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Volume 30,Issue 3,2022 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Suggestions for Chinese Dietary Lipids Reference Intakes in the New Period(Online First, Recommended Article)
    ZHANG Jian PANG Shao-jie JIA Shan-shan
    2022, 30(3):1-6. DOI: 10.16210/j.cnki.1007-7561.2022.03.001
    [Abstract](69) [HTML](164) [PDF 429.17 K](213)
    With the rapid development of economy and society, the dietary pattern of Chinese residents has undergone obvious transition. The recommendation of dietary lipids intake has a significant influence on the improvement of dietary pattern and on the achievement of Healthy China goals in the new period. We put forward some suggestions on the revision of dietary lipids reference intake for Chinese residents. (1) The upper limit of acceptable macronutrient distribution range (U-AMDR) of percent of energy (%E) from fat for residents aged 18 years and above in China is 30%E, lower than that in countries of European Union and North America, which is 35%E. Some scholars suggest raising the U-AMDR of dietary fat for Chinese adults, but there is still insufficient evidence for modification. However, considering the characteristics of high-energy and nutrient-dense diets required by the elderly, increasing the U-AMDR of dietary fat in the elderly should be considered. (2) Some studies have shown that the ratio of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6/n-3PUFA) is closely related to the risk of multiple chronic non-communicable diseases. The average dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of Chinese residents is 8.6, and even higher in some populations. Therefore, it is recommended that the recommended values of dietary n-6/n-3PUFA ratio be included in the new dietary lipid reference intake recommendations. (3) Despite numerous investigations, the relationship between dietary cholesterol intake and the outcomes of several chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, remains unclear. The average daily cholesterol intake was in the normal range, 264.0 mg in urban residents while 168.8 mg in rural residents. Based on current research evidence, it is still inappropriate to set dietary cholesterol limits for the general adult population. For patients with chronic diseases such as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, it is suggested to refer to the recommendations on dietary cholesterol intake in the guidelines of control and prevention for corresponding diseases.
    2  Omega-6 for Body, Omega-3 for Brain: Balance for Brain Development in Children(Online First, Recommended Article)
    J. Thomas BRENNA
    2022, 30(3):7-15. DOI: 10.16210/j.cnki.1007-7561.2022.03.002
    [Abstract](62) [HTML](163) [PDF 517.52 K](185)
    Food must supply a balance of nutrients to support both brain and body. The human brain makes us uniquely human. Essential fatty acids are part of the metabolic pathways that define tissue structure and function. Omega-6 (O6) linoleic acid (LA6) has long been known to be required for skin structure, and as a precursor for inflammatory, thrombotic, immune, and other signaling molecules. Omega-3 (O3) alpha- linolenic acid (ALA3) and particularly its long chain product docosahexaenoic acid (DHA3) has a key structural role in the brain, retina, and related neural tissue. In the 20th century western world, inexpensive, high quality oils primarily from LA6-rich/O3-poor vegetable seed oils became dominant fats produced by the food industry. Provision of LA6-rich/O3-poor oils as the sole source of fat in the diets of pregnant animals causes O3 deficiency and poor brain development, primarily because high LA6 antagonizes metabolism of all O3, creating an artificial metabolic demand for O3. Data developed over the last 2~3 decades show that provision of low LA6 combined with preformed DHA3 optimizes brain function. Recent studies emphasize the importance of nutrition to support brain development, with newer findings showing particular importance of fatty acid balance in malnourished children. The World Health Organization (WHO) through the Codex Alimentarius (“Code for Food”) is increasingly recognizing the primacy of brain health and in part on that basis recently acted to recommend balanced fat for Ready-to-Use-Therapeutic Foods used to treat children with severe acute malnutrition. Similar principles are likely to be important in older persons. Industry now has the tools to adjust the composition of oils to support brain health throughout the life cycle.
