SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF CEREALS, OILS AND FOODS

The Key Magazine of China Science and Technology
Included by EBSCO Research Database
Chemical Abstracts (CA)

Issue 6,2021 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Global Challenges and Solutions in the early Warning, Monitoring and Toxicity Assessment of Biotoxins in the Food and Feed Chain(Online First, Recommended Article)
    Rudolf Krska Eskola Mari Berthiller Franz Nielen Michel Oswald Isabelle Elliott Chris McNerney Oonagh BotanaLuis Miguel Malachová Alexandra
    2021, 29(6):1-8.
    [Abstract](50) [HTML](29) [PDF 3.32 M](79)
    Abstract:
    There is a massive and urgent need to ensure safety and security of the food supply of the world´s growing population. However, global agriculture and food industries continue to be vulnerable to problems of contamination with biotoxins produced by plants, algae and particularly by fungi; with global warming and extreme weather events making the occurrence of these toxic metabolites even more unpredictable. In this paper we summarize the multidisciplinary, multi-sectoral complementary competencies needed to innovate in various scientific fields and approaches, so strongly needed to develop improved early warning, monitoring and toxicity assessment of biotoxins in the food and feed chain. These include big data approaches using satellite and drone images, portable monitoring devices and (combined) toxicity testing of (emerging) biotoxins using proteomics and transcriptomics.
    2  Effect of Interacting Abiotic Storage Conditions on Respiration, Dry Matter Losses and Aflatoxin B1 Contamination of Stored Turkey’s Shelled Hazelnuts(Online First, Recommended Article)
    Kalliopi Mylona Angel Medina Naresh Magan
    2021, 29(6):16-22.
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](23) [PDF 772.27 K](54)
    Abstract:
    Hazelnuts are an economically important nut which is consumed world-wide. It is prone to infection by Aspergillus flavus and contamination with aflatoxins. Taking Tukey’s hazelnuts as a research object, the objective of this study were to (a) quantify respiration rates and (b) dry matter losses (DMLs) and (c) aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination of naturally stored shelled hazelnuts at different temperatures and water availabilities. Subsequently, shelled hazelnuts were inoculated with additional A. flavus inoculum prior to storage to examine effects on dry matter losses and on AFB1 contamination. Maximum respiration of hazelnuts and associated mycoflora was under wetter conditions of 0.90~0.95 water activity (aw = 12.5%~18% moisture content). This resulted in between approx. 10% DML at 25 and 30 ℃ after 5 days storage. Inoculation and storage of shelled hazelnuts + A. flavus inoculum resulted in similar patterns of respiration with optimal levels at 25~30 ℃ and >0.90 aw. Indeed, AFB1 contamination was highest at the maximum water levels tested of 0.90 aw. Indeed the contamination level exceeded the legislative limits set by the EU for AFB1 contamination of these nuts. Correlation between DMLs and all the AFB1 data in both sets of studies showed that very small changes in DML due to poor drying or storage of ≥0.6% resulted in AFB1 contamination levels exceeding the EU legislative limits. Thus, efficient drying and safe monitored storage is necessary to minimise the risk of AFB1 contamination in this economically important commodity and to avoid exposure of consumers to such toxins.
    3  Potential for Control of A. Flavus and Aflatoxin B1 in Vitro and in Stored Egyptian Shelled Peanuts using Gaseous Ozone Treatment(Online First, Recommended Article)
    Yousef Sultan Naresh Magan
    2021, 29(6):29-37.
    [Abstract](16) [HTML](22) [PDF 2.73 M](53)
    Abstract:
    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of gaseous ozone (O3) on (a) germination, (b) mycelial growth, (c) aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production by strains of Aspergillus flavus at different water activity (aw, 0.89~0.97=13.1%~24% moisture content) and 25 ℃ in vitro. In addition, taking Egyptian peanuts as a research object, shelled peanuts at 0.93 aw were inoculated with two concentrations of A. flavus conidia (103, 105 conidia/g) and exposed to gaseous O3 and then stored. In all cases, exposure was for 30 min at 6 L/min. Generally, >100 ppm O3 significantly inhibited conidial germination of A. flavus strains (EGP-B07; SRRC-G 1907) on a defined yeast sucrose medium within 48 hrs. However, exposure of growing colonies of A. flavus to O3 with up to 300 ppm, had no effect on subsequent colony extension. The same concentration significantly affected AFB1 production, but only at 0.89 aw. Populations of both A. flavus strains in stored shelled peanuts exposed at 0.93 aw were significantly decreased at 100~400 ppm O3. However, AFB1 production was only significantly reduced in the 400 ppm O3 treatments at both inoculum load levels. These results are discussed in the context of O3 gas use for controlling A. flavus populations and AFB1 in shelled peanuts post-harvest.
