao YE Zhan LIU Yuan-fa
    2023, 31(1):6-11.
    [Abstract](72) [HTML](144) [PDF 444.07 K](226)
    Oil is a significant source of fatty acids and various trace functional components, and plays a vital role in regulating human health. The macro- and micro-components in oils are closely related to nutritional health. This paper introduces the future development goals and strategies of healthy oils from two aspects of precise nutrition and moderate processing. Firstly, precise nutrition based on life cycle and physiological state is a priority research area of lipid science. On the other hand, moderate processing will retain nutrients such as vitamin E, phytosterols, and squalene to a greater extent, and avoid the formation of risk factors such as trans fatty acids, 3-chloropropanol esters, and glycidyl esters. Moderate processing not only ensures the safety of oil, but also reduces the loss of healthy and beneficial fat concomitants, which is the development direction of oil engineering research. Therefore, under the dual demands of nutrition and safety, accurate nutrition and moderate processing of oils will help the implementation of "Healthy China" and "Double- Carbon" strategies. Future healthy oils will not only provide basic nutrition and flavor, but also give specific health functions to people with different life cycles, such as infants, children, adolescents, adults and the elderly, and maintain the homeostasis of people with different physiological states including pregnant and lactating women.
    3  Status and development proposals of structure lipid industry in China(Online First, Recommended Article)
    WANG Xiu-xiu JIA Min ZONG Ai-zhen LI Xin-rong HUANG Feng-hong XU Tong-cheng
    2023, 31(1):12-20.
    [Abstract](56) [HTML](145) [PDF 523.45 K](277)
    The three macronutrients of lipid, protein and carbohydrate are closely related to human health, and their supply is basically sufficient. However, with the increasing number of patients suffered from hyperlipidemia, obesity, etc., as well as the deepening of the aging process, traditional nutrients can not fulfill the nutritional needs of these people anymore. Therefore, nutritional, processing and organoleptic properties of these three major nutrients need to be enhanced by the deep-processing. Nowadays, the recombinant protein and carbohydrate industries have made great progress in China, but the recombinant lipid industry is just in its infancy. Hence, this paper briefly introduced the status, development opportunities and challenges of domestic structure lipid industry,and expounded the underlying efficacy mechanisms of several main structure lipids. The latest research progress on the health effects and preparation technology of structure lipid were also presented. In addition, in view of the existing problems, future development advices are proposed from the perspectives of theoretical breakthrough, technological innovation, and industrial upgrading, aiming to provide valuable references for the development of domestic structure industry.
    4  Application Progress of Oilomics Research in Human Nutrition and Health Research(Online First, Recommended Article)
    YE Zhan XU Yong-jiang LIU Yuan-fa
    2023, 31(1):21-32.
    [Abstract](62) [HTML](146) [PDF 1.04 M](248)
    Edible oils and fats are the important dietary nutrients for human body, and play a vital roles in maintaining nutritional health for the hosts. Whereas, the unhealthy oils and fats intake would lead to the increase of the risks of chronic metabolic diseases, which has become a serious public health challenge for the present society. The oilomics, integrating genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, lipomics as the major analytical methods, have been becoming on important approach to elucidate the host nutritional and metabolic regulation mechanisms, and realize the personalized nutrition of human body based on the functional characteristics of dietary factors. The present review manuscript illustrated the basic concepts of oilomics, and the major research approaches of oilomics in the areas of edible oil nutrition and human health. Moreover, the research progress of oilomics in oil nutrition and host health research were also summarized, primarily, focusing on elaborating the nutrients metabolic regulation, the enteral nutrition and gut homeostasis, as well as the personalized nutrition of the humans. In view of the current research status, the future trends of the development of oilomics were further prospected, at the aim of which is to provide references for expanding the applications of oilomics in lipid nutrition and human health. The overall nutrition level of the nationwide residents will be improved, and the construction of healthy China will be promoted.
    5  Advances in Nutrition and Health Function of β-glucan(Online First, Recommended Article)
    GUO Rui ZHOU Shuang WANG Wen-xiu NING Fang-jie LI Qing-yuan LIU Zhi-gang
    2023, 31(1):33-39.