    3  High Linoleic Acid in the Food Supply Worldwide-What are the Consequences?(Online First, Recommended Article)
    Andrew J. SINCLAIR
    2022, 30(3):23-32. DOI: 10.16210/j.cnki.1007-7561.2022.03.003
    [Abstract](51) [HTML](185) [PDF 1.23 M](158)
    The macronutrient composition of food supply in China has altered dramatically in the past 70 years. Fat (oil) has increased more than 4.2-times while the carbohydrate content has declined by 34%. Vegetable oils are the major component of the fat intake and since these oils are rich in linoleic acid, there has been a significant rise in the consumption of this fatty acid (as much as a 4-fold rise). Linoleic acid has essential functions in the body in skin and as a precursor of prostaglandins and related compounds. The current intakes of linoleic acid are well in excess of the minimum requirements. In this review, the effects of a food supply rich in linoleic acid on pain in arthritis and headache, non-alcoholic fatty liver and neural function are explored, with emphasis on lipid mediators derived from linoleic acid and other long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The current world food systems have created an imbalance of dietary linoleic acid in relation to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and an imbalance in the lipid mediators derived from these polyunsaturated fatty acids which may be contributing to sub-optimal health status.
    4  Development and Production of Omega-3 Fatty Acids-Enriched Foods is an Important Dietary Strategy to Improve People᾽s Nutritional and Health Status(Online First, Recommended Article)
    Jing X. KANG
    2022, 30(3):41-45. DOI: 10.16210/j.cnki.1007-7561.2022.03.004
    [Abstract](51) [HTML](167) [PDF 445.63 K](165)
    Both Omega-6 and Omega-3 fatty acids are essential nutrients important for cellular structure and function but cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained from food. These two classes of fatty acids are metabolically and functionally different and antagonistically regulate many physiological and pathological processes. Thus, the relative balance between Omega-6 and Omega-3 fatty acids are critical for good health. However, today’s diet contains too much Omega-6 but too little Omega-3, leading to a severe imbalance with a very high Omega-6/Omega-3 ratio (>10) in most people. Many lines of evidence suggest that this imbalance is a key factor contributing to the development of modern chronic diseases. A growing number of studies ranging from laboratory research to clinical trials have shown that balancing the tissue ratio of Omega-6/Omega-3 fatty acids by increasing tissue levels of Omega-3 fatty acids and/or decreasing the content of Omega-6 fatty acids are very beneficial for the prevention and treatment of many life-threating chronic diseases as well as for health promotion of the general public. Therefore, development and production of foods rich in Omega-3-fatty acids should be considered as a key health program to balance essential fat intake and thereby improve the nutritional and health status of all people.
    5  On COVID-19 and Membrane Lipids and Public Health(Online First, Recommended Article)
    Yi-qun WANG Mark JOHNSON Walter F. SCHMIDT Hong-wei REN Michael A CRAWFORD
    2022, 30(3):49-54. DOI: 10.16210/j.cnki.1007-7561.2022.03.005
    [Abstract](34) [HTML](157) [PDF 1.23 M](172)
    Coronavirus has a lipid membrane. Whist replication requires hijacking the RNA tools of the host to synthesize virion protein, that then has to be wrapped in a lipid membrane to enable the budding off which extends the infection. Recent studies implicate certain essential fatty acids with replication suppression properties. The lipid membrane is commonly thought of as a fatty barrier to water solubles. It is however highly ordered and compositionally specific to cellular and sub cellular functions. There will likely also be an optimum specificity for the viral coat. Whist DNA, RNA and protein compositions are not affected by diet, the lipid membrane is. Moreover, the greater sensitivity of males over females to inadequacy of these essential fatty acids and membrane integrity has been known since the 1960s. With evidence that arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids exhibiting anti-viral, immune, anti-inflammatory, blood pressure control and resolvin activity, their status needs to be urgently examined in relation to the prevention and therapy for Covid-19. It would also be advisable to re-assess food policy. The lipid requirements for the membrane rich systems as in the brain, nervous, vascular and immune systems have not been considered. There is little doubt these were significant in shaping the human genome over several million years. Departure from such conditions would be predicted to put populations at risk to disorder and infection, with males being more at risk than females.
    6  Optimization Technology of Longshan Millet γ-amino Butyric Acid Enrichment Process by Neural Network Algorithm
    ZHANG Yi-ming HE Fa-tao GE Bang-guo GAO Ling
    2022, 30(3):59-66. DOI: 10.16210/j.cnki.1007-7561.2022.03.006
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](163) [PDF 5.45 M](147)
    In order to promote the quality and efficiency improvement of Longshan millet industry and enhance the added value of products, this study took Longshan millet as the main raw material to learn the effects of soaking time, germination temperature and germination time on Longshan millet γ-aminobutyric acid content. Based on the single factor test, the response surface optimi­zation test was carried out. Through back propagation (BP) neural network and genetic algorithm (GA), the optimization test results are simulated, analyzed and optimized. The results showed: The optimal process for γ-aminobutyric acid enrichment of Longshan millet was soaking time of 11.5 h, germination temperature of 38.5 ℃, and germination time of 49.5 h. Through this process, the content of Longshan millet γ-aminobutyric acid was 444.03 mg/kg, 5.68 times higher than that of untreated samples.
