The Key Magazine of China Science and Technology
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Issue 1,2022 Table of Contents

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  • 1  The Current Progress in Research on the Quality and New Risk Factors of Fried Foods(Online First, Recommended Article)
    WANG Xing-guo ZHANG Hui WU Gang-cheng
    2022, 30(1):1-9.
    [Abstract](52) [HTML](13) [PDF 724.27 K](92)
    How to make fried food more delicious and healthier is the goal that the field of food science is constantly pursuing. The Latest research progress(2019—2022) on the quality of fried food such as flavor, taste (texture), oil absorption and new risk factors was reviewed, and this article also systematically explained the origin, evolution and material relationships of the "wide bell" flavor curve. The physical characterization and influence mechanism of taste (texture) of fried foods were introduced, and the oil absorption mechanism of fried foods and new technologies to reduce oil content were also reviewed. The formation mechanism, detection distribution, potential toxicity and influencing factors of the two risk factors of glycerol core aldehydes and monoepoxy fatty acids during the frying process were also reviewed. This review could provide the reference for the improvement of fried food quality and the control of risk factors.
    2  Research on the Influence of Oil Types on the Texture of Fried French Fries Based on Mass Transfer Characteristics(Online First, Recommended Article)
    ZHANG Hui LI Pei-yan WU Gang-cheng YANG Dan ZHAO Chen-wei JIN Qing-zhe WANG Xing-guo
    2022, 30(1):10-18.
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](12) [PDF 6.32 M](50)
    The potato of the Netherlands shiwu and four edible oils were taken as the research objects, and the effects of oil types on the texture, the kinetic constant of water loss and oil absorption, the spatial distribution of moisture, the crystal structure and microstructure of French fries during the frying process were investigated. The results showed that the surface hardness of fries fried in palm oil and rice bran oil was higher than that of the other two oil. The results of water loss kinetics showed that the surface water loss rate of fries fried in palm oil was the fastest (0.053 6 s–1), followed by rice bran oil (0.027 5 s–1), and high oleic sunflower oil was the slowest (0.021 6 s–1). Magnetic resonance imaging also confirmed this result. X-ray diffraction results showed that the starch-lipid complex content of fries fried in rice bran oil and palm oil was higher than that of the other two. From the results of scanning electron microscopy, it can be seen that the surface of fries fried in palm oil and rice bran oil was more compact than others. In summary, the fast surface water loss, high starch-lipid complex content and surface compactness play an important role in improving the texture of French fries.
    3  Research on the Reducing the Oil Absorption of Fried Potato Strips by Microwave Combined with Ultra-Low Temperature Freezing Pretreatment(Online First, Recommended Article)
    YANG Dan WU Gang-cheng LI Pei-yan JIN Jun JIN Qing-zhe ZHANG Hui WANG Xing-guo
    2022, 30(1):19-27.
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](11) [PDF 16.24 M](101)
    The effects of pretreatment combined with different maturing methods (such as blanching, microwaving, etc) and different freezing methods (such as, conventional freezing and ultra-low temperature freezing) on the oil absorption of fried potato strips were compared and analyzed. It was found that compared with blanching combined with conventional freezing pretreatment, changing the blanching to microwave reduced the total oil content of fried potato strips by 15.86%. Changing the conventional freezing to ultra-low temperature freezing reduced the total oil content by 6.09%. Microwaving combined with ultra-low temperature freezing pretreatment reduced the total oil content by 20.46%. The results of confocal laser microscope (CLSM), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) confirmed that, compared with other pretreatment method, microwave combined with ultra-low temperature freezing pretreatment produced more VII type starch-lipid complexes in the crust layer of fried potato strips. The surface structure was smooth. The attached oil was less. The internal structure was less damaged. The results of sensory evaluation results showed that microwave combined with ultra-low temperature freezing pretreatment improved the quality of fried potato strips and reduced the oil absorption.
    4  Analysis of Key Flavor Components in French Fries and Frying Oil at Different Frying Stages(Online First, Recommended Article)
    XU Li-rong CHANG Jia-rui MEI Xue ZHU Chen-fei WU Gang-cheng ZHANG Hui JIN Qing-zhe WANG Xing-guo
    2022, 30(1):28-38.
