SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF CEREALS, OILS AND FOODS

The Key Magazine of China Science and Technology
Selected by "2022 China Fine Periodical Exhibition"
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Volume 30,Issue 2,2022 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Highland Barley: A Potential Auxiliary Hypoglycemic Food Resource(Online First, Recommended Article)
    ZHANG Hui ZHU Ling CHEN Xiao-yu
    2022, 30(2):1-7.
    [Abstract](79) [HTML](44) [PDF 457.24 K](120)
    Abstract:
    In recent years, the threat of diabetes to human health is getting worse and worse, and the treatment and rehabilitation of diabetes have drawn great public attention. As an important vehicle of managing blood sugar, diet control is favored because of few side effects. Highland barley is rich in nutrients, including polyphenol, β-glucan, and other bioactive ingredients. Moreover, the experimental results in vivo and in vitro have fully proved that it has various health benefits, especially in reducing the rising level of blood glucose. Although the researches on the hypoglycemic mechanism of highland barley have increased year by year, mainly focused on the impact of a single component on blood glucose, and there is still a lack of comments systematically explaining the overall involvement of highland barley in glycemic management. Therefore, with the research literature mainly of the recent three years reviewed, this paper summarized the hypoglycemic effect of highland barley from the perspectives of nutritional composition and bioactive components (polyphenol, β-glucan, etc.), and analyzed the utilization of highland barley hypoglycemic food, in order to provide some theoretical references for further exploring the hypoglycemic mechanism of highland barley and developing highland barley functional food.
    2  Whole-wheat Flour and its Products: Nutritional Compositions, Health Benefits, and Quality Improvement(Online First, Recommended Article)
    NIU Meng HOU Gary G.
    2022, 30(2):8-15.
    [Abstract](66) [HTML](41) [PDF 537.30 K](75)
    Abstract:
    The development of grain milling techniques promotes the progress of fine grain processing. However, long-term intake of refined flour products induces nutritional imbalance the incidence rate of hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases is increasing by years. Whole-wheat flour includes all compounds in wheat kernels, being rich in dietary fiber, vitamins, and minerals. These substances have the function of lowering hypertension, oxidation resistance, radicals scavenging, and immunity strengthening. Therefore, whole-wheat food, made from whole-wheat flour, is an ideal choice in modifying dietary pattern and improving health condition of people. This review compared the differences in the nutritional compositions between whole-wheat flour and refined flour, summarized the specific nutrients such as dietary fiber, polyphenols, unsaturated fatty acid, phytosterol, and lignans, in whole-wheat flour and their health benefits from the perspectives of weight loss, preventing type-2 diabetes, and intervening cardiovascular disease, and introduced the quality improvement techniques of whole-wheat baked, steamed, and fried products. The review is expected to provide important reference for the development and expansion of whole - wheat products.
    3  Nutritional Components and Health Functions of Mung Bean and its Application in the Development of Plant-based Food(Online First, Recommended Article)
    ZHOU Su-mei LI Ruo-ning TANG jian HOU Dian-zhi LU Jing
    2022, 30(2):16-23.
    [Abstract](33) [HTML](39) [PDF 496.95 K](72)
    Abstract:
    Mung bean is a characteristic minor grain crop in China, a traditional medicine and food homologous material, and an important dry pulse in the world. Mung bean is high in protein, starch and rich in non-starch polysaccharides, polyphenols, flavonoids and other nutritional components, which makes it a popular research object of health food and functional activity among grain crops. This paper reviewed the research progress of mung bean nutritional components and functional ingredients (polyphenols, polysaccharides, functional proteins or peptides) and its antioxidant, lipid-lowering and hypoglycemic activities at home and abroad in recent years. Meanwhile, the research and industrial application of mung bean in new plant-based food were introduced, in order to provide reference for mung bean research and application in the future under the theoretical framework of modern nutrition and food science.
    4  Nutrition Value of Adlay and its Application Progress(Online First, Recommended Article)
    WANG Li-feng YAO Meng QIN Bo-wen YAO Yi-jun
    2022, 30(2):24-30.