    7  Method for Evaluation of Foxtail Millet Cooking and Edible Quality
    LV Ping LIU Jian-lei DUAN Xiao-liang WANG Qian CHANG Liu ZHAO Lu-yao ZHANG Dong SUN Hui
    2022, 30(3):67-74. DOI: 10.16210/j.cnki.1007-7561.2022.03.007
    [Abstract](37) [HTML](177) [PDF 401.07 K](233)
    Foxtail millet, a high-quality coarse cereal, is generally used to cook porridge. Cooked foxtail millet is another food product of this cereal. However, a systematic evaluation method for the eating quality of cooked foxtail millet has not yet been established. In this study, heater type, millet-to-water mass ratio, water type, and soaking time affecting the edible quality of cooked foxtail millet (Variety: Zhangzagu 13) were investigated. The hardness viscometer, colorimeter and sensory evaluation were used to comprehensively evaluate the edible quality of millet. The optimal cooking method was determined as follows: Firstly, put 300 g of millet in an electric cooker and wash twice with deionized water quickly. Secondly, add deionized water in a mass ratio of millet to water 1.0∶2.0 and soak for 30 min. Finally, cook millet for about 45 minutes in the essence rice mode. After cooking, stir well and stew for 20 min. This research provides an important scientific basis for foxtail millet cooking and edible quality evaluation.
    8  Preparation of Low Erucic Acid Glycerol from Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge by Immobilized Lipase TLIM
    XU Chun-hui WANG Yao DU Jun-min
    2022, 30(3):75-80. DOI: 10.16210/j.cnki.1007-7561.2022.03.008
    [Abstract](14) [HTML](165) [PDF 555.25 K](127)
    Lipase TLIM was used as catalyst to prepare low erucic acid glyceride from Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge oil. The effects of enzyme addition amount, reaction time, reaction temperature and water/oil molar ratio on hydrolysis reaction were investigated by single factor test, and the hydrolysis reaction conditions were optimized by orthogonal test. The results showed that the optimal reaction conditions for the preparation of low erucic acid triglyceride from Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge catalyzed by immobilized lipase TLIM were as follows: enzyme dosage of 5%, reaction temperature of 45 ℃, reaction time of 5 h, water/oil ratio of 30∶1. Under these conditions, the content of erucic acid in Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge triglyceride reached 4.86%. It was proved that erucic acid of Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge oil was distributed in position 1 and 3 of triglyceride, and the content of nervonic acid was kept at about 1%.
    9  Research on Preparation of Rapeseed Polypeptide by Multi Enzyme Step-by-step Hydrolysis
    ZHOU Tong GAO Pan WANG Shu ZHOU Li HU Chuan-rong HE Dong-ping
    2022, 30(3):81-89. DOI: 10.16210/j.cnki.1007-7561.2022.03.009
    [Abstract](34) [HTML](167) [PDF 2.61 M](242)
    In this experiment, a multi-enzyme method was used to prepare rapeseed peptides by stepwise hydrolysis of rapeseed proteins. Based on four single-factor experiments of hydrolysis temperature, hydrolysis time, pH value and enzyme addition, the response surface methodology was used to optimize the hydrolysis conditions of rapeseed proteins. The results showed that the optimal experimental conditions were 55.5 ℃ of temperature, 90 min of hydrolysis time, 10.5 of pH, and 10 400 U/g of enzyme addition. The hydrolysis degree was 31.64% under these conditions. The second hydrolysis was carried out by using compound flavor protease. The debittering effect of rapeseed peptide was remarkable, and the hydrolysis degree reached more than 38% after 120 min of hydrolysis time. This experiment improved the extraction rate of rapeseed peptides and obtained rapeseed peptides with good debittering effect.