    [Abstract](104) [HTML](149) [PDF 515.06 K](217)
    In recent years, β-glucan has been widely researched in various related fields due to its significant physiological activity and health characteristics. β-glucan exists in highland barley, barley, oats, and microorganisms such as yeast, bacteria fungi and other natural plants, and is a kind of renewable polysaccharide with high nutritional values. Different physical properties due to its extensive sources also affect the development and application of β-glucan in various bioactive functional fields. We have reviewed different sources of β-glucan and its structure-activity relationship, and summarized its research status in digestive system, nervous system, immune system and other aspects, indicating that β-glucan has special physiological activities such as regulating glucose and lipid metabolism disorders, improving immunity and brain function, regulating intestinal microenvironment. It can be used as a dietary supplement and functional factor to intervene and regulate body health, and also has broad application value and prospects in the field of health product research and development. This review will provide theoretical reference and scientific basis for the further development and utilization of β-glucan.
    6  Benzoxazolinones: Novel bioactive phytochemicals in wheat with potential hypoglycemic activity(Online First, Recommended Article)
    GONG Ling-xiao YANG Ruo-yan WANG Jing
    2023, 31(1):40-47.
    [Abstract](117) [HTML](148) [PDF 710.80 K](164)
    Benzoxazolinones (BXs) are a group of natural compounds with biological activity. In recent years, benzoxazolinones have been identified in cereal grains and bakery foods. The most common BXs are 6-methoxy-benzoxazolin-2-one (MBOA) and 2-benzoxazolin-2-one (BOA). In this study, the contents of MBOA and BOA in 13varieties of wheat harvested in Henan Province were analyzed by LC-MS technology. Meanwhile, the inhibitory effects of MBOA and BOA on α-glucosidase and α-amylase were evaluated. The results showed that the contents of MBOA and BOA in wheat varied from 4.30 to 5.02 ng/g and 1.62 to 7.98 ng/g respectively. Interestingly, the contents of MBOA and BOA in whole wheat flour increased significantly after hot drying and germination by 1.5~2.0 and 500~1 000 times, respectively. In the aspect of hypoglycemic activity, MBOA and BOA showed reversible competitive inhibition on α-glucosidase and α-amylase. The IC50 of MBOA and BOA to α-glucosidase were 13.73 and 73.9 mg/mL, the IC50 to α-amylase were 64.98 and 17.68 mg/mL. These results revealed that BXs have the potential contribution to the hypoglycemic activity associated with whole wheat consumption. Food processing technologies such as germination can be used to enhance the concentration of BXs in the cereal food products that allow the intake of higher amounts of BXs. This study provides a new theoretical basis for the research on the health effects of whole wheat and its processed products.
    7  Multiscale characterized methods for the stability of whole grain drink
    JIANG Ping LIU Ming KANG Zi-yue LIU Yan-xiang TIAN Xiao-hong TAN Bin
    2023, 31(1):48-55.
    [Abstract](35) [HTML](154) [PDF 1.33 M](171)
    With the popularization of the concepts of whole grain health cognition and scientific diet, consumers are paying more and more attention to different forms of whole grain food. Whole grain drink is one of the important products made from whole grain, and the physical stability of whole grain drink is a major challenge in the process of research and development. Since whole grain drink is a thermodynamically unstable system of multiphase turbidite liquid with water as the continuous phase and starch, dietary fiber, protein as the dispersed phase, the separation speed of whole grain drink is fast, which seriously affected the acceptability of consumers. Based on literature review, the multiscale characterization methods of macroscopic, mesoscopic, microscopic and nano-scale for the stability of whole grain drink and characterization methods of the characteristic chemical components were summarized. This paper summarized the stability of whole grain drink characterized with multiscale methods, which could provide methodological guidance for the development of whole grain drink and facilitate the rapid development of whole grain foods.
    8  Research progress of lipids influencing starch properties in rice(Online First, Recommended Article)
    LI Cai-yun YUAN Jie-yao LIU Yan-lan WU Su-xi YI Cui-ping
    2023, 31(1):56-65.
    [Abstract](27) [HTML](141) [PDF 1.31 M](259)
    Lipid is an important component except starch and protein in rice, which not only has unique nutritional value but also has a great impact on the functional properties of starch. In this paper, the species, structure, distribution, and content of lipids in rice were summarized, and the mechanism, structure characteristics and influencing factors of starch-lipid interaction were discussed. The interaction effects on the properties of starch, including swelling, gelatinization, rheology, retrogradation and digestive ability were reviewed. This paper provided useful information on understanding the interaction between starch and endogenous lipids in rice as well as its influence on the starch properties, which could promote the improvement of rice quality and the development of functional rice.