    [Abstract](29) [HTML](44) [PDF 483.85 K](95)
    Abstract:
    Adlay is one of the oldest crops in China. Adlay, known as the “king of gramineous plants”, is a kind of traditional healthy food and has high nutritional value. Current studies have found that adlay with high nutritional value which can be anti-tumor, reduce blood sugar and pressure level, and also has benefit with digestion, analgesia, anti-inflammatory, and heat relieving and so on. At the same time, adlay has been widely used in clinical, cosmetic research and kinds of food processing and production. This paper reviewed the active components, physiological functions and industrial applications of adlay in order to provide theoretical reference for multi-dimensional utilization of adlay and its high-quality development in future industry.
    5  Current Research Progress of Cereal β-Glucan as an Important Dietary Fiber Component in Whole Cereal Foods(Online First, Recommended Article)
    SHEN Rui-ling CHEN Wen-wen
    2022, 30(2):31-40.
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](47) [PDF 673.02 K](61)
    Abstract:
    In recent years, β-glucan has been widely used in the production of various foods due to its remarkable health benefits and functional properties β-Glucan exists in various cereals such as oat, barley, highland barley, and wheat. There are differences in content, distribution, structure, functional properties and physiological activities of β-glucan in different cereals, thus affecting the application of β-glucan in food processing. Therefore, we illustrated the research status of the preparation method, nutrition, physicochemical properties, functional properties, and health benefits of cereal β-glucan and its polysaccharide, lipid and protein complexes. Besides, the problems occurred in the application of cereal β-glucan in food production were summarized. This review is anticipated to provide reference for the further development and utilization of cereal β-glucan.
    6  Effect of β-glucanase on Properties and Protein Structure of Dough with a High Oat Flour Content(Online First, Recommended Article)
    QIAN Hai-feng PAN Qi-feng LI Yan WANG Li FAN Ming-cong
    2022, 30(2):41-49.
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](44) [PDF 1.84 M](69)
    Abstract:
    β-glucanase can have a great influence on rheological properties and gluten protein structure of dough with a high oat content. We tested the farinographic properties of the pre-mixed oat bread flour, the dynamic oscillatory rheology of the dough, the content and average molecular weight of β-glucan, the free sulfhydryl content and proteins extractability in SDS solution of oat dough. We analyzed the secondary structure, SDS-PAGE protein patterns and surface hydrophobicity of the proteins in the dough. The results showed that, compared with the control group, after the addition of β-glucanase, the water absorption of the dough with 50% oat content, the storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G') all decreased significantly. The gel-forming properties of the β-glucanase in oat itself was weakened. The deformability and fluidity of the dough were improved. As a result, the processing suitability of the dough is enhanced. The β-glucanase reduced the degree of polymerization of β-glucan in the dough. The average molecular weight decreased from 350 KDa to 62 kDa, the non-covalent interaction between gluten proteins was strengthened, the surface hydrophobicity of gluten proteins was reduced, and the protein. The secondary structure is converted from random coils and β-turns to β-sheets, resulting in increased hydration and aggregation of gluten. The above research showed that β-glucanase had great potential on improving the processing adaptability of high oat content dough.
    7  The Recent Research Progress of Whole Grain Diet and Ketogenic Diet in Regulating Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus(Online First, Recommended Article)
    LI Yan HOU Xiao-xiao YANG Zi WANG Li QIAN Hai-feng
    2022, 30(2):50-58.
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](39) [PDF 489.09 K](68)
    Abstract:
    Type 2 diabetes mellitus has become one of the serious public health problems in the world. In recent years, whole grain foods and ketogenic foods, as representative foods, have been reported to have the effects of controlling blood glucose and blood lipids, losing body weight, and reducing the use of drugs for type 2 diabetes patients by improving the nutritional structure of fat, carbohydrates and protein. In this study, we summarize the origin of research among whole grain foods, ketogenic foods and T2DM and the role and mechanism of whole grain and ketogenic foods in controlling the development of T2DM; comb the development, utilization, existing problems and development trends of whole grains and ketogenic foods. There are different problems in the development of these two categories of foods. With the continuous development of involving these two foods in the treatment of T2DM, it is very necessary to develop a series of whole grain foods and ketogenic foods with balanced nutrition and delicious flavors.
    8  Mechanical Stability Mechanism of Konjac Glucomannan Grain State Based on Molecular Stiffness and Flexibility(Online First, Recommended Article)
    PANG Jie LIU Wei SUN Yuan-ming MO Xin-yuan WANG Lin JIANG Xue-kuang LI Jing ZHANG Hui
    2022, 30(2):59-67.