    10  Current Situation and Future Prospect of the Standard System of Convenience Food in China(Online First, Recommended Article)
    TU Zhen-hua DONG Yi-wei TU Bin-hua CHENG wei WEN Kai
    2022, 30(3):90-95. DOI: 10.16210/j.cnki.1007-7561.2022.03.010
    [Abstract](27) [HTML](169) [PDF 415.33 K](126)
    China's convenience food industry is developing rapidly. In recent years, the development of new product standards for convenience food has been continuously strengthened. Besides the approved industry standards such as “convenience dishes”, there are a number of industry standards currently being approved for development plan, which will effectively guide and standardize the industry's high-quality and healthy development. But on the whole, the product standard in this field needs to be revised and the product standard system needs to be further improved. By analyzing and interpreting the current standards and the standard system and the main contents of the newly formulated standards, this paper sorts out the main problems in the formulation and implementation of the standards, and puts forward the direction and suggestions for the construction of the standard system and its future revision, to facilitate the food industry’s product research and development, production and supervision to provide a technical basis.
    11  Oil Absorption-Reducing and Structural Changes of Fried Sweet Potato Starch with the Addition of Sodium Alginate and Low Methoxyl Pectin(Online First, Recommended Article)
    FANG Zi-wei WANG Yu-sheng LI Xin CHEN Hai-hua
    2022, 30(3):96-104. DOI: 10.16210/j.cnki.1007-7561.2022.03.011
    [Abstract](39) [HTML](166) [PDF 1.02 M](144)
    In order to explore the oil reducing mechanism of sodium alginate (AG) and low methoxyl pectin (LMP) on the fried sweet potato starch, the oil content, distribution and thermal properties of fried sweet potato starch with 0.5% (W/W), 2% (W/W) AG or 2% (W/W) LMP were investigated by low field nuclear magnetic resonance, confocal laser scanning microscopy, X-ray diffractometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis and differential scanning calorimetric analysis, respectively. The results showed that the total oil content of fried sweet potato starch significantly decreased with adding AG or LMP, while most of the oil was distributed on the starch surface. The crystallization pattern of fried sweet potato starch with adding AG or LMP changed from A+V type to V type, as well as the gelatinization enthalpy and relative crystallinity significantly decreased. The fried sweet potato starch with AG showed an obviously lower total oil content, relative crystallinity and gelatinization enthalpy than that with LMP. The fried sweet potato starch with 2% AG exhibited the highest gelatinization degree to form a continuous and dense lamellar structure, while showed the lowest total oil content and surface oil content. The result of this study could provide a reference for processing the fried starchy foods with low oil content.
    12  Optimization of Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Decolorization Process of Walnut Protein
    WANG Wei LI Ya-juan JIANG Yue SHEN Ming-juan
    2022, 30(3):105-112. DOI: 10.16210/j.cnki.1007-7561.2022.03.012
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](167) [PDF 523.82 K](254)
    This paper aimed at the high-value utilization of walnut cake, a by-product of oil processing industry. The walnut protein (WP) was extracted by alkali extraction-acid precipitation method from cold-pressed walnut cake, then trypsin hydrolysis process was optimized by single factor experiment and orthogonal design, with degree of hydrolysis (DH) as the indicator. Subsequently, the decolorization process of WP hydrolysate was optimized with protein recovery rate and decolorization rate as the indicators. The results showed that the extracted walnut protein was of high purity and could be used for further enzymatic hydrolysis and decolorization tests. After optimization, the DH of WP could be increased to 21.08% under the following conditions: the substrate concentration of 3%, the hydrolysis temperature of 55 ℃, the enzyme addition of 6 250 U/g protein, and the enzymatic hydrolysis time of 5 h. The optimal process of decolorization of walnut protease hydrolysate was obtained at an activated carbon addition of 1.2% (W/V), a pH of 4.5, a adsorption temperature of 45 ℃, and a decolorization time of 90 min. Under these conditions, the decolorization rate of walnut protease hydrolysate was 78.05%, protein recovery rate was 82.16%, and the combined weighted mean score was 80.11. The optimization process of trypsin hydrolysis and decolorization could provide some references for the development and utilization of walnut cake.