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](17) [PDF 858.45 K](37)
    The flavor is a decisive sensory characteristic that determines the popularity of French fries (FFs). During high-oleic rapeseed oil (RO) frying, the flavor development of FFs showed three noticeable stages including break-in (3%-8.0% of total polar compounds (TPC)), optimum (8.0%-20% of TPC), and degrading stages (above 22% of TPC). In order to distinguish the key aroma compounds in each stage, the FFs prepared in RO at TPC of 3% (FF1), 10.5% (FF2), and 27% (FF3) and their relevant oils (RO1, RO2, RO3) were selected for sensory-directed analysis. The results revealed that the FF1 had low contents of (E,E)-2,4- decadienal (deep-fried odor) which could be the reason why FF1 samples were rated with low-sensory score. The FF3 had higher hexanoic acid (sweaty odor), heptanoic acid, nonanoic acid, benzene acetaldehyde (stale odor), and trans-4,5-Epoxy-(E)-2-decenal (metallic odor) compared with FF1 and FF2, which resulted in flavor deterioration in FF3. Moreover, the decrease of 2,5-dimethylpyrazine and 2-ethyl-6-methyl-pyrazine in FF3 induced the lower roast flavor, which may also lead to the decline of the sensory score. Similarly, the higher portion of (E)-2-undecenal, hexanoic acid, heptanoic acid, and nonanoic acid in RO3 leads to increase in its rancid score and thus lower the sensory score. When the TPC content exceeded 22%, the peroxidation of the oil could cause the rancid taste. Therefore, it should be controlled in the later stage of frying. By understanding the changes of key flavor substances during the frying process, it can be significantly used as a reference for the development of fried products with the best flavor.
    5  Application of the Index of Oxidized Triglyceride in Quality Evaluation of Frying Oil(Online First, Recommended Article)
    LI Xu ZHANG Hui JIN Qing-zhe ZHAO Cheng-wei JIN Jun WU Gang-cheng WANG Xing-guo
    2022, 30(1):39-44.
    [Abstract](14) [HTML](13) [PDF 512.32 K](43)
    Study the change rule of Total Polar Compounds (TPC) of fried oil and evaluate the feasibility of using new indices to characterize the quality of frying oil from the perspectives of the polar compound composition at the regulated discarding point and the correlation between indicators. During the frying process, the TPC generated by oil deterioration will accumulate with the extension of the frying time. At the regulated discarding point, when the TPC is 27%, the frying oil contains 11.2% of oxTGO+oxTGD, which is close to the ratio of TPC and oxTGO+oxTGD stipulated by national standards. When TPC is 27%, the content of oxTGM in frying fat is 3.5%, and the content of oxTGM fluctuated up and down during frying. Pearson correlation analysis showed that there was no significant correlation between oxTGM and TPC with P>0.05, indicating that the application of TPC to evaluate the quality of frying oil actually failed to cover the effective control of oxTGM at the same time. Therefore, two indicators of TPC and oxTGM can be used to evaluate the deterioration of the fat frying process. Considering the potential toxicity of oxTGM is the strongest, the oxTGM value has a certain practical significance as a waste index to characterize the oxidation deterioration of high-temperature frying fat.
    6  Overview and Outlook of Cereals and Pulses Standardization of International Organization for Standardization (ISO)(Online First, Recommended Article)
    ZHANG Yan QI Xiao-zhe WAN Zhong MA You-song
    2022, 30(1):45-49.
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](11) [PDF 394.11 K](40)
    Cereals and pulses are the most important food and its raw materials. Each year, more than 450 million tons of cereals and 19 million tons of pulses (excluding soya beans) are traded in the international market. As the most authoritative and comprehensive standards developing organization, International Organization for Standardization (ISO) elaborates the international standards for cereals and pulses, which plays an important role in coordinating and promoting international trade, improving trade efficiency, and ensuring the quality and safety for grain. This article introduces the work scope, organizational structure, and standard framework of the Cereals and pulses Subcommittee of ISO, as well as the achievements of China's participation in international standardization of grains. In the future, the ISO Cereals and pulses Subcommittee will work with its members to focus on nutrition and health products, new testing technologies for quality and safety, as well as food loss and waste.
    7  Developing ISO International Standards for the Animal and Vegetable Fats and Oils Sector(Online First, Recommended Article)
    Gretel BESCOBY
    2022, 30(1):50-57.