    [Abstract](14) [HTML](41) [PDF 7.18 M](62)
    Abstract:
    Konjac glucomannan (KGM) is a water-soluble natural plant polysaccharide from Konjac tubers, a special resource in China. It has good water absorption and thickening properties. Due to the complex structure, large molecular weight, and strong hydrophilicity of the characteristic acetyl group, KGM-based materials have poor moisture barrier properties and poor mechanical properties, further limiting their applications. In the early stage, it was found that the rigidity and flexibility of Konjac glucomannan particle molecular chain may affect the mechanical stability of its grain state. This strange molecular rigidity and flexibility may be due to the dynamic change of molecular chain to form stable KGM particles. It is speculated that the change of molecular rigid and flexible structure can improve the stability of molecular chain of KGM particles and obtain KGM particles with good mechanical properties. This paper will deeply analyze the research process of "KGM particle molecular rigidity and flexible structure → effect of molecular rigidity and flexible structure on KGM particle mechanical stability → molecular dynamics simulation interactive visual analysis → experimental verification and model evaluation → strengthening the mechanical properties of KGM based materials". The mechanical stability mechanism of Konjac glucomannan particle state structure formation and its molecular rigidity and flexible regulation behavior were revealed. The dynamic regulation was carried out by computer simulation to explore the relationship between them. The purpose is to reveal the mechanical stability mechanism of Konjac glucomannan particle state and lay a theoretical foundation for the bottleneck problem faced by Konjac refined powder in the processing process and its molecular stiffness and flexibility regulation.
    9  Current Status of Foreign Rice Production and Processing
    JIAO Yue HUANG Qing FEI Xiao-ji LUO Qiong AN Hong-zhou
    2022, 30(2):68-76.
    [Abstract](29) [HTML](42) [PDF 585.72 K](79)
    Abstract:
    We reviewed the rice varieties, rice processing equipment and main processing technology development and research status of Japan, India, Thailand, Malaysia, the United States and several major foreign rice producers. The rice processing production situation of Iran, Brazil, Nigeria and Indonesia was illustrated. After the comparative analysis of domestic and foreign rice processing technology and equipment, we proposed the necessity of continuous research and development on moderate processing and milling process, aiming to provide reference for the rice processing industry in China.
    10  Effect of Extrusion Cooking on the Enhancement of Soluble Dietary Fiber and Structure Properties of Dietary Fiber in Defatted Rice Bran(Online First, Recommended Article)
    WU Na-na WANG Lei-xin LV Ying-guo TAN Bin
    2022, 30(2):77-84.
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](40) [PDF 1.16 M](55)
    Abstract:
    The defatted rice bran was modified by extrusion cooking, and the effects of extrusion cooking on enhancement of soluble dietary fiber (SDF) and structural properties of dietary fiber in rice bran were studied. Taking SDF content as an index, the optimum extrusion conditions of rice bran were determined by single factor experiment as follows: water content of 35%, extrusion temperature of 160 ℃, and screw speed of 250 r/min. After extrusion cooking treatment, the SDF content of rice bran increased from 4.34% to 14.34%. The microstructure of SDF from extruded rice bran was expanded loosely, the water holding capacity and expansion capacity of SDF significantly increased, while the oil holding capacity of SDF significantly decreased. The infrared spectrum of SDF did not produce a new absorption peak, the peak position moved to the long wavenumber direction, and the absorption intensity decreased. The position of crystal diffraction peak of SDF did not change significantly, and the relative crystallinity decreased. The microstructure of insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) from extruded rice bran was broken, the expansibility of IDF significantly increased, the oil-holding capacity of IDF significantly decreased, and the water-holding capacity had no obvious changes. The results of infrared spectra and crystallization properties both showed that cellulose and hemicellulose still existed in IDF from rice bran after extrusion cooking, but the structure of IDF was destroyed and the relative crystallinity of IDF decreased. The results showed that extrusion cooking treatment could change the structure properties of rice bran dietary fiber, providing a theoretical basis for the development and application of dietary fiber products.
    11  Preparation of Special Medical Fat Emulsion Based on Palm Kernel Oil and its Effect on Blood Lipid in Mice(Online First, Recommended Article)
    ZHU Hai-hua GE Rui-hong MA Yin-hui YANG Jun-hao WANG Yong WANG Hui
    2022, 30(2):85-94.