    13  Effect of Superfine Mulberry Leaf Powder on Farinographical Properties of Dough and Quality of Steamed Bread
    XIA Jia-long JI Hui YIN Yan-bo FANG Shu-ting LIU Yu-juan HUANG Yan LIU Yun-guo TANG Xiao-juan
    2022, 30(3):113-118. DOI: 10.16210/j.cnki.1007-7561.2022.03.013
    [Abstract](35) [HTML](177) [PDF 464.11 K](154)
    We replaced wheat flour by superfine mulberry leaf powder at 5%, 10%, 15%, 20 % and 25% to make dough and steamed bread. The effect of superfine mulberry leaf powder on farinographical properties of dough and quality of steamed bread were studied. The results showed that partial substitution of wheat flour with superfine mulberry leaf powder could improve the water absorption of dough. The dough stability showed the transformation rule of first increasingand then decreasing with the mass increasing of mulberry leaf powder. When the substitution rate exceeds 15%, the dough stability time significantly reduced and the degree of softening significantly increased. Steamed bread quality research results showed that with the increase of mulberry leaf powder level, bread specific volume declined, the height-diameter ratio firstly increased and then decreased, and the bread hardness and adhesion increased. With the addition of 15% of superfine mulberry leaf powder, mulberry leaf steamed bread showed a green color and had a higher overall sensory quality. Staling results showed that the mulberry leaf powder reduced hardening rate of steamed bread and could effectively delay the staling rate of steamed bread during storage. The above experiment showed that steamed bread with 15% superfine mulberry leaf powder had a higher overall sensory acceptance with the best quality.
    14  The Efficacy and Mechanism of Xiaoqinglong Decoction in the Treatment of AECOPD based on Meta-analysis and Bridging Network Pharmacology
    LI Rui YANG Fan
    2022, 30(3):119-136. DOI: 10.16210/j.cnki.1007-7561.2022.03.014
    [Abstract](49) [HTML](169) [PDF 2.97 M](186)
    This study comprehensively evaluates the efficacy of Xiaoqinglong decoction combined with conventional treatment in the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) based on Meta-analysis and network pharmacology, and preliminarily explores its potential action mechanism. Xiaoqinglong decoction combined with conventional treatment of randomized controlled trials for the treatment of AECOPD were collected by searching databases such as CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, PubMed, Cochrane Library and Web of Science; All literatures were screened based on inclusion and exclusion criteria and RevMan 5.4 software was used for Meta-analysis. The following steps were performed: The active components and their corresponding targets of Xiaoqinglong Decoction were searched and screened through tcmsp database; the Xiaoqinglong decoction compound target gene network was drawn; the key compounds were screened; the target genes related to COPD were searched in TTD database, genecards database, OMIM database and drugbank database; the intersection targets of chemical component targets and disease targets were screened by Excel, and the Wayne diagram was drawn; the intersection targets were imported into the string database to construct the PPI network and then the active ingredient targets of Xiaoqinglong decoction and the common targets of COPD were imported into the David 6.8 database for gene ontology (go) analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) analysis. The first 20 KEGG pathways were taken to draw the potential target pathway network diagram. Bioinformatics technology was used to analyze and preliminarily explore its mechanism. Meta-analysis included 34 articles and 2 948 patients totally. The results showed that Xiaoqinglong decoction combined with conventional treatment is superior to conventional treatment alone in terms of total effective rate, pulmonary function, arterial blood gas analysis, total score of TCM symptoms and signs, remission time of main symptoms and level of inflammatory factors. Network pharmacology has 157 components, 150 common targets and 130 related pathways, mainly involving HIF-1 signaling pathway, tumor necrosis factor signaling pathway, PI3K Akt signaling pathway, toll like receptor signaling pathway and other pathways, as well as major biological processes such as oxidation reaction and inflammatory reaction. Xiaoqinglong decoction combined with conventional western medicine is superior to conventional western medicine alone in clinical efficacy. Its potential mechanism may be to achieve the purpose of treating AECOPD through the process of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant stress.