    4  Mitigation of Mycotoxins during Food Processing: Sharing Experience among Europe and South East Asia(Online First, Recommended Article)
    Paula Alvito Jonathan Barcelo Johan De Meester Elias Rito Michele Suman
    2021, 29(6):46-58.
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](21) [PDF 1.40 M](71)
    Abstract:
    Worldwide the issue of mycotoxins results in economic losses estimated at billions of dollars and toxicological risk for both humans and animals. Preventive measures also include decontamination and mitigation actions that can be carried out through food processing. Several proposals have been tested and illustrated also in scientific papers during the last decades, however clear, easy to implement, practical suggestions and guidelines for process adaptation are much more needed. Europe and South East Asia can find synergies and complementarities moving from processing to analysis, from risk assessment to reduction strategies, from gap-analysis to communication roadmaps. Stakeholders from both Europe and Southeast Asia must then ensure that there is a way to ease and harmonize the regulation in the food supply chain in order to ensure food safety and at the same time facilitate trade in both regions, taking into account of the various landscapes, agrosystems and also different consumer preferences within the countries themselves. Concerning the example of cereals, processing steps cover primary processing (cleaning and milling operations) and secondary processing procedures (such as fermentation and thermal treatments during baking), special attention is devoted to the production of baked goods and to the estimation of processing factors for DON in wheat bread production especially in Europe. With reference instead to the specific context of Asian producers, a case-study focuses on ochratoxin A in coffee in Southeast Asia region, combining the expertise of the farming community, coffee industry and science researchers. The strategy to reduce mycotoxins in a farm setting poses several challenges to coffee farmers: it needs to be analyzed in the context of good agricultural practices, socioeconomic and behavioral factors of both coffee producers and consumers. As the world becomes more globalized, food and feed supply chains also become more complexed and hence, a more comprehensive strategy to ensure food contaminants mitigation is needed.
    5  Mycotoxin Contamination of Bush Mango, Cashew Nuts, Okra, Sesame and Sorghum Marketed in Nasarawa State, Nigeria(Online First, Recommended Article)
    Isaac M Ogara Michael Sulyok Anthony Negedu Kolawole I Ayeni Zega M Zebedee John D Mamman Abiodun Adedokun Janet I Ogara Eunice A Adgidzi Chibundu N Ezekiel Rudolf Krska
    2021, 29(6):71-82.
    [Abstract](13) [HTML](26) [PDF 693.53 K](47)
    Abstract:
    Food crops (bush mango (n=12), roasted cashew nut (n=12), dried okra (n=12), sesame (n=35) and sorghum (n=36)) sold in markets in Nasarawa state, Nigeria, were analyzed using a LC-MS/MS mycotoxin method. The hepatocarcinogenic aflatoxin B1 was detected in 42%, 25% and 19% of bush mango, dried okra and sorghum samples at mean concentrations of 19.2, 8.27 and 4.75 µg/kg, respectively, while fumonisin B1 contaminated 9% of the sesame (mean: 12.5 µg/kg) and 47% of the sorghum (mean: 461 µg/kg) samples. At least 19% of the sorghum samples were co-contaminated with aflatoxin B1 andfumonisin B1. The nephrotoxic ochratoxin A was detected in bush mango, sorghum and, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, in dried okra. These vended food crops in the local markets are therefore prone to mycotoxin contamination, which may pose a health threat to consumers, and require intentional mitigation efforts.
    6  The Challenge of Standard Stability in LC-MS Based Multi-Analyte Approaches for Veterinary Drugs(Online First, Recommended Article)
    Lidija Kenjeric Michael Sulyok Alexandra Malachova David Steiner Rudolf Krska Brian Quinn Brett Greer Christopher T.Elliott
    2021, 29(6):93-99.