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](44) [PDF 1.02 M](77)
    Abstract:
    MCTs is an important component of fat emulsion for special medical purposes (FESMP), and palm kernel oil is the natural food source of MCTs. In order to develop palm kernel oil based FESMP, the oil phase formula of the emulsion was designed according to the General Rules of Formula Food for Special Medical Use and the Reference Dietary Nutrient Intake of Chinese Residents, and the fatty acid composition was analyzed. The preparation process of fat emulsion was optimized by Zeta potential and particle size, the stability was evaluated and the effect on serum lipid was studied in mice. The results showed that the ratio of n–6 to n–3 in oil phase was 5.16±0.05; Step-by-step emulsification method was adopted, and the optimal emulsification process parameters were as follows: emulsification speed of 10 000 r/min, emulsification time of 20 min, and emulsification temperature of 50 ℃. The initial emulsion was homogenized by high pressure homogenizer at 50 MPa for three times and autoclaved at 121 ℃ for 10 min, and the product quality was stable. The results of animal experiments showed that the fatty acid balanced emulsion could significantly reduce the content of Triglycerides (TG) in serum of mice (P<0.01), and reduce the content of Total cholesterol (TC) in serum (P<0.01). It can also reduce the Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C content (P<0.05) and increase the content of High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (P<0.01). Therefore, it has a certain significance for regulating the level of blood lipid.
    12  Research Progress on Application of Natural Antioxidant Rosemary Extract in Edible Vegetable Oil
    YANG Li-ping GUO Mi-mi DUAN Zhang-qun
    2022, 30(2):95-100.
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](34) [PDF 627.20 K](41)
    Abstract:
    More and more attention has been paid to the safety and nutrition of edible vegetable oil. Maintaining the nutritional quality and stability of edible vegetable oil has become a key issue in the oil industry. Rosemary extract, as a natural antioxidant, has good oxidation resistance, which could inhibit the oxidative deterioration of oil and prolong the storage time for keeping the good sensory and nutritional quality of oil. Also, it shows better stability in high temperature environments. The oil is taken mainly through hot processing in China, so the natural nontoxic, efficient and heat-resistant antioxidant is desired for Chinese edible oils. In this paper, the application research progress of rosemary extract in edible vegetable oil was reviewed, providing theoretical reference for the antioxidant research of rosemary extract in oil.
    13  Preparation of Plant Ash Culture Tofu
    LIANG Xu ZHANG Qi-min SUN Jun-tao
    2022, 30(2):101-105.
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](42) [PDF 391.04 K](48)
    Abstract:
    In this paper, tofu and plant ash were used as the main raw materials to prepare the plant ash culture tofu by ash culture, marinating and frying. The best formula of the plant ash culture tofu was determined by single factor and orthogonal experiment. The results showed that: the best formula of the plant ash culture tofu was as follows: the ash culture time of tofu was 6 days, adding 2.2% salt, 0.6% chili powder, 2% soy sauce, 1% sugar, 0.04% black pepper, 0.5% monosodium glutamate and 0.2% five spice powder to every 1000 milliliter soup. The prepared ash culture tofu has light soy sauce color, soft texture, moderate salty and spicy, and strong bean flavor. Compared with ordinary tofu, the hardness, elasticity, stickiness and chewiness of ash culture tofu were 5.17 times, 1.33 times, 6.24 times and 8.78 times of ordinary tofu, respectively.
    14  The Technology and Quality Research of Citrus Passion Fruit Compound Juice by Response Surface Methodology
    XIONG Rong-yuan CAI Yun-ning WEI Ling DENG Wen-juan SHANG Ying LUO Tong-biao
    2022, 30(2):106-112.
    [Abstract](14) [HTML](38) [PDF 718.29 K](52)
    Abstract:
    To explore the best process quality of citrus and passion fruit to make compound juice, the pulp of citrus and passion fruit were used. After squeezing the juice and coarsely filtering, the raw juice of citrus and passion fruit was mixed in proportion, and pectinase was added as a clarifying agent for clarification. On the basis of single factor, three factors of clarification agent concentration, clarification temperature and clarification time were selected to design and analyze the optimal process conditions of the Box-Benhnken method in the response surface method. The optimal combination of processes selected through sensory evaluation was as follows: the mixing ratio of citrus and passion fruit raw juice was 2∶1; 0.19% of clarifying agent was added; the clarification temperature was 49 ℃; and the clarification time was 1.5 h. The compound juice of citrus and passion fruit is orange-yellow in color, rich fruit aroma, well-coordinated flavor and taste, and of good quality.