    15  Research on the Ingredients and Mechanisms of Mulberry in the Prevention and Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease of Liver and Kidney Yin Deficiency(Online First, Recommended Article)
    SONG Xiao-man LI Wen-lin YANG Li-li ZENG Li
    2022, 30(3):137-147. DOI: 10.16210/j.cnki.1007-7561.2022.03.015
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](160) [PDF 2.15 M](123)
    To explore the ingredients and possible mechanisms of Mulberry for controlling coronary heart disease of liver and kidney yin deficiency based on network pharmacology and molecular docking. The active components and common targets of Mulberry combating coronary heart disease of liver and kidney yin deficiency were obtained from TCMSP, TCMID, Swiss TargetPrediction, and GeneCards databases; cytoscape software was used to generate component-target-disease interaction network diagram. PPI network was constructed and analyzed by STRING database; with the help of DAVID database, the GO function analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were carried out, and finally Schrödinger Maestro was used to verify the molecular docking of main active ingredients and key targets. There were 14 active components in Mulberry, and 134 target genes were associated with coronary heart disease of liver and kidney yin deficiency. Predicted target genes mainly acted on TNF, PI3K/AKT signaling pathways to prevent and treat coronary heart disease with liver and kidney yin deficiency by regulating inflammation, apoptosis and blood circulation. Molecular docking results showed that the main active ingredients had good binding properties with candidate target proteins. The study preliminarily reveals that Mulberry can prevent and treat coronary heart disease of liver and kidney yin deficiency through multi- components, multi-targets and multi-pathways. The results can provide theoretical reference and new research direction for the development of Mulberry and functional foods for controlling the coronary heart disease of liver and kidney yin deficiency.
    16  The Protective Effect of Dai Medicine Longxue Jie on Cerebral Ischemia Rats
    ZHANG Xiao-yan CAI Yu-yu WANG Yu-yao SUN Hai-zhen
    2022, 30(3):148-155. DOI: 10.16210/j.cnki.1007-7561.2022.03.016
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](165) [PDF 556.99 K](153)
    In this study, we observed the effects of Langxue Jie on neurological function score, cerebral edema, cerebral infarction area, cell morphology and oxidative stress indexes of cerebral ischemia rats, and explored its brain protection effect. The middle cerebral artery embolization (MCAO) model of rats was established by the method of thread embolization. The rats were randomly divided into six groups, and the neurological deficit score (mNSS) of rats was recorded for 14 consecutive days. TTC staining was used to determine the volume of cerebral infarction. The water content of brain tissue was determined (%). SOD, CAT, GSH-Px and MDA oxidative stress indexes were detected in serum of rats. Compared with Sham, the cerebral tissue water content, cerebral infarction area and neurological function score in model group were higher, and the activities of SOD, GSH-Px and CAT, indicators of oxidative stress, were decreased with significant differences (P<0.05), while MDA content was increased. Compared with Model group, neurobehavioral score and cerebral infarction volume in DBH/M group were decreased significantly (P<0.05), and DBH/M group was superior to NXT group. In the treatment group, the water content of brain tissue was decreased, SOD, GSH-Px and CAT activities were increased, and MDA content was decreased. There was significant difference in DBH group (P<0.05), but no significant difference in NXT group (P>0.05). It is concluded that Longxue Jie can reduce the water content of brain tissue, reduce the area of cerebral infarction, improve cell morphology, reduce oxidative stress response and therefore improve nerve injury, and produce brain protection.
    17  Research on Nutritional Characteristics of Rice Germ
    HAN Wei ZENG Li ZHANG Meng-rui LI Meng-yang LU Hong-qiang RAN Xu
    2022, 30(3):156-162. DOI: 10.16210/j.cnki.1007-7561.2022.03.017
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](159) [PDF 1.46 M](191)
    Rice germ is rich in a variety of nutrients, but at present, most of that is used as a by-product of rice processing for feed or wasted by discarding. The degree of deep processing and utilization is not high, and the economic benefit is low. Through the study about basic nutrients of rice germ, the results showed that there were a lot of proteins composed of abundant kinds of amino acids with high contents of proline, serine, aspartic acid, arginine and leucine. The contents of Mn, Fe and Zn were significantly higher than that of milled rice. The content of fatty acid was higher than that of wheat germ and corn germ, and the proportion of unsaturated fatty acid was higher, so the nutritional quality was better with higher development and utilization value. X-ray diffraction results showed that germ starch was a typical type A starch, with high amylopectin/amylopectin ratio and good digestibility. Through the determination of the nutritional components of rice germ and the comparative study with the common staple food on the market, we can further understand its nutritional characteristics and provide scientific reference for the development and utilization of rice germ.