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](23) [PDF 1.10 M](65)
    Abstract:
    The short- and long-term stability of multi-component mixtures and intermediate mixtures of analytical standards of veterinary drugs, which can potentially occur in food and feed chains, was examined by an isochronous measurement approach. Short-term stability testing of calibrants included storage for 1, 2, 4, and 7 days at –20 ℃ (as a baseline) 4 ℃, and 23 ℃ (with and without exposure to sunlight), respectively. Long-term stability testing conditions of intermediate mixes were –20 ℃, 4 ℃, 23 ℃ (with and without exposure to sunlight), and control temperature at –80 ℃ while the testing period was 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks, respectively. Results indicated that calibration standards should ideally be stored at 4 ℃ for only 1~2 days, without the presence of acid. Neutral storage conditions were acceptable even at room temperature. Storage of intermediate mixtures containing ß-lactams and cephalosporins for longer than 1 month under 4 ℃ and room temperature resulted in a loss of almost 90%. When it comes to the intermediate mixtures with penicillin V and G, acceptable storage conditions were 2 weeks at –20 ℃, without the presence of acid. Other classes of veterinary drugs were less critical as considers long-term stability. Overall, storage conditions at –20 ℃ were considered optimal for long-term storage of intermediate mixes of veterinary drug standards.
    7  Thinking of Development of Mycotoxin Surveillance in China during the 13th Five-year Plan(Online First, Recommended Article)
    YANG Da-jin YANG Xin ZHOU Jing
    2021, 29(6):106-110.
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](22) [PDF 414.76 K](61)
    Abstract:
    In view of the mycotoxin pollution in China, a set of methods that are suitable to carry out food safety risk surveillance in China were explored during the 13th Five-year Plan period. The technic used is based on the simultaneous detection of multiple toxins, covering a variety of key foods. The purpose was to gain an overview of the current pollution as comprehensive as possible. It has been proved that the current approach achieved good results and laid a solid foundation for a more comprehensive monitoring in the 14th Five-year plan.
    8  Research on the MyToolBox Mycotoxin Integrated Management System and its Application Prospects in China(Online First, Recommended Article)
    WANG Song-xue LI Sen LI Bing-jie CAI Di YE Jin
    2021, 29(6):111-118.
    [Abstract](13) [HTML](21) [PDF 753.89 K](53)
    Abstract:
    Grain waste and economic losses caused by mycotoxin happened every year in the world. Nonetheless, prevention and control of these toxic secondary metabolites remain difficult. MyToolBox, a four-year project which has received funding from EU’s Horizon 2020, proposes an integrated, affordable and practical mycotoxin management system covering the whole chain, from field, harvest, drying, storage, food processing, to waste management alternative energy, to ensure food and feed security and safety. This paper presents an overview of MyToolBox mycotoxin integrated management system and puts forward suggestions for its application in China.
    9  Analysis on the Mask-Mycotoxins and Emerging-Mycotoxins in Maize——Samples from the Maize Cultivated Region in 2020, China(Online First, Recommended Article)
    ZHANG Da-wei YANG Hai-lin HUA Yu ZHOU Jing LI An-ping GUAN Shu AN GANG NING Xiao
    2021, 29(6):119-130.
    [Abstract](16) [HTML](17) [PDF 2.43 M](60)
    Abstract:
    This study is to elucidate the prevalence of multi-component mycotoxins in maize from clients in 2020 by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The maize samples in this study were prevalence of masked mycotoxins and emerging toxins. For the masked-Mycotoxins, most of samples were failed to be tested out. The D3G & 15-ACDON in some samples are the most prevalence which are at the level of 92.3% and 64.4%, for the emerging Mycotoxins, the beauvericin and moniliform in a few of samples are the most prevalence that are at the level of 96.69% and 95.03%. Through the analysis of these data, this paper aims to provide reference and guidance for the control of masked mycotoxin and emerging toxin.
    10  Research on the Steady-state Rheological Properties of Modified Potato Flour and Noodle Quality Evaluation(Online First, Recommended Article)
    YANG Xiao-qing XU Ru
    2021, 29(6):131-138.
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](24) [PDF 1.14 M](48)
    Abstract:
    In order to explore the effect of the mix with a high ratio of potato flour and wheat flour on noodle processing and quality evaluation, the modified potato flour, which was pre-prepared with soybean protein isolate adding and ultrasonic treatment, was used as the research target. The steady-state rheological properties of the mix with different proportions of potato flour and wheat flour, tensile properties, texture properties and sensory evaluation of steamed noodles were measured for a comprehensive evaluation. The results showed that when the proportion of potato flour reached 50%, the apparent viscosity showed the most stable with the shear rate, and the flow index value was higher than that of the other ratios. This was close to the Newtonian fluid, indicating that the addition of potato flour can reduce the flow resistance and facilitate the processing of products. The effect of ultrasonic treatment combining with soybean protein isolate played a positive role in improving the ductility, plasticity, strength and strength of raw potato flour. The texture characteristics and quality of cooked noodles of modified potato flour were generally positively reviewed. Its chewiness is lower than that of wheat flour noodles, which can provide people with a better chewing experience. It has been proved that the ratio of modified potato flour mixed with wheat flour could be increased after modifying treatment, which was beneficial to the promotion of potato being used for staple food grain.