    15  Analysis of Flavor Changes of Instant Brown Rice Porridge Rice during Storage based on Gas Chromatography-Ion Mobility Spectrometry(Online First, Recommended Article)
    LIU Yan-xiang GUAN Li-na WU Na-na JIANG Ping ZHOU Shan-qing LIU Ming TIAN Xiao-hong TAN Bin
    2022, 30(2):113-131.
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](39) [PDF 42.57 M](133)
    Abstract:
    In order to explore the quality changes of instant brown rice porridge rice during storage, gas chromatographic ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS) and dynamic principal component analysis (PCA) were used to study the changes of the composition and content of characteristic volatile organic compounds during the storage of instant brown rice porridge rice, the difference of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) between samples was evaluated by the flavor information fingerprint. The results showed that GC-IMS combined technology can quickly and qualitatively identify the monomers and dimers of volatile substances of instant brown rice porridge rice in different storage environments and storage times, and a total of 59 VOCs have been identified. The VOCs of fresh instant brown rice porridge rice mainly include aldehydes, ketones and esters, with relative contents of 24.44%, 20.40% and 43.59% respectively. When stored at room temperature, the relative contents of alcohols, aldehydes, pyrazines and furans in instant brown rice porridge increased, while the contents of ketones and esters decreased with the extension of storage time. Vacuum condition had little effect on flavor quality of instant brown rice porridge. In high humidity environment, with the extension of storage time, organic acids were gradually produced, aldehydes and alcohols increased greatly, ketones and esters decreased, and volatile substances changed significantly with the increase of storage temperature.
    16  Research Progress on Effect of Brewing Methods on Brewing Quality of Rice Paste
    FU Bao-shang HU Xue-wei QI Li-bo JIANG Peng-fei SHANG Shan
    2022, 30(2):132-139.
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](42) [PDF 459.58 K](48)
    Abstract:
    Instant rice paste is a kind of colloidal solution with certain viscosity and consistency formed by mechanical crushing and boiling of grain. Due to its functional characteristics of instant energy supply, strong flavor and rich nutrition, it can quickly adapt to today’s fast-paced life. Water temperature and water quantity can influce water solubility index and gelatinization degree of rice paste after gelatinization. Pasting viscosity and dissolved lubrication degree of rice paste can be affected by punching particle size and modifier treatment. Suitable bubbling parameters based on pasting properties and solubility of rice paste can effectively improve the instant solubility, stability and taste of rice paste. The effects of four brewing methods (water temperature, water volume, particle size and modifier treatment) on the rheology, texture and sensory quality of cereal paste were reviewed. It is expected to provide some reference for the practical application of rice paste.
    17  Immobilization of α-galactosidase from Clitocybe squamulose and its Hydrolysis of Oigosaccharides in Soybean Milk
    ZUO Ning-ke CHANG Ming-chang MENG Jun-long WANG Zhao-yu WU Bin XU Li-jing
    2022, 30(2):140-147.
    [Abstract](12) [HTML](39) [PDF 2.13 M](41)
    Abstract:
    Sodium alginate embedding method and chitosan crosslinking method were used to immobilize α -galactosidase from Clitocybe squamulosa. The optimum pH, pH stability, optimum temperature, temperature stability, storage time of immobilized enzyme and free enzyme were compared. The hydrolysis on oligosaccharides in soymilk and operational stability of the two immobilized enzymes are compared. The results showed that the optimal saturation of ammonium sulfate was 80% for α-galactosidase from C. squamulosa. The enzyme activity retention rates of the two immobilized methods were both more than 50%, and the temperature stability, pH stability and storage time of immobilized enzyme were improved compared with that of free enzyme. After comparing the two immobilized enzymes, the temperature, acidity stability and operation stability of chitosan immobilized enzyme were better than that of sodium alginate immobilized enzyme. But the hydrolysis efficiency of chitosan immobilized enzyme on soymilk oligosaccharide was lower than the latter. The hydrolysis rate of oligosaccharide was more than 85% after the two immobilized enzymes were reused for 3 times. Compared with sodium alginate, chitosan was more suitable to be the immobilized carrier of α -galactosidase from C. squamulosa.