    9  Research on the making suitability for steamed bread with wheat flours from southwest of Henan province
    WEI Yi-min ZHANG Lei ZHAO Bo YAN Jun-hui WANG Jiang-hua ZHANG Ying-quan ZHANG Bo GUO Bo-li
    2023, 31(1):66-76.
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](132) [PDF 385.25 K](139)
    Steamed bread is one of the traditional Chinese staple foods. With the increasing in the proportion of mechanized production and market-oriented sales of steamed bread, the steamed bread industry has been developing rapidly. Under the production conditions of industrial steamed bread, the characteristics of wheat varieties and their corresponding flour suitability for making steamed bread, especially the stability of flour, could significantly affect the product quality, consumption experience and economic benefits of industrialized steamed bread. In this study, the physical and chemical properties of flours from wheat varieties with larger planting area and stronger representatives in southwest Henan were analyzed for the suitability of steamed bread, and the relationships between flour and steamed bread quality properties were also studied. The results showed that the wet gluten content of wheat flour in southwest Henan was high, but the gluten index needed to be improved. The proportion of strong-gluten wheat variety also needed to be improved. The values of flour color a* b *, gluten index, the dough softening by Farinograph, the area by Extensograph and the extensibility (L) by Alveograph are important reference indicators for evaluating the quality of flour for steamed bread. The wheat varieties of Zhengmai 119, Pingmai 998, Shaanxi Road 198, Zhengmai 1342, and Zhengmai 1860 are more suitable for making steamed breads.
    10  Research on processing technology of potato pulp steamed bread
    CAO Yan-fei LI Si-qi HAO Xin LU Mei ZHOU Lu-hong ZHAO Sheng-peng LI Hong-jun
    2023, 31(1):77-83.
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](137) [PDF 864.78 K](166)
    Potato pulp and wheat flour were used as raw materials to make steamed bread, and the optimum technological formula of potato pulp steamed bread was studied. Based on the results of single factor with specific volume and texture as indicators, response surface test was used to evaluate the quality of 30% potato pulp steamed bread by using specific volume as inspection index. The results showed that the optimal process parameters of potato pulp steamed bread were as follows: yeast addition 1.1%, fermentation time 70 min, sheeting time 12, fermentation temperature 35 ℃ and proofing time 19 min. The specific volume of steamed bread was 2.34 mL/g under the optimum condition, and optimized steamed bread was significantly improved when comparing with control group (2.02 mL/g).
    11  Research on the effect of non-thermal plasma on the sterilization of craft beer
    LYU Guang-rui WU Long DAI Xiao-yong XU Qing LI Zhan-yong
    2023, 31(1):84-92.
    [Abstract](43) [HTML](141) [PDF 5.85 M](274)
    The craft beer was continuously sterilized by the non-thermal plasma reactor, and its sterilization and quality were evaluated. The total count of aerobic plate, yeast and Escherichia coli were used as microbial indexes, the effects of plasma sterilization and pasteurization on the bactericidal effect of craft beer were studied. Meanwhile, the beer color, foam hold and pH were evaluated to obtain the optimum sterilization condition with the response surface. The results showed that, compared with pasteurization, the sterilization rate after plasma treatment was almost the same, but the chroma, brightness and bubble retention were better, which was closer to the original beer. The total number of colonies and Escherichia coli were almost completely killed, and the number of yeast was reduced by 97.5% with the 40 kV plasma treatment voltage, 10 s and 60 mL/min gas flow rate. According to the analysis of Design Expert software, the sterilization effect and brightness were the best when the voltage, plasma treatment times and gas flow were 40 kV, 10 s and 60 mL/min, respectively. The predicted values were consistent with the measured values. The influence of each factors were voltage > time > gas flow rate.
    12  Nutritional composition and modern pharmacological research progress of coicis semen
    FU Jing-ju DONG Xue ZHONG Fang-xiao LI Xiao-yu
    2023, 31(1):93-99.