    [Abstract](13) [HTML](13) [PDF 656.29 K](41)
    Increasing volumes of oils and fats are produced annually with a large section that are traded internationally. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) body develops international standards covering almost all aspects of technology and manufacturing with 23,882 standards currently published. Standards in the animal and vegetable fats and oils sector is developed by Technical Committee ISO/TC 34, Food products, Subcommittee SC 11, Animal and vegetable fats and oils. Standards are developed through consensus by national members that represent ISO in their country. Each Standard is developed within a determined timeframe and goes through various pre-determined stages such as project proposal, development, national voting and commenting on the draft Standard to final publication. ISO TC34/SC11 Standards range from sampling of oils and fats, sample preparation to analysis of its composition, the minor components, and quality and identity parameters as well as contaminants. The analysis results are used by industry for product development, labelling, research and to provide peace of mind for consumers on its safety. An important future trend is the focus on the safety concerns from either environmental contamination (e.g. mineral oils) or processing contaminants such as esters of 3-MCPDs (3-monochloropropane- 1,2-diol or 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol).
    8  The Role of the American Oil Chemists’ Society in World Trade——Quality Assurance Testing, Certified Reference Materials, and International Liaison Activities(Online First, Recommended Article)
    Scott BLOOMER
    2022, 30(1):67-72.
    [Abstract](9) [HTML](13) [PDF 439.38 K](40)
    The American Oil Chemists’ Society (AOCS) is a volunteer-led association. AOCS develops and publishes methods of analysis for fats, oils, proteins, surfactants, and related materials according to accepted international standards to ensure equitable trade practices on a global scale. AOCS Official Method development has been going on for over a hundred years. The founding vision of AOCS in 1909 was “an organization designed for the development and advancement of analytical methods for cottonseed products.” AOCS Official Methods are essential to world trade and are used to confirm the value of billions of pounds of oilseed-based commodities and finished products each year. In addition, AOCS conducts proficiency testing, provides certified reference materials, and collaborates with other standards developers including the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. AOCS serves as a professional scientific membership organization providing current and emerging information as well as disseminating research results in oils, fats, lipids, proteins, surfactants, and related materials. Several avenues are used, especially meetings, publications, interest groups, networking opportunities, and web presence. Many scientists, experts, and others engaged in working in these fields find their professional “home” in AOCS. The AOCS Technical Leadership Committee comprises some of the most experienced AOCS members and scientists. The AOCS Technical Services department staff relies on this committee for guidance on scientific matters and for advice in prioritizing the opportunities facing AOCS.
    9  Definition, Mission and Standards of International Olive Council(Online First, Recommended Article)
    Abdellatif GHEDIRA
    2022, 30(1):79-82.
    [Abstract](9) [HTML](8) [PDF 317.98 K](39)
    The International Olive Council (IOC) is an international intergovernmental organization dedicated to olive oil and table olives, aiming at modernizing olive production, coordinating olive policies, improving the regulation of international trade, defending the quality of the olive sector and promoting olive oil and table olives to increase their consumption. The IOC grants recognition of laboratories and tasting panels in annual trials when they meet the conditions given in the decisions adopting the IOC certificate for laboratories for the physico– chemical testing of olive oil and laboratories for the sensory analysis of virgin olive oils. The IOC establishes analysis methods applying to olive oils and olive pomace oils for purity, quality and organoleptic assessment. The IOC elaborates guides of storage conditions for olive oils and olive pomace oils, of managing virgin olive oil tasting panels and of sensory testing laboratories. In future works, the IOC includes activities to identify analytical criteria for detecting fraud and guaranteeing the quality of olive oils and olive pomace oils.
    10  Analysis on the Wheat Quality in China in 2020(Online First, Recommended Article)
    HONG Yu SUN Hui CHANG Liu DUAN Xiao-liang XING Xiao-ting WANG Wen-juan LIU hui ZHOU Gui-ying
    2022, 30(1):87-92.