    18  Research on Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyl, Organochlorine Pesticides and Polybrominated Biphenyl Ether in Wheat(Online First, Recommended Article)
    ZHANG Wei YANG Yong-tan WANG Song-xue LI Sen LI Li CAI Di
    2022, 30(2):148-160.
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](34) [PDF 4.21 M](95)
    Abstract:
    This study is objected to develop a gas chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method to determine the contamination level of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and polybrominated biphenyl ether in wheat. In this method, the hydrated wheat powder was extracted with ethyl acetate and purified with acidic silica (44%). The gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry which operated on a dynamic multiple reaction monitor (dMRM) acquisition mode was using for instrumental analysis. The quantitation was carried out with internal standard method. The results demonstrated that all target analytes have good quantitative linear range with excellent regression factor (R2>0.996), while highly brominated biphenyl ethers were with quadratic regression. The recovery of method was between 57.9% to 118.6% with relative standard deviations of 1.6%~10.7%. The method detection limits were between 0.001 ng/g and 1.108 ng/g as the highly brominated biphenyl ether gave relatively poor detection limits. This method is simple, rapid, accurate and low-cost, especially useful for the high-throughput analysis of trace persistent organic pollutants in wheat.
    19  Analysis on Punitive Damages System of Food Safety(Online First, Recommended Article)
    LIU Hui-ming ZHANG Qian-wen
    2022, 30(2):161-166.
    [Abstract](31) [HTML](40) [PDF 428.75 K](50)
    Abstract:
    食品安全与生命健康息息相关,食品安全问题关乎民生大计,我国的食品安全法律体系日渐完善,惩罚性赔偿制度已确立,但尚不完备。基于此,主要围绕食品安全惩罚性赔偿制度的缺陷以及未来的完善路径进行讨论。明确了食品安全惩罚性赔偿制度的性质和功能,就此项制度存在的几个核心问题进行了讨论。我国的食品安全惩罚性赔偿制度目前存在主观要件概念界定不清晰、赔偿数额设定不合理、主体地位不明确等问题,由于缺乏清晰的规定,导致司法实践中没有统一标准,出现了许多同案不同判的现象,一定程度上影响制度的功能发挥。故此,在进行制度缺陷分析讨论时,对食品安全惩罚性赔偿制度的完善路径进行了探讨,提出了三个方面的完善建议。
    20  Analysis of Quality and Technical Requirements of Grain and Oil Test Laboratories
    WANG Li-dan WANG Jia-ya
    2022, 30(2):167-175.
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](38) [PDF 404.99 K](69)
    Abstract:
    With our grain quality supervision and testing work being promoted to a new period of development, China has paying the continuous attention to the quality and safety of grain and oil, and the requirements for grain and oil safety and quality testing laboratories are becoming gradually higher. Because of the testing process complexity, the high requirement on professional and technical level, and the wide range of grain and oil to be tested, we require more strictly on the ability of laboratories. This paper introduces the CNAS accreditation of grain and oil testing laboratories in China, focusing on the analysis of the requirement on the structure, resources, process and management system about the grain and oil test laboratory in CL01:2018《Accreditation criteria for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories》(ISO/IEC 17025: 2017). Based on CNAS laboratory accreditation, we propose suggestions for the construction of grain and oil testing system, in order to help the grain and oil testing laboratories improve grain and oil safety and quality testing management system.
    21  Shelf-life Prediction of Black Sesame Compound Honey Pill and the Effect of Packaging Method on its Storage Quality
    YOU Jing SUN Qiang MA Lin SONG Guo-hui HUANG Ji-nian
    2022, 30(2):176-182.
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](40) [PDF 667.50 K](41)
    Abstract:
    Taking the black sesame compound honey pill as the research object, the acid value and peroxide value are used as evaluation indicators to investigate the influence of different storage temperatures on its quality; on this basis, the shelf life of the black sesame compound honey pill under naked packaging conditions is predicted by constructing an Arrhenius model. In order to further extend the shelf life, four different packaging forms were set up to package the black sesame compound honey pill, and the effects of different packaging methods on its storage quality such as moisture, texture, and physical and chemical properties were investigated at the same time. The results showed that: compared with the control group, nitrogen filling, shelling and wax sealing have a certain effect on preventing the black sesame compound honey pill from decreasing moisture and increasing hardness and acid value. The packaging form of wax paper + pill shell + wax seal + tin foil paper + polyethylene plastic bag has the best effect. The research results provide a reference for the storage of honey pill products.