    [Abstract](74) [HTML](146) [PDF 461.59 K](360)
    Coicis semen has the effects of invigorating the spleen, invigorating the lungs and removing dampness, clearing heat, expelling pus, removing stagnation and stopping diarrhea. The main nutrients of Coicis semen are fatty acids, esters, polysaccharides, flavonoids, glycoproteins and other components. The results of modern pharmacological studies have shown that Coicis semen has multiple pharmacological effects such as anti-tumor, improving immunity, lowering blood sugar, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, and regulating blood lipid metabolism. By consulting relevant literature in recent years, this paper reviewed the extraction process of Coicis semen nutritional components, including fatty acids, lipids, polysaccharides, flavonoids, Coicis semen oil. Modern pharmacological effects such as anti-tumor, improving immunity, lowering blood glucose and regulating blood lipid metabolism were also included. The development directions of Coicis semen for hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, osteoporosis and other related functional foods were summarized. This review could provide reference for further development and application of Coicis semen.
    13  Molecular mechanisms of metabolic syndrome induced by high fructose diet: a review
    GAN Qian-yun SUN Xue-qian SONG Ge PENG Wen-ting XU Mei-hong QI Wen-tao
    2023, 31(1):100-108.
    [Abstract](61) [HTML](140) [PDF 1.27 M](259)
    Fructose was popularly used in diet due to its high sweetness and low impact on blood sugar levels. High fructose diets are common in Western countries. With economic development, the per capita fructose intake in China has been increasing year by year, and the relationship between fructose and health has become a research hotspot. The absorption and metabolism of fructose in vivo can activate multiple signaling pathways including PI3K/Akt, NF- κ B, JAK-STAT, AMPK, MAPK and toll like receptors etc., which could down or up regulate the level of downstream signaling molecules, and cause the occurrence of metabolic syndrome such as obesity and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. The absorption and metabolism molecular signal pathways involved in fructose induced metabolic syndrome were summarized and reviewed in this paper, which could provide reference for the rational consumption and further research of biological effects of fructose.
    14  Application of hyperspectral imaging technology in nondestructive testing of agricultural products
    XIONG Chun-hui SHE Yong-xin JIAO Xun SHAO Yong JIA Li WANG Miao XIAO Ming WANG Jing
    2023, 31(1):109-122.
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](137) [PDF 598.36 K](260)
    The hyperspectral imaging technology has the feature of “image and spectrum in one”, which brings together the features of traditional imaging and spectroscopic techniques, and both image information and spectral information of the agricultural products could be obtained. Therefore, this technology can not only detect the external characteristics of objects by imaging technology, but also obtain the internal quality and food safety information of agricultural products by the spectral technology, including variety classification, physical and chemical index determination, fungal infection detection and pesticide residue detection, etc. Compared with traditional detection methods, hyperspectral imaging has been applied in the field of non-destructive testing of agricultural products due to its simple pretreatment, non-pollution and non- destructive characteristics in the detection process. This review started from the theoretical basis of hyperspectral imaging, and summarized its image acquisition and analysis methods, followed by expounding the research progress of hyperspectral imaging technology in the field of nondestructive testing of agricultural products in the past five years. This review could provide information on the classification and nutritional quality of agricultural products and food safety assessment methods to provide reference.
    15  Comparison and analysis of main indexes of maize quality standards in of some countries
    LIU Hong-mei
    2023, 31(1):123-128.
    [Abstract](41) [HTML](141) [PDF 540.62 K](331)
    By contrasting the main indexes of maize quality standards in China, the United States, Australia and Canada, which are the representative countries in APEC and combined with the actual test results of samples analysis, it is expected to provide a reference for the interconnection of international maize trade standards. The maize quality standards of these four countries all take the unit weight, impurities and imperfect grains (damaged grains) as the main indicators of maize grading. In terms of quota setting, the characteristics of domestic maize circulation are fully considered, and the indicator systems have their own distinctive characteristics based on their own corn production, storage and trade practices. The indicator systems have their own distinctive characteristics, including the definition of maize unit weight, imperfect grains, impurities and other indicators, measuring instruments, measuring methods and quality requirements. When the same samples were tested and judged by different standards, the quality results and quality grades were different, leading to the results being lack of comparability. It is suggested that strengthen communication and coordination among international peers, unify terms and definitions, testing instruments, testing methods should be included to improve trade efficiency, reduce trade costs and promote trade facilitation of maize in the international maize trade and circulation.