    18  Fast Determination of 20 Pesticides Residues in Wheat Using QuEChERS-modified and GC-MS/MS(Online First, Recommended Article)
    PENG Xing-xing GAO Hai-jun YIN Cheng-hua
    2022, 30(3):163-170. DOI: 10.16210/j.cnki.1007-7561.2022.03.018
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](177) [PDF 696.83 K](143)
    A method for the determination of 20 pesticides residues in wheat by QuEChERS coupled with GC-MS/MS was developed. The effect of sorbent for purification was investigated. The matrix effect was also studied. The results showed that: (1) Compared with pretreatment method in 7.1.2 of GB 23200. 113—2018, this method reduced the amount of anhydrous MgSO4 added from 1200 mg to 400 mg, the amount of PSA added from 400 mg to 100 mg, and the amount of C18 added from 400 mg to 200 mg. Also, the add 100 mg GCB that could effectively remove the pigment in the wheat extract by optimizing the purification adsorbent. (2) The calibration curves of the 20 pesticides showed good linearity in the range of 5–500 ng/mL with the correlation coefficients (R2) greater than 0.99. The LOD ranged from 0.01 to 0.16 μg/kg and LOQ ranged from 0.04 to 0.52 μg/kg for 20 pesticides. The matrix effects of the 20 pesticides varied greatly. (3) At the spiked level of 80.0 μg/kg, 200.0 μg/kg and 400.0 μg/kg the average recoveries were 75.24%-98.29%, 82.01%-105.71% and 94.91%-106.14% respectively, and relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 0.57%-3.13%, 0.67%-3.98% and 1.26%-3.08% respectively. The method met the requirements of pesticide residue analysis.
    19  Determination of 5,6,7,8-Tetrahydroquinoxaline Added in Aromatic Rice by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry(Online First, Recommended Article)
    BAO Zhong-ding WANG Dong-ming WANG Xiao
    2022, 30(3):171-176. DOI: 10.16210/j.cnki.1007-7561.2022.03.019
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](154) [PDF 645.46 K](182)
    A method for separation and determination of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinoxaline added in aromatic rice by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was established. The anhydrous ether was extracted(Soxhlet) after drying,purified by anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated with nitrogen blowing,and the anhydrous ethanol was dissolved. The extract was separated by an HP-INNOWAX column and then detected by a mass spectrometer,and quantified by an external standard method. The method had a good linear relationship (R=0.9994) in the range of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinoxaline concentration of 0.5~10.0 mg/L. The RSD of the method was 4.77%. The recovery rate of addition was within 81.00%~93.70%,and the detection limit (RSN=3) of the method was 0.05 mg/L. Results showed that the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method is suitable for rapid qualitative analysis and identification of aromatic rice.
    20  Research Progress on Mycotoxin Adsorbent and Evaluation Methods of Adsorption Effect
    SHI Jing-jing HE Bei-bei LIU Kuan-bo WANG Yong-wei WANG Li LI Ai-ke
    2022, 30(3):177-185. DOI: 10.16210/j.cnki.1007-7561.2022.03.020
    [Abstract](32) [HTML](158) [PDF 1.17 M](468)
    Chinese authorities pay high attention to food saving and loss reduction work, and emphasize to take various measures to reduce food loss. The mycotoxin pollution in grain and feed has caused food loss and seriously threatens the health of humans and livestock. The physical, chemical and biological methods can detoxify mycotoxin and improve the utilization value of feed resources. Adsorption is a detoxification method by stably combining adsorbents and mycotoxins into complexes. The multiple modification of traditional adsorbents and the development of new adsorbent materials have significantly improved the adsorption effect. This article will review the types of mycotoxin adsorbents and the evaluation methods of its adsorption effects in grain and feed. The modified methods of mycotoxin adsorbents, such as aluminosilicates, carbon materials, organic polymers, bio-adsorbents and new materials, will be briefly introduced. Besides, the application of in vitro method, artificial gastrointestinal fluid parenteral simulation and animal experiment in the evaluation of efficacy and safety of mycotoxin adsorbents will be highlighted, which can provide references for the development, scientific application and analysis of adsorption mechanisms of mycotoxin adsorbents.