    [Abstract](36) [HTML](13) [PDF 878.65 K](46)
    In order to investigate the wheat quality in China, representative wheat covering more than 70% of the province were collected, based on wheat cultivars and planting areas. A total of 1,971 samples of wheat harvested in 2020 were collected for quality index evaluation. The overall level of crude protein content and gluten content is high, and the average values are 14.3% and 33.1% respectively. The quality of gluten is slightly poor, and the average value of gluten index is 68. The average flour stability is 7.1 min, and 32.8% of the samples accord with the requirements of strong gluten wheat (8 min). The overall level of maximum resistance and energy of extensograph test is general, and the average values are 355 EU and 70 cm2 respectively. In terms of food quality, the overall quality level of noodles was good, with the average score reached 81, and 74.2% of the samples reached over 80 points. The overall level of steamed bread and bread processing quality are general, with the average food score are 74, and the samples with more than 80 points are 30.5% and 43.3% respectively. The cake processing quality is poor, and the samples with more than 80 points account for only 14.3%. The proportion of wheat meet the standard of “High quality wheat-Strong gluten wheat” (GB/T 17893—1999) is 7.7%, 0.007% meet the standard of “High quality wheat-weak gluten wheat” (GB/T 17893—1999), and 36.5% meet the standard of “Quality classification of wheat varieties” (GB/T 17320—2013), of which 28.3% meet the requirements of high quality wheat. and 6.6% are high quality of strong gluten wheat, The proportion of wheat meeting the standard of “Quality Grain and Oils of China - Wheat” (LS/T 3109—2017 ) is 78.4%, of which the proportion of strong gluten and hard wheat is 6.8%.
    11  Effects of Different Packaging on Quality of Indica-Japonica Hybrid Rice and Cooked Rice
    ZHU Lin TONG Li-tao HE Yue LIN Xu-dong LING Jian-gang
    2022, 30(1):93-100.
    [Abstract](14) [HTML](11) [PDF 747.80 K](39)
    In order to clarify the quality change of indica-japonica hybrid rice in different packaging,this experiment was conducted to study the effects of four packaging, woven bags, PE bags, vacuum packages and kraft paper bags, on the rice and steamed rice quality at room temperature (20~25 ℃) with YongYu 15 rice as raw material. The results showed that, with the extension of storage time, the fatty acid value, amylose content and rice hardness of indica japonica hybrid rice increased gradually, while the indexes of rice freshness value, taste value, viscosity and taste value of rice decreased gradually. The correlation between the quality indexes was significant (P<0.01). The results were evaluated by factor analysis and verified by sensory evaluation, the storage effects of the four kinds of packaging was as follows: Vacuum > PE bag > woven bag > kraft paper bag. The above results show that, the vacuum and barrier packaging could effectively delay the decrease of the quality of indica-japonica hybrid rice and its cooked rice, and improve its storage quality.
    12  Discussion on the Optimization of Production and Supply Chains of Food under Covid-19 Pandemic
    WEI Yi-min
    2022, 30(1):101-104.
    [Abstract](14) [HTML](13) [PDF 349.06 K](28)
    Optimizing and stabilizing production and supply chains are an important measure to ensure economic development. Optimizing a production and supply chains of food, and stabilizing manufacturing and supply system is the foundation and prerequisite to ensure a complete victory against Covid-19, to ensure sustainability development of economy, and to enhance manufacturing industry in China. This paper introduces definitions of production and supply chains and their relationships each another, as well as discusses on how to optimize and stabilize production and supply chains, to reduce the risk of spread of Covid-19 throughout food production and supply chains. A proposal to build a technical strategy of food production and supply chains in China is also proposed in this paper.
    13  Effect of Momordica Charantia Polysaccharide on Lymphocyte Immune Regulation in Mice(Online First, Recommended Article)
    ARZUGUL·Ablimiti LI Jing-shuang JIN Xin YU Yang
    2022, 30(1):105-112.
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](10) [PDF 732.18 K](33)
    This study aims to investigate the immunomodulatory effect of Momordica charantia polysaccharide (MCP) on mice spleen lymphocytes and its potential mechanism at the cellular and molecular levels. Compared with the blank group and levamisole group, mice spleen lymphocytes are stimulated by MCP with different concentrations (40, 80, 160, 320 μg/mL) in vitro. The effects of MCP on the proliferation of mice spleen lymphocytes, phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages, secretion and mRNA expression of IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-12 in lymphocyte supernatant are examined. The results show that compared with the blank group, the cell proliferation index increases exponentially as the concentration (P<0.05) raises, and MCP promotes cell proliferation in different degrees. MCP enhances phagocytosis of macrophages in different degrees (P<0.05). Compared with the blank group, the secretion of cytokines IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-12 all increase, with the largest increase being 42.73%, 18%, 27.81% and 29.42%, respectively. The mRNA expressions of IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-12 increase significantly, and the highest expression levels are 9.18 times, 7.53 times, 9.37 times and 8.95 times of the blank group, respectively, with significant difference (P<0.05). It is understood that MCP can effectively improve the secretion and mRNA expression of cytokines IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-12, and promote cell proliferation, enhance phagocytic activity of macrophages, thus improving the immune function of the body.