    16  Study and test of the model of unsound kernel measuring instrumengt for distiller sorghum(Online First, Recommended Article)
    LI Xiao-hong CHU Yi-hong MAO Yu-zhi YIN Guan-jun NIE Ye JIAO Fu
    2023, 31(1):129-134.
    [Abstract](28) [HTML](149) [PDF 1.10 M](219)
    In view of the low efficiency and low recognition accuracy of sorghum unsound kerneld etection in wine-making enterprises at the present stage, the sorghum unsound kernel detection instrument with image recognition, which was combined with the existing cereal unsound kernel detection instruments in the market, was developed. A series of research was focus on the image collection, key hardware, machine vision and deep learning. In this study, single feature analysis technology, machine-learning based image classification technology, deep-learning based image classification technology and fine-grained image classification technology were used to classify and identify sorghum images, respectively. By contrast, tensorrt deployment technology was used to deploy fine-grained image classification network into the device. The results showed that the recognition accuracy of the developed rapid sorghum imperfect grain detector was less than 1% of the average error of manual detection. The detection time of 50 g sorghum sample was controlled within 5 minutes. Compared with the traditional manual detection, the detection time was greatly shortened, and the subjective deviation of manual detection was also avoided. It is of great significance for the detection and identification of sorghum imperfection rate in wine-making enterprises.
    17  Analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated biphenyl ethers in rice and their risk assessment
    ZHANG Wei YANG Yong-tan
    2023, 31(1):135-142.
    [Abstract](12) [HTML](148) [PDF 438.93 K](159)
    The risk of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in 45 rice samples was assessed. The rice samples were collected and ground, and all ground samples were treated according to the direct extraction-acidic silica purification pretreatment method. The analysis of 7 indicator of PCBs and 12 representative of PBDEs was performed with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method. In these 45 rice samples, PCBs was detectable in 42% samples and the total amount was between 0~78 pg/g dw. The main congeners of PCBs in rice were PCB-28 and PCB-52, which was accordance with the production profile of PCBs in China. PBDEs were detected only in one of the 45 samples with a concentration of 41 pg/g dry weight. The concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs in rice was low and they had no risk to human health as well.
    18  Research on applicability of superconductor coated immunofluorescence test strip method for determination of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in maize(Online First, Recommended Article)
    SHAN Xiao-xue MA Zhi TANG Yan-ping YANG Ying-kang GU Yu-xi WANG Jin CHEN Jing-ying
    2023, 31(1):143-149.
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](149) [PDF 1.32 M](157)
    In order to rapidly determine deoxynivalenol (DON) and Zearalenone (ZEN) in maize, a rapid quantitative immunofluorescence assay based on superconductor coating was used to detect multiple maize samples. Combined with the recovery rate, stability, detection limit, precision and other indexes, the applicability of the method was evaluated and compared with the results of liquid chromatography. The results showed that the superconductor coated immunofluorescence diaper method had the good linearity in the range of 100 ng/mL~2 500 ng/mL for DON and 5~200 µg/kg for ZEN. The recoveries of DON were 103.72%~108.17% in the range of 500~2 000 µg/kg, and 97.81%~111.27% in the range of ZEN 50~150 µg/kg. Compared with the results of liquid chromatography, the superconductor coated immunofluorescence diaper method is an effective, practical, rapid and quantitative analysis method within the allowable deviation range, which can meet the requirements of simultaneous detection of DON and ZEN in maize.
    19  Optimization of molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography and its application in determination of benzo (a) pyrene in vegetable oil
    LI Wen-ting LIU Ling XIA Jia-en DONG Yu-ying RAN Ya-li ZHAO Li
    2023, 31(1):150-157.
    [Abstract](47) [HTML](148) [PDF 881.51 K](218)
    An optimized method for the determination of benzopyrene in vegetable oil by molecular imprinting solid phase extraction with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography was established. During the experiment, through the investigation of different solid-phase extraction purification efficiency, optimal detection wavelength, mobile phase system and chromatographic column use, the results showed that the molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction purification column was more suitable for pretreatment extraction and purification of vegetable oil. The optimal detection the excitation wavelength and the emission wavelength were 365 nm and 410 nm, respectively. Under these conditions, the benzopyrene chromatographic peak had high response value and signal-to-noise ratio. Under the mobile phase system of 90% acetonitrile-10% water, the target peak had a good separation effect. Using 150 mm short columns can effectively improve work efficiency. Benzopyrene had a good linear relationship in the concentration range of 0.3~20 µg/L, and the correlation coefficient was greater than 0.999 9. The detection limit and quantitative limit of benzopyrene determination method were 0.1 µg/kg and 0.3 µg/kg, respectively. The average recoveries of three added concentrations were 87.6%~95.9%, and the relative standard deviations were 1.08%~2.16%. In the actual sample detection, the detection rate of benzopyrene, the exceeding rate and the qualified rate were 39.0%, 2.4%, and was 97.6%, respectively. This optimization method is sensitive, convenient, rapid and accurate, and can be used for batch detection of benzopyrene in vegetable oil and analysis of pollution monitoring.