    11  Research on the Changes of the Dough Rheo-fermentation Properties of Wheat Flour during Storage(Online First, Recommended Article)
    WEI Yi-min ZHANG Lei ZHAO Bo WANG Xu-lin WU Gui-ling
    2021, 29(6):139-145.
    [Abstract](14) [HTML](15) [PDF 663.51 K](44)
    Abstract:
    In the industrial production process of traditionally fermented flour products, the influence of a certain storage period of fresh flour on the production process and product features of Chinese steamed bread (CSB) as fermented food is very prominent, and often causing quality fluctuations. In this paper, the lab-milled 3 flours were taken as 3 repeat samples set under the condition of room temperature, with the tools of dough rheo-fermentation instrument and other equipment. Regular analysis on rheo-fermentation and other properties of the dough, as well as the quality sensory evaluation of Chinese steamed bread (CSB) was conducted to determine a reasonable storage period for fresh wheat flour. The results showed that during the storage processes, the dough stability time increased and the weakening degree decreased, with the dough rheological property improved. The fermentation volume of rheo-fermentometer decreased significantly, so as the volume of the CSB. But the trend of change of the sensory evaluation characteristics of the CSB was not obvious. The test results by instrument Rheo F4 can reflect the rheo-fermentation properties of the dough, wherein rheo-fermentometer, such as the time required for maximum development (T1), maximum development reached by the dough (Hm), and dough development height at final fermentation time (h), have obvious guiding for production of the CSB. We therefore suggest that the flour to be used for the industrial production of CSB should stay in storage for more than 7 days after milling.
    12  Analysis on the Features and Consumption Demands on Oat Products in China(Online First, Recommended Article)
    DONG Rui LI Liang HU Xin-zhong REN Chang-zhong GUO Lai-chun WANG Feng-wu LI Yu-wei
    2021, 29(6):146-155.
    [Abstract](9) [HTML](23) [PDF 6.81 M](40)
    Abstract:
    At present, the problem of imbalanced nutrient structure still exists in the diet of Chinese residents, and the incidence of chronic diseases such as high blood pressure, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia is gradually increasing, so it is particularly necessary to have a reasonable diet. Oat and its related products, as the signature whole grain food products, are rich in dietary fiber with a rational nutritional structure. It helps reduce the risks brought by chronic diseases. This study introduces the features of traditional and novel Chinese oat products and reviews their consumption trends and potentials, aiming to provide information for oat products consumers and professionals.
    13  Research on the Effects of Atmospheric Steam Treatment on Lipase Related Enzyme Activities and Microorganisms of Whole Wheat Flour
    DU Yu-meng REN Guo-bao REN Chen-gang CHEN Qian GAN Wan-qiang CHEN Yan
    2021, 29(6):156-162.
    [Abstract](14) [HTML](24) [PDF 595.29 K](43)
    Abstract:
    The fat-related enzymes of whole wheat flour cause the increase in fatty acid value, the tallowiness of whole wheat flour and the higher microbial count. This seriously affects the shelf life of whole wheat flour and restricts the circulation and sales of whole wheat flour. In this study, the key physical and chemical indicators, as well as microbial count of several commercially available whole wheat flours are analyzed and compared. The results show that after 3 months of storage, the fatty acid values of the whole wheat flour are close to or slightly higher than the industry standard requirements. The bran prepared in laboratory was treated with atmospheric steam at different times. The results showed that after 10 minutes of steaming treatment, the total plate count in the bran decreased from 2.2×105 CFU/g to 1.4×102 CFU/g, and the spores count decreased from 1.2 ×103 CFU/g to 1.1×102 CFU/g. After 20 minutes of atmospheric steaming treatment, the total plate count and spores decreased to less than 100 CFU/g. Atmospheric steaming treatment for 10 minutes can inactivate the bran lipase and lipoxygenase by 90% and 80%, respectively. The whole wheat flour was prepared by adding bran that has been steamed for 10 minutes back to the flour. Based on the results of whole wheat flour shelf life test, we therefore conclude that the shelf life of whole wheat flour is at least 16~17 months.