    14  Effects of Short Time-High Voltage Electric Field Treatment on the Accumulation of γ-Aminobutyric Acid in Germinated Buckwheat
    YANG Shang-ru XIN Zhen-zhong WANG Yue WANG Yu
    2022, 30(1):113-118.
    [Abstract](11) [HTML](9) [PDF 540.70 K](27)
    The short-time high-voltage electric field treatment was used to increase the GABA content of buckwheat after germination, and the activities of GABA shunt enzymes were measured. The results showed that buckwheat was soaked at 35 ℃ for 3 hours, after treatment with 1.0 KV/cm high-voltage electric field for 30 minutes. The buckwheat were incubated at 25 ℃ and 80% humidity for 24 hours. The content of GABA in the control group was (184.38 ± 0.46) mg/100 g, and the content of GABA in the treated group was (195.49 ± 0.81) mg/100 g, which was higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, high voltage field treatment significantly increased the activities of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) (P<0.05), inhibited the activities of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) (P<0.05), and increased and then decreased the activities of GABA transaminase (GABA-T). Short-time high-voltage electric field treatment can enrich GABA in germinating sweet buckwheat by affecting the activities of GABA shunt enzymes.
    15  Preparation of Instant Fermented Corn Noodle
    ZHANG Jun ZHANG Li-li MA Xiao ZHANG Ze WANG Jiang GAO Yang
    2022, 30(1):119-125.
    [Abstract](15) [HTML](14) [PDF 414.60 K](31)
    Corn grits were treated with 0.2% sulphurous acid solution. The purpose of this treatment is to protect pure bacteria (yeast, Lactobacillus) from fermentation. Based on the single factor test, the fermentation technique of instant corn noodle was optimized by orthogonal design. The optimum technological parameters were obtained as follows: 0.2% yeast, plus 0.1% lactobacillus bulgaricus, with fermentation time 78 hours, fermentation particle size 8 mm, and fermentation temperature 30 ℃. The product of fermentation was optimized as follows: 3.5% pregelatinized starch with 0.30% sodium hexametaphosphate, 1.0% xanthan gum, and 3% sunflower seed edible oil. The fermentation had the best comprehensive effect on the instant corn noodle with the broken strip rate of 4.5% and cooking loss rate of 4.5%. Through the mechanical hot extrusion of fermented dough, the broken rate of vermicelli was the lowest, which was 4.3%, and the sensory quality score reached 96.6%. The room temperature storage period of vacuum packaging is 14 days, and the cold storage period is 60 days.
    16  Challenge and Suggestion of Traditional Food Protein Nutritional Evaluation System
    HAN Fei
    2022, 30(1):126-133.
    [Abstract](27) [HTML](12) [PDF 417.66 K](44)
    Protein is the one of the most important material basis of life. Insufficient or excessive protein intake and unbalanced amino acid intake will have a great impact on health. The current food protein quality evaluation system is based on the bioavailability of protein and amino acids, without considering the health effects of amino acids. This paper reviewed the research progress of traditional protein quality evaluation system, pointing out the challenges faced by the traditional protein quality evaluation system. For the first time, a new index “methionine score (MS)” was introduced based on the traditional protein quality evaluation system, and the definition and calculation formula of MS were given, It is suggested that it should be combined with the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) in the traditional protein evaluation system, and the health effects of amino acids should be considered while evaluating the utilization rate of amino acids, so as to supplement the traditional food protein quality evaluation system.
    17  Research on the Mechanism of Xiaoyao Pill in Treating Hyperplasia of Mammary Gland was Explored Based on Network Pharmacology and Molecular Docking Technology(Online First, Recommended Article)
    GUAN Qing-xia YANG Fang-fang YANG Zhi-ping NIE Ze-hui ZHOU Xiao-ying LIN Ze-yu CHEN Zhong-xin ZOU Shu-jun
    2022, 30(1):134-149.