    22  Research on Fermentation Characteristics of Two Probiotic Strains with Efficient Degradation of Corn Gluten Meal
    REN Fei LIU Yu-chun WANG Chao GUO Chao ZHANG Wei-qing
    2022, 30(2):183-189.
    [Abstract](14) [HTML](38) [PDF 5.62 M](41)
    Abstract:
    Two microbial strains Bacillus subtilis HDJ1 and Bacillus velezensis HDJ2 were screened from soybean paste samples by corn gluten meal medium for high protease activity. Single factor fermentation experiment showed that the optimum conditions of liquid fermentation of corn gluten meal for strain HDJ1 were: fermentation temperature of 40 ℃, fermentation pH 8, inoculum of 6%, substrate concentration of 8%, rotating speed of 200 r/min, liquid-adding volume of 40 mL, fermentation time of 72 h; The optimum conditions for liquid fermentation of corn gluten meal for strain HDJ2 were: fermentation temperature of 40 ℃, fermentation pH 6, inoculum of 9%, substrate concentration of 8%, rotating speed of 150 r/min, liquid-adding volume of 120 mL, fermentation time of 72 h; The optimum conditions for the fermentation of corn gluten meal for equal combination of HDJ1 and HDJ2 were: fermentation temperature of 30 ℃, fermentation pH 8, inoculum amount of 6%, substrate concentration of 8%, rotating speed of 250 r/min, liquid-adding volume of 40 mL, fermentation time of 96 h. The results of Orthogonal test showed that the content of soluble protein of HDJ1, HDJ2, HDJ1 and HDJ2 was the highest when the fermentation temperature was 30 ℃, the fermentation pH was 8, the inoculum amount was 3%, the substrate concentration was 8%, therotation speed was 200 r/min, and the fermentation time was 96 h. The protease activity, soluble protein content and DPPH scavenging rate of the sample significantly increased after freeze-drying of the microbial fermentation, and the fermentation effect of the two combined stains was better than that of single strain.
    23  Effect of Fermentation Conditions on Polyphenol Content in Millet Sour Congee and Research on Main Components of Millet Sour Congee
    GUO Pu WANG Xiao-wen ZHANG Hong-li KANG Miao
    2022, 30(2):190-196.
    [Abstract](15) [HTML](38) [PDF 638.57 K](39)
    Abstract:
    This experiment explored the effects of fermentation time and temperature on polyphenol content in millet sour congee fermentation, and further compared the differences of main components between millet sour congee and millet congee. The results showed that the content of polyphenols in millet sour congee increased with time, and reached the maximum at 20 h. At the fermentation temperature of 32 ℃, the content of polyphenols in millet sour congee was the highest. Compared with millet congee, millet sour congee reduced the polyphenol loss caused by cooking, and the antioxidant activity of polyphenols in sour congee was higher than that of millet congee. The contents of protein and fat in millet sour congee were higher, reaching 13.5 mg/100 g and 6.2 mg/100 g respectively, while the starch content (53.4 mg/100 g) was 8.7 mg/ 100 g lower than that of Millet Congee. In addition, the fermentation of sour congee also increased the content of insoluble dietary fiber and the content of free tryptophan in the supernatant. This study provides theoretical support for further research and development of millet sour congee related dietary food.
    24  Inhibitory Effect of ClO2, Clove Essential Oil and Cinnamon Essential Oil Against Mycelial Growth and Spore Germination of Fusarium graminearum(Online First, Recommended Article)
    LI Wen-yue CHEN Hong-hong YUAN Yong-jun LIU Qing-qing YANG Hao BAO Qing-bin
    2022, 30(2):197-206.