    14  Research on Acid Value Detection of Edible Vegetable Oil
    ZHANG Xu-ping ZHANG Yan QU Zhi-hao GAO Yuan YU Xiu-zhu
    2021, 29(6):163-176.
    [Abstract](32) [HTML](21) [PDF 834.55 K](55)
    Abstract:
    Acid value, as an important indicator of its oxidation and quality, is used to measure the content of free fatty acid (FFA) in edible vegetable oil. At present, titration is the most widely used method to examine the acid value of edible oil, which is simple and easy to operate. Titration is effective for the detection of acid in most edible oils, but the detection error rate is higher for edible oil with lower acid value, darker color or certain interference components except FFA. Instrumental analysis methods, such as spectroscopy, electrochemistry, colorimetry and chromatography, can be used as alternatives to titration. Besides, the instrumental analysis methods have better sensitivity and accuracy. In order to further expand and innovate the technology of acid value detection in edible vegetable oil, the production pathway of edible vegetable oil FFA, the features and current situation of acid value detection methods are analyzed and compared, to provide reference for the improvements of acid value detection method and the establishment of new methods.
    15  Research on the Effect of Electron Beam Irradiation on Microorganism and Quality of Salad Dressing(Online First, Recommended Article)
    WANG Hai-hong YAN Wei-qiang YUE Ling ZHEN Qi QI Wen-yuan CHEN Zhi-jun DUAN Zhuo-xu KONG Qiu-lian
    2021, 29(6):177-183.
    [Abstract](4) [HTML](23) [PDF 576.31 K](45)
    Abstract:
    To provide reference for technical feasibility and process setting of physical cold disinfection of salad dressing, the commercial salad dressing was irradiated by electron beam at different doses of 0 kGy, 1 kGy and 2 kGy. The disinfection effect of electron beam irradiation on salad dressing and the changes in terms of microorganism, color, texture, flavor, stability of irradiated salad dressing after storing for 40 days at room temperature were studied. The results showed that, electron beam irradiation had a good disinfection effect on Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, the aerobic plate count, molds and yeasts of salad dressing. 1 kGy irradiation could reduce pathogenic bacteria by 3 log to 6 log, with no aerobic plate count, molds and yeasts found. After 40 days storage at room temperature, sensory evaluation showed that electron beam irradiation at 1 kGy had no significant effect on the color, texture, aroma and taste of salad dressing. There was no obvious difference in the results of electronic nose analysis, texture parameters and centrifugal resolution rate, but the taste score of 2 kGy irradiation was significantly lower than that of non-irradiation and 1 kGy irradiation. Significant difference of texture parameters was found between 2 kGy irradiation, non-irradiation, and 1 kGy irradiation. Therefore, we conclude electron beam irradiation can effectively control the pathogenic bacteria in salad dressing. The electron beam irradiation at doses of 1 kGy has no obvious undesirable effect on the color, texture, flavor, stability of the salad dressing, which could be used as a disinfection method for salad dressing.
    16  Research on Shelf Life of Cereal Auxiliary Food for Infants and Young Children Made by Drum Drying(Online First, Recommended Article)
    ZHENG Yan-dan YUAN Feng-juan ZHENG Li-bing HUANG Dan-ying
    2021, 29(6):184-189.
    [Abstract](5) [HTML](22) [PDF 448.33 K](43)
    Abstract:
    In this study, the shelf life of cereal auxiliary food for infants and young children made by drum drying and packed in tinplate cans with nitrogen filling was studied. Through accelerated destructive experiment, the chemical quality decay kinetic model was established for the first time, and the shelf life at room temperature was inferred according to the decay of nutrients. The results show that the water activity of cereal auxiliary food for infants is between 0.2~0.3. During the accelerated test period of 4.5 months, the decay rates of DHA and AA are the fastest. According to the variation of each nutrient index, we conclude that the shelf life of products can exceed 20 months.
    17  Research on the Effects of Various Intake Levels of Buckwheat on Intestinal Function and Intestinal Flora in Hypercholesterolemic Mice(Online First, Recommended Article)
    TIAN Tian PEI Xin-li LIU Hai-ying
    2021, 29(6):190-197.