    20  Determination of canolol in rapeseed oil by normal phase high performance liquid chromatography
    LI Xin-Yang LI Gui-You YANG Wei YANG Jun
    2023, 31(1):158-163.
    [Abstract](15) [HTML](138) [PDF 1.12 M](179)
    A rapid method for the detection of rapeseed polyphenols (Canolol) in rapeseed oil was studied. A normal phase high performance liquid chromatography (NP-HPLC) method for the determination of Canolol was established. The Canolol in rapeseed oil were determined by using hexane to isopropanol (volume ratio 96∶4) as the mobile phase with the flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, column temperature of 30 ℃, fluorescence detector with excitation wavelength of 298 nm and emission wavelength of 325 nm. The linear correlation coefficient was above 0.999, and the recovery rate was between 96% and 110%. The detection limit of the instrument was 15 ng/mL, and the precision was better than 3%. The method has the advantages of simple operation, short analysis time, high accuracy and less environmental pollution. The optimized detection method was used to determine the rapeseed oil samples from 90 different varieties of rapeseed in different regions of China. The content of Canolol ranged from 190 mg/kg to 2 246 mg/kg. At the same time, different types of vegetable oils randomly purchased from the market were tested. The results showed that Canolol was a unique component in rapeseed oil by processing of heated screw-pressing.
    21  Evaluation and optimization of uncertainty in determination of nickel in soy milk powder by ultra-wave digestion-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(Online First, Recommended Article)
    XUE Min-min LIU Fang-fang ZHU Li YUAN Lie-jiang WU Hai-zhi CHEN Yao
    2023, 31(1):164-172.
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](130) [PDF 501.46 K](144)
    The uncertainty in determination of nickel in soy milk powder by ultra-wave digestion- inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was evaluated and optimized. According to JJF1059.1—2012 Evaluation and expression of uncertainty in measurement and CNAS—GL006: 2019 Guidance on quantifying uncertainty in chemical analysis, the mathematical model of uncertainty evaluation was built. The main sources of uncertainty were analyzed and their uncertainty components were evaluated. Then the relative standard uncertainty and the expanded uncertainty were computed. Finally, the influence of different sources was analyzed and the possible optimization methods for reducing the uncertainty were proposed. When the coverage probability was 95% (i.e., the coverage factor was k=2), the expanded uncertainty of nickel is 0.222 mg/kg, which indicates the determination result of nickel in soy milk powder was (3.825±0.222) mg/kg. The relative uncertainty was reduced from 0.029 0 to 0.023 8 by the optimization methods. Configuration of standard working solution and fitting of standard curve were the main sources of the uncertainty in determination of nickel in soy milk powder by ultra-wave digestion-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and the optimization could reduce the determination uncertainty significantly.
    22  Research on the detection of hainanmycin by UV spectrophotometry(Online First, Recommended Article)
    CHI Ke-xin YAO Wei-rong
    2023, 31(1):173-180.
    [Abstract](14) [HTML](133) [PDF 973.05 K](144)
    Hainanmycin sodium is a new type of monobasic acid polyether antibiotics, which has been widely used in chicken, cattle and sheep and other animal feeds, and it is mainly used to prevent coccidiosis and regulate growth metabolism. The color reaction between hainanmycin and derivative can be detected by UV spectrophotometry. The results showed that the derivatives of p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde and vanillin had the maximum UV absorption at 595 nm and 590 nm, respectively, and hainanmycin had the lowest detection limit after vanillin derivatization. When the derivative agent was composed of 4% vanillin (g/100 mL), 20% hydrochloric acid and 80% anhydrous ethanol, the derivative reaction with hainanmycin solution was carried out at 90 ℃ for 5 min at the volume ratio of 4∶6 (V∶V), and the color effect was the best after derivatization. Hainanmycin showed a linear relationship with the absorbance in the concentration range of 5~50 μg / mL, and the R2 (Coefficient of determination) was 0.993. This method could quantify the hainanmycin content in the premix and feed. The limit of quantification was 4.8 mg/kg in feed, and the recoveries of hainanmycin in feed and premix were 74.5%~93.8% and 83.2%~101.3%, respectively. It can be used as an effective method for the detection of hainanmycin in feed and premix.