    [Abstract](15) [HTML](9) [PDF 3.53 M](37)
    The objective of this research is to study the mechanism of Xiaoyao pill in the treatment of breast hyperplasia by using network pharmacological formula. The active components of Xiaoyao pill were collected and screened in the Pharmacological Database and Analysis Platform of Chinese Medicine (TCMSP), and the included compounds were predicted by TCMSP database. GeneCards database, NCBI gene database and OMIM database were used for screening of breast hyperplasia disease targets. The drug targets and disease targets were selected to make a Venn diagram, and the common targets were used to make a PPI network diagram in the String database. Topological analysis and MCODE cluster analysis were used to screen the core targets and core genes. The key active ingredients were screened in Cytoscape 3.8.0 software. The STRING database was used for GO analysis and KEGG analysis for key targets, and the relevant results were imported into Cytoscape 3.8.0 to draw the component-disease-path path-target network diagram. The active components and targets of Xiaoyao Pills were screened, among which 169 targets were related to breast hyperplasia. Stat3, Akt1, MAPK1, Jun, MAPK3 and other 20 targets were the key targets of this drug in the treatment of breast hyperplasia, and HTR2A, IL2, TOP2A, PCNA, MMP1 were the core genes of this drug in the treatment of breast hyperplasia. Quercetin, Kaempferol, luteolin, naringenin, licochalcone A, 7-methoxy-2-methyl isoflavone, formononetin, and acacetin may be the main active components of Xiaoyao Pill in the treatment of breast hypertrophy. A total of 2328 biological processes were enriched by GO enrichment analysis, with 160 molecular function correlations and 47 cell composition correlations. Enrichment analysis showed that it was associated with 166 pathways, including AGE-RAGE signaling pathway, TNF signaling pathway, IL-17 signaling pathway, Th17 cell differentiation, fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis signaling pathway. The molecular docking verification results showed that the key active ingredients and core targets were well docking. From the perspective of network pharmacology, the potential mechanism and pharmacological substance basis of Xiaoyao pill in the treatment of breast hyperplasia are preliminarily revealed, providing ideas for the follow-up research on Xiaoyao pill in the treatment of gynecological diseases.
    18  Study on Analytical Method of Anthocyanin in Health Food
    BAI Wei-rong ZHANG Shu-jia GUO Xiao-li GAO Ru-yi
    2022, 30(1):150-156.
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](12) [PDF 974.25 K](32)
    In order to establish a method for the determination of anthocyanins in health foods, thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was used for qualitative identification of anthocyanins, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for quantitative detection of anthocyanins. The results showed that the suitable conditions for TLC identification were developing agent: V(formic acid)∶V(water-n)∶V(butanol)= 9.1∶8.4∶32.5, spotting amount: 2 μL. Anthocyanin was detected at 4.361~52.332 μg/mL (R2 =0.999 5). The internal linear relationship is good, with the average sample recovery rate is 98.22% (RSD=1.23%, n=6), and the precision, repeatability and stability are good. Experiments show that the established thin-layer identification method for anthocyanins is stable and feasible.
    19  Test and Analysis on Mycotoxin Level of Hulless Barley
    LIAN Qian JIA Pai-pai XIAO Ming CUI Ming-ming SUN Xiao-feng
    2022, 30(1):157-161.
    [Abstract](16) [HTML](12) [PDF 431.82 K](40)
    299 samples of highland barley were collected from Gansu, Tibet, Qinghai and Sichuan provinces, 143 mycotoxins were analysed by HPLC-MS/MS. The results showed that 13 mycotoxins in the samples from every province were not beyond the standard, just only T-2 Toxin and Zearalenone found. The detection rate of T-2 toxin in some areas of Qinghai was 49.26%; The detection rates of T-2 toxin, and zearalenone (ZEN) in some areas of Sichuan were 13.89% and 8.33% respectively; The detection rate of T-2 toxin in Gansu Province was 16.67%, which was not over the standard; The detection rate of ZEN in Tibet was 3.09%. According to the analysis data, the detection rates of T-2 toxin and ZEN were significantly different under different harvest methods and storage conditions (P < 0.05).
    20  Comparative Research on Efficacy and Safety of Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) from Lijiang and Peru
    WU De-song ZHANG Meng-qi ZHAO Dao-qiang CHAI Xiu-ying YAN Hong PENG Ling-fang CUI Tao
    2022, 30(1):162-168.