    [Abstract](13) [HTML](40) [PDF 5.44 M](60)
    Abstract:
    The inhibitory effects of ClO2, clove essential oil and cinnamon essential oil on Fusarium graminearum were studied by observing the colony diameter, mycelial growth and spore germination. The results showed that ClO2, clove essential oil and cinnamon essential oil had significant inhibitory effect on Fusarium graminearum, among which, clove essential oil had lower inhibitory effect than cinnamon essential at low density (20~40 µL/L air), and its inhibitory effect was improved dramatically and better than cinnamon essential with the increase of density. Through the regression equation of inhibition rate, the IC50 of ClO2, clove essential oil and cinnamon essential oil were 27 mg/L, 58 µL/L air and 66 µL/L air respectively. By means of ergosterol content determination, scanning electron microscope observation and Fourier transform infrared analysis, we found that ClO2 and essential oil destroyed cell structure in different degrees, ClO2 destroyed cell membrane, leading to the exudation of contents. High density of clove essential oil destroyed cell structure, while cinnamon essential oil resulted in maldevelopment of mycelium.
    25  Correlation Analysis of Temperature and Humidity of Meteorological Station, Granary and Grain Pile
    CHU Chun-yan SUN Gui-yu SUN Hong-wei JIANG Li-xia WANG Xiao-ming
    2022, 30(2):207-213.
    [Abstract](34) [HTML](35) [PDF 3.29 M](69)
    Abstract:
    In order to provide accurate meteorological services for grain storage and ensure the safety of grain storage, based on the grain situation data of three grain depot in Jiamusi and the observation data of local meteorological stations from 2017 to 2020, the temperature, relative humidity and their correlation inside and outside the station and the granary were explored and analyzed by using mathematical statistics method. The results showed that the real-time temperature of meteorological stations was mostly lower than that outside the granary, and the two showed synchronous oscillation changes with little difference. R was above 0.996. The relative humidity of meteorological stations was higher than that outside the granary, and the two basically showed consistent changes. The relative humidity inside the granary was generally controlled below 70%. The daily maximum temperature of meteorological stations had a good correlation with the temperature in the warehouse and the maximum grain temperature in the surface layer, and R reached above 0.90. The change of warehouse temperature and the maximum grain temperature in the surface layer lagged behind the change of daily maximum temperature for about 1 d and 30 d, respectively. The regression equations of the daily maximum temperature of meteorological stations with the warehouse temperature and the maximum grain temperature in the surface layer were all positively correlated, and increased with the increase of the daily maximum temperature. The maximum grain temperature in other layers was less affected by temperature. According to the regression equation, the warehouse temperature and the maximum grain temperature in each layer were predicted, and the high temperature index of meteorological service in large warehouses was 28 ℃, and the ventilation and humidity service index was less than 70%.
    26  Problems and Legal Countermeasures in the Development of Cold Chain Logistics of Agricultural Products in China
    HUANG Xiao-xu
    2022, 30(2):214-220.
    [Abstract](26) [HTML](42) [PDF 387.11 K](58)
    Abstract:
    The positive development of agricultural product cold chain logistics is a prerequisite for improving the efficiency of agricultural product circulation, and is of great significance to protecting the interests of agricultural producers. However, the cold chain logistics platform of agricultural products in China is still lagging behind. The standardization of cold chain logistics and the legal system need to be improved. The anti-monopoly law agricultural application exemption provisions regulate loopholes for some operators in the cold chain industry. On the basis of comparing the practices and achievements of developed countries and analyzing the problems existing in the development of cold chain logistics in China, it is proposed to strengthen the construction of cold chain logistics platforms for agricultural products, improve the standardization system of cold chain logistics for agricultural products and form a connection with laws and regulations, and clearly apply the exclusion system in applicable subjects and behaviors in the cold chain logistics of agricultural products.
    27  Research Status and Development of Peanut Fruit Drying Technology and Equipment
    CHEN Peng-xiao GUO Xiang-yi CHEN Nan WANG Dian-xuan LIU Xiao-li WU Jian-zhang ZHU When-xue
    2022, 30(2):221-230.
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](41) [PDF 931.10 K](50)
    Abstract:
    As one of the important oil crops in the world, peanuts occupy a pivotal position in crops. Fresh harvested peanut fruit are susceptible to mildew and aflatoxins due to their high moisture content, thus affecting the safety of use and reducing the economic value of peanuts. The timely drying of peanut fruit after harvest can effectively inhibit the growth and reproduction of microorganisms and molds, reduce the effects of environmental temperature and humidity on peanut storage, and ensure the quality and safety of peanuts. This paper summarizes the research status of peanut fruit drying technology and equipment at home and abroad, introduces various drying methods of peanuts fruit and corresponding drying equipment, sum up the existing problems, proposes relevant research recommendations, providing reference for peanut fruit drying technology equipment research.

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