    23  A rapid identification method for adulteration of microcrystalline cellulose
    CHEN Xiu-ming LIANG Hao-xin HUANG Wei-qiang XI Xing-lin LI Shuang ZHANG Jia-jun
    2023, 31(1):181-188.
    [Abstract](12) [HTML](142) [PDF 2.96 M](208)
    A rapid identification method of microcrystalline cellulose adulteration by near infrared spectroscopy was studied. Based on the near-infrared spectrum data of microcrystalline cellulose samples and adulterants (soluble starch, wheat flour), the material spectrum database and the adulterant spectrum database were created respectively, and the microcrystalline cellulose classification and the adulterant models were also established. A rapid identification method for microcrystalline cellulose adulteration was established by using the Adulterant Screen algorithm technology for calculation and analysis. The minimum detected content of single component adulteration of microcrystalline fiber powder was 2% soluble starch and 1% wheat flour, and the accurate recognition rate was 100%. When the adulteration of two components (soluble starch + wheat flour) was two to ten times of the detection limit concentration of one component, the accurate recognition rate was 100%. The accurate recognition rate of unknown sample microcrystalline cellulose above the detection limit is 100%. The method is simple, rapid and reliable, and can quickly identify adulteration of microcrystalline cellulose samples. It can be effectively applied to the adulteration detection and identification of daily microcrystalline cellulose samples, which could provide technical support for the customs to crack down on tax evasion and evasion.
    24  Simulation study on the ventilation effect of a new type of ventilation network on room-type warehouses
    LI Jia-bin WANG Yuan-cheng LIU Jia-qi YANG Tai YANG Kai-min
    2023, 31(1):189-195.
    [Abstract](34) [HTML](137) [PDF 4.27 M](236)
    Mechanical ventilation is an important way to maintain the temperature and moisture of grain piles in the warehouse within the safe storage range, which is closely related to grain storage safety and the benefits of storage enterprises. In order to solve the disadvantages of the slow advancing speed of the inlet air in the vertical direction of the traditional Gui-shaped ventilation network, this paper proposed a new ventilation network with Gui-shaped and vertical riser to shorten the travel path and time of air or fumigation gas in the grain pile. The new ventilation network effects through numerical simulation were simulated and predicted to verify its feasibility. The results showed that the cooling rate and uniformity of this ventilation network were good, and the flow resistance of the inlet air in the vertical direction was significantly reduced. The cold front at the position of the riser could pass through the grain surface with a height of 5.5 m on the second day of ventilation, and the ventilation energy consumption could be reduced by about 16% compared with the traditional Gui-shaped ventilation network under the same conditions. The results could provide theory basis for the selection of optimal ventilation network of room type warehouse.
    25  Application of intelligent sampling system and intelligent inspection system in the construction of intelligent grain depot
    WANG Chao-qun
    2023, 31(1):196-202.
    [Abstract](38) [HTML](147) [PDF 2.44 M](347)
    At present, the majority of population domestic grain depot exist several problems, such as the low level of storage facilities, the inexact way of raw grain collection and storage, the low efficiency of traditional cutting and inspection, and these problems have already hindered the further development of food security refined managed. Promoting the Intelligent Grain Depot (Mechanization, Automation, Informatization and Intelligent Control) is of great importance in ensuring the food storage security. This paper analysed the present situation of inaccurate grain samples, inaccurate inspection and low working efficiency, and explored the approaches of elevating the representative of sample by Intelligent Sampling System automatic scan the Grain surface, automatic compute sample site. The approaches of automatically inspects the generated moisture, unit weigh, impurities and other quality indicators were also explored by Intelligent Inspection System, and the feasibility of promotion and application of Intelligent Sampling System and the intelligent Inspection System were also studied.

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