    [Abstract](10) [HTML](12) [PDF 591.09 K](31)
    The weight-loading swimming assay, liver glycogen and serum urea nitrogen tests in mice were used to evaluate the alleviating physical fatigue effects of Lijiang and Peru Maca. The mouse mating assay, sperm quantity, survival rate and gonadal organ index tests were used to observe the improving sexual function between them. The acute toxicity test was used to evaluate the safety of two samples. The result showed that compared with the blank control group, Lijiang and Peru Maca can significantly increase the swimming time and the level of liver glycogen, as well as reduce the level of urea nitrogen in mice. Compared with the blank control group, Lijiang and Peru Maca can obviously improve the mating ability, sperm quantity and testis index in mice, but it has no obvious effect on sperm viability, seminal vesicles and Foreskin gland index. Compared with the Peru Maca group, there was no significant difference in the activity of anti-fatigue and improving sexual function. The acute toxicity test showed that the maximum dose of Lijiang and Peru Maca was 17.48g/kg. There was no toxicity or death after administration.
    21  Research on the Identification of Freshness of Grain(Online First, Recommended Article)
    LI Li ZHANG Yu-chong CHEN Jin-ying
    2022, 30(1):169-173.
    [Abstract](30) [HTML](13) [PDF 503.25 K](62)
    Grain freshness is affected by various factors in the environment during the process of storage, and its quality will change as time goes by. Therefore, the identification of freshness of grain is an indispensable and important in grain storage. However, in the grain industry, there has been no standard national method to indetify the freshness of grain. This paper summarizes common identification methods of the freshness of grain, and looks out to the future developments and researches, so as to provide references for people who work in the grain industry.
    22  Breeding of Butenyl-spinosyns Producing Strain by Atmospheric Room Temperature Plasma and Optimization of Culture Medium
    ZHANG Xiao-yao GUO Chao WANG Jing-nan LIU Yan-li WANG Chao
    2022, 30(1):174-181.
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](10) [PDF 1.40 M](27)
    The original strain ASAGF 2-G4 was applied to undergo Atmospheric Room Temperature Plasma (ARTP) mutagenesis of various doses and 2 mg/mL NTG compound mutagenesis of different action durations. Five high-yield mutant strains were obtained after preliminary screening through 96-orifice-plate fermentation and re-screening in shake flasks. At last, a high-yielding mutant strain 2-A9 was selected, which increased the yield by 30.92% compared with the original strain after genetic stability verification. A high-yield mutant ASAGF 2-A9 was applied as the starting strain, the experiment design Plackett-Burman was used to screen the factors affecting the fermentation media, with a conclusion that factor glucose, dextrin, cottonseed protein and corn starch is a significant factor affecting butenyl-spinosyns. The experimental design Box-Behnken was applied to optimize the factors significantly affecting the experiment Plackett-Burman. The optimal growing media components were deduced as follows (g/L): glucose 60.0, dextrin 25.0, cottonseed protein 25.0, coen steep dry powder 12.5, peptone milk 10.0, MgSO4 1.0, NaCl 2.0, CaCO3 5.0. It’s verified that the average output of butenyl- spinosyns is close to the predicted value, indicating that the model is feasible and effective.
    23  Bacterial Diversity Analysis of Water Kefir and Water Kefir Granules and Isolation and Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria
    GAO Yan-chao XIAO Ai-bo WANG Cheng WANG Tian-qi YU Bing XU Yun-he ZHANG Li-li
    2022, 30(1):182-189.
    [Abstract](5) [HTML](15) [PDF 561.04 K](25)
    High-throughput sequencing technology combined with plate colony counting method was used to detect and analyze the microflora of water kefir and its starter water kefir granules. Probiotics were screened from naturally fermented water kefir and water kefir granules, and the selected probiotics were identified by individual and population morphological observation, physiological and biochemical experiments and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The results showed that lactic acid bacteria were the dominant bacteria in the two samples; whether it is water kefir or water kefir grain, Firmicutes and Proteus are the dominant bacteria, Lactobacillus and Acetobacter are the dominant bacteria, The bacterial diversity and richness of water kefir granules were higher than those of water kefir;A total of 7 strains of lactic acid bacteria with potential probiotics of acid and bile resistant salts were screened, and the identification results were four strains of Lactobacillus fermentum, one strain of Lactobacillus paracasei, one strain of Lactobacillus harbinensis and one strain of Lactobacillus rubrum were identified and named Lactobacillus fermentum cc4、Lactobacillus fermentum cc8、Lactobacillus fermentum cc9、Lactobacillus fermentum cc22、Lactobacillus paracasei cc1、Lactobacillus harbinensis cc5、Lactobacillus satsumensis cc12.