    21  Research on Moisture Content Determination of Puffs using Near Infrared Spectroscopy Technology
    XU Fu-cheng ZHOU Jian-li YU Xiao-bin TANG Guo
    2022, 30(3):186-190. DOI: 10.16210/j.cnki.1007-7561.2022.03.021
    [Abstract](28) [HTML](177) [PDF 594.90 K](153)
    Rapid determination of moisture content is an important requirement to ensure the production quality of puffs. In this paper, the NIR spectra of 130 modeling samples and 30 validation samples were collected, using IAS Online-S100 Near Infrared Spectroscopy Analyzer. The moisture analysis model of puff was established using spectral pretreatment and partial least square method. The results showed that determination coefficient R2, root mean square error of correction set (RMSEC), root mean square error of interactive verification (RMSECV) and root mean square error of prediction set (RMSEP) of the model are 0.88, 0.49%, 0.55% and 0.57% respectively, when using moving window smoothing method & SNV as spectral pretreatment method and the best principal factors was 9. The prediction error of the model is within ±1.3, and the accuracy meets the needs of the factory.
    22  Analysis of Force Chain of Corn Particles in Silo Unloading Based on Rolling Friction(Online First, Recommended Article)
    LI Kun-you PAN Fan SUN Hui-nan
    2022, 30(3):191-199. DOI: 10.16210/j.cnki.1007-7561.2022.03.022
    [Abstract](26) [HTML](176) [PDF 21.97 M](278)
    Based on the particle rolling friction, the force chain spatial distribution of corn particles in the silo is studied. The silo model and the corn particle model are established through EDEM discrete element software to simulate the unloading of grain, and the flow pattern is compared with the silo unloading test to verify the accuracy of the model and simulation results. Through slice observation and data processing of the simulated silo, the evolution of the meso-parameters of the force chain with time under different rolling friction conditions are analyzed. The results show that the larger the coefficient of friction between particles, the longer the final time for unloading; the smaller the coefficient of rolling friction between particles, the earlier it takes for the particles to transform from bulk flow to tubular flow. For a silo with a funnel, reducing the friction between particles will change the limit between the bulk flow and the tubular flow, thereby increasing the area where the tubular flow is generated. Under the standard rolling friction coefficient, the corn particles will have the arching-collapse effect during the unloading process. Reducing the rolling friction, the corn particles will be discharged more stable, so there is no sudden increase in the stress of arching nor attenuation in the stress of arch collapse. Increasing the rolling friction between particles will increase not only the feeding effect, but also cause arch height is higher from the funnel mouth.
    23  Analysis and Research on Cloud Diagram of Temperature Field of Wheat Grain Pile in Air-film Reinforced Concrete Spherical Silo
    YAO Qu YIN Jun ZHANG Zhong-jie LI yan-wei
    2022, 30(3):200-205. DOI: 10.16210/j.cnki.1007-7561.2022.03.023
    [Abstract](26) [HTML](169) [PDF 5.89 M](142)
    The air-film reinforced concrete spherical silo (hereinafter referred to as the air-film spherical silo) is a new type of storage structure. In order to explore the effect of the air-film spherical silo in a storage period, this paper takes the first air-film spherical silo in China as a research object and the wheat grain pile as the research target to reproduce the distribution of temperature field cloud map in the radial and vertical plane of wheat in the storage period by numerical fitting. Results showed that the air-film spherical silo had the characteristics of low silo temperature and average grain temperature. A huge and stable “cold core” formed inside the grain pile, effectively inhibiting the reproduction of pests. Therefore, the grains can safely pass the summer without the use of chemical fumigation in a whole grain storage period, which has a positive effect on promoting the development of low-temperature green grain storage technology.
    24  Grain Storage Adapted to Drought Environment ——Analysis of Underground Grain Storage in Western Australia(Online First, Recommended Article)
    WANG Zu-yuan GUO Chan-jiao
    2022, 30(3):206-211. DOI: 10.16210/j.cnki.1007-7561.2022.03.024
    [Abstract](56) [HTML](172) [PDF 1.18 M](181)
    Underground storage of grain is a method with long history. The underground quasi-low temperature and airtight isolation provide a storage environment that can inhibit pests for long-term storage of grain. This paper introduces a method of underground grain storage in Western Australia, which has been tested by farmers on the spot, and presents its specific practice and technical path of regional underground grain storage, so as to provide case support for further study of underground grain storage in China.

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