    [Abstract](4) [HTML](23) [PDF 3.93 M](36)
    Abstract:
    The effect of diets containing different proportions of buckwheat on intestinal function of cholesterol absorption and excretion and intestinal microbiota in hypercholesterolemic mice were studied. The mice were divided into four groups where they were fed with AIN-93M standard diet (control group), a high-cholesterol diet (model group), a high-cholesterol diet + low-dose of buckwheat diet, and a high-cholesterol diet + high-dose of buckwheat diet, respectively. The results showed that diets containing different proportions of buckwheat can all repaired the damaged structure of small intestine to certain extent. Compared with the model group, diets containing different proportions of buckwheat increased the mRNA expression levels of ATP binding cassette transporter subfamily G members 5/8 (ABCG5/ABCG8), and reduced the mRNA expression level of Niemann-Pick type C 1, such as 1 (NPC1L1) protein, in the small intestine, which in turn reduced the absorption of cholesterol in the small intestine. Diets containing different proportions of buckwheat significantly increased the expression of mouse intestinal ABCA1 and SR-B1 genes expression level, which promoted reverse cholesterol transport in the intestine. Compared to the model group, the diet containing a high proportion of buckwheat greatly promoted the abundance of the intestinal microbiota. On the contrary, the diet containing a low proportion of buckwheat had a negative effect on the abundance of the intestinal microbiota.
    18  Research on the Effects of Whole Smoke on Antioxidant Capacity of Cells(Online First, Recommended Article)
    CHEN Li-ping ZHANG Dong-peng HUANG Zi-qi TIAN Jun-rui WANG Meng-yuan HAN Ya-wei
    2021, 29(6):198-203.
    [Abstract](4) [HTML](24) [PDF 499.99 K](37)
    Abstract:
    V79 cells were exposed to whole cigarette smoke for 1 hour with 4 cigarettes per hour, 6 cigarettes per hour and 8 cigarettes per hour respectively. ROS, SOD, GSH-Px, CAT and T-AOC were taken as index, and the effects of cigarette smoke on the antioxidant capacity of V79 cells were studied. The results showed that the whole smoke environment will consume and inhibit the antioxidant substance in the cell, which leads to the increase of the content of active oxygen free radical in cells.
    19  Research on the Phosphorylation of Moringa Seed Protein by Dry-heating in the Presence of Pyrophosphate Effect on Protein Structure and Antioxidant Activity(Online First, Recommended Article)
    YIN Chun-yan LI Can-peng LIU Zi-dan
    2021, 29(6):204-211.
    [Abstract](13) [HTML](18) [PDF 611.69 K](40)
    Abstract:
    Moringa seed protein (MSP) was phosphorylated by dry-heating in the presence of pyrophosphate. The antioxidant activity of MSP, including ABTS+ radical scavenging ability, superoxide anion scavenging ability and chelating capacity, was then investigated before and after phosphorylation by dry-heating in the presence of pyrophosphate. Furthermore, the effects of phosphorylation on structure of MSP were identified by spectra fluorescence and circular dichroism spectra. The results showed that the antioxidant activity of MSP slightly increased after heating in a dry environment. However, its antioxidant activity significantly improved by dry heating phosphorylation in the presence of pyrophosphate. In addition, phosphorylation induced a slight secondary structural change in MSP, but remarkably increased its surface sulfhydryl thiol (SH) groups and had no actual effect on its solubility. The improved antioxidant property of MSP can be affected by the introduced hydrophilic phosphate groups and the increase of the surface SH content.
    20  Research on the Flavor of Sorghum Rice Based on Gas Chromatograph-Ion Mobility Spectroscopy (GC-IMS)
    XU Nuo LI Hui YANG Hong-wei
    2021, 29(6):212-218.
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](21) [PDF 11.47 M](60)
    Abstract:
    Chinese has been taking sorghum rice as food for centuries. Gas chromatography ion mobility spectroscopy (GC-IMS) was applied to analyze the changes of volatile compounds in sorghum rice during cooking process. It was found that the main volatile compounds in sorghum rice included ketones, aldehydes and esters. The aromatic components of cooked sorghum rice included phenylacetaldehyde, hexanal, 2-pentaylfuran and hexyl acetate. The strongest aroma was marked when cooked between 40 and 60 minutes with the highest number of volatile species being detected. The result of variance analysis showed that sorghum rice could demonstrate more flavor information after cooking. Therefore, it was suggested to analyze volatile compounds of sorghum after cooking to improve the resolution.
    21  Research on Anti-cancer and Anti-tumor Molecular Mechanism of Perilla Seed Based on Network Pharmacology and Molecular Docking
    GUO Xu ZHANG Dong SUN Xiao-li TIAN Rong-rong
    2021, 29(6):219-230.
    [Abstract](15) [HTML](22) [PDF 2.21 M](44)
    Abstract:
    Network pharmacology and molecular docking methods are used to systematically study the components, targets, pathways and cancer treatment of perilla seeds. With the help of TCMSP, Genecards, and Uniprot databases, the components of perilla seeds, targets, and cancer and tumor targets are collected. Cytoscape software is used to construct a network diagram for the components of perilla seeds, targets, and cancer tumors. The protein is performed through the STRING database interaction network analysis, GO function and KEGG enrichment with the help of DAVID platform. Auto Dock is used to molecularly dock the active ingredients of perilla seeds with anti-cancer and anti-tumor targets. There are 72 targets in total for the anti-cancer and anti-tumor effects of perilla seeds screened, corresponding to 17 effective ingredients. The cancer types involved include bladder cancer, thyroid cancer, pancreatic cancer, etc., among which luteolin and TP53 have the best docking activity. This study builds a network of components-target-disease of perilla seeds, explores the key targets of perilla seeds' anti-cancer and anti-tumor effects, simulates the molecular docking of target proteins and active ingredients, and provides guidance to the clinical application and application of perilla seeds.
    22  Research on the Screening of Anti-mold Microorganisms in Cereals, Oils and Foods and their Bioactive Substances
    GUO Chao HAN Wei REN Fei WANG Chao
    2021, 29(6):231-237.
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](21) [PDF 1.06 M](48)
    Abstract:
    In order to develop new anti-mold agents and reduce the effect of mildew on the quality and safety during storage, transportation, and circulation of cereals, oils and foods, microorganisms with strong anti-mold activity were screened in this study. Bacteriostasis method was applied and Fusarium graminearum was taken as indicator. Morphological observation, biochemical characterization and 16S rDNA gene sequences alignment were used to identify the strains. The anti-mold bioactive substances were analyzed in different temperatures, pH, and proteinase K treatment. After primary screening, 33 strains with strong inhibitory activity against F. graminearum were obtained. Seven strains were selected after secondary screening and classified as Bacillus. Through the analysis of bioactive substances, the anti-mold effects of the seven strains were not of high temperature and strong acid or base resistant, or obviously influenced by proteinase K treatment. It indicated that the bioactive substances were peptides. Finally, the strain ASAG 62 had good inhibitory effect on common molds (Penicillium flavum, Aspergillus Niger, Aspergillus ochre, Aspergillus flavus and F. graminearum).
    23  Analysis on the Screening of an Endophytic Fungi from Artemisia Sacrorum Ledeb Against Wheat Scab and Mass Spectrographic Analysis
    CHEN Hong-juan ZHUANG Xu-hui ZOU Hai-jie LI Guang-tao HAN Wei MIAO Hai-jiang DU Chuan-lin LUO Xiao-hong
    2021, 29(6):238-246.
    [Abstract](5) [HTML](21) [PDF 994.66 K](44)
    Abstract:
    Twelve endophytic fungus strain from artemisia sacrorum ledeb were isolated and purified with the method of surface disinfection and tip mycelium selection. The activity of eight strains of endophytic fermentation broth against wheat scab were studied by mycelial growth rate method. Most active strain were identified as Fusarium Redolens by the combination of morphology and ITS rDNA gene sequence. A mass spectrometry method was established to analyze the main metabolites. The results showed that the endophytic fungus (No: 20202707) from artemisia sacrorum ledeb demonstrated the strongest inhibitory effect on Fusarium graminearum, and the inhibitory rate was 65.27%. Its main metabolites were 3, 4-dihydrocoumarin, 5′ deoxyribonuc leoside, Harmala alkaloid, benzofuran and benzothiazole.
    24  Research on the Temperature-Controlled Storage of Paddy in Warehouse of Northern China
    TIAN Lin ZHANG Hai-yang QI Zhi-hui TANG Fang
    2021, 29(6):247-253.
    [Abstract](13) [HTML](21) [PDF 465.21 K](43)
    Abstract:
    In this paper, paddy storage in a warehouse where temperature is controlled by air-conditioning was monitored and studied, in