    24  Effects of Silkworm Pupae Powder on Carotenoid Fermentation by Rhodotorula sp.
    CHEN Xin WANG Xin-lei LIN Lan-ping CAO Li-bin ZHANG Kai TAN Xiao-xi
    2022, 30(1):190-195.
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](12) [PDF 535.45 K](32)
    Effects of silkworm pupae powder concentration, glucose concentration, cultural time and initial pH of culture medium on the fermentation of carotenoid were investigated. The results of single-factor experiments showed that when silkworm pupae powder concentration was 7.5 g/L, with glucose concentration at 30 g/L and cultural time of 4 d, as well as initial pH of culture medium of7.0, the carotenoid yield reached the maximum value of 14.51 mg/L, which was 46.9% higher than that of the control. In order to make further improvement on the carotenoid production, the orthogonal tests were performed and the results showed that the order of the factors affecting the carotenoid yield was as follows: cultural time>silkworm pupae powder concentration>glucose concentration>pH. The carotenoid yield reached the maximum value of 14.88 mg/L under the optimum fermentation conditions. Silkworm pupae powder concentration was 7.5 g/L, with glucose concentration at 30 g/L, and cultural time of 4 d, plus pH value at 6.0.
    25  Key Concepts of Structural Mechanics Design for a New Type of Vertical Silo Arranged in Rows and Columns
    LI Kun-you YANG Zhi-jun PAN Fan
    2022, 30(1):196-202.
    [Abstract](10) [HTML](10) [PDF 2.48 M](30)
    Vertical silos have become the first choice for large silos to store grain due to their large capacity and small footprint. However, the problem of grain accumulation and small volume in star silos has not been well resolved. Based on the midas Gen2019 software, this paper expands the capacity of the silos for a comprehensive terminal project in a port area, and connects the silos with short walls to form a new silo layout. Through the overall finite element simulation analysis of 7 kinds of grain load conditions, the internal force distribution law of the short wall and the adjacent warehouse wall is studied. and the design control conditions are found, which provides a reference for the silo design of similar type of layout.
    26  Mapping Analysis of Grain Storage Based on CiteSpace and VOSviewer(Online First, Recommended Article)
    CUI Peng-cheng ZHANG Tao CHEN Xin
    2022, 30(1):203-213.
    [Abstract](10) [HTML](12) [PDF 2.71 M](31)
    In order to study the development trend of grain storage, literatures were retrieved from CNKI and Web of Science, and the bibliometric analysis was completed by using visualization software. The results show that the grain storage number of papers has risen gradually, and the United States of America and China accounted for 40%. Some research teams were from institutes, such as, Henan University of Technology, Nanjing University of Finance & Economics and Academy of National Food and Strategic Reserves Administration, which were supported by the national and local funding in China. And storage time, temperature and humidity, storage quality, insects and mold were their main topics. In foreign countries, the scientific and technological institutions of various countries were the funding institutions, and the research institutions and individuals focused on six topics, such as grain storage, productivity analysis, food characteristics and microstructure properties. There is little cooperation among authors from different countries. The academic achievements had the largest number of papers published in “Journal of The Chinese Cereals and Oils Association” and “Journal of stored products research”.
    27  Application of Transverse Grain-Cooling Ventilation for Warehouse by Subregion in High Temperature and Humidity Area
    LI Qian-qian YANG Dong-ping HUANG Cheng-bing SHI Tian-yu LIU Hui-biao
    2022, 30(1):214-219.
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](10) [PDF 1.15 M](39)
    This paper studies transverse grain-cooling ventilation technology applied to 24m long-span warehouse in high temperature and humidity area. Application effect of transverse grain-cooling ventilation technology was evaluated by adopting district cooling ventilation mode. The results showed that the transverse grain-cooling ventilation by sub region in large-span warehouse had the advantages of faster cooling rate, better ventilation uniformity, remarkable water retention effect and lower consuming power. The temperature gradient along the cool air direction was less than 0.22 ℃/m. The ventilation water loss rate was 0.1% and consuming power rate was 0.10 kw·h/(t·℃). The consuming power rate is only 20% of the maximum consuming power rate index of 0.5 kw·h/(t·℃) which is defined in the “Grain and oil storage—Technology regulation of application of grain chiller”, (GB/T 29374—2012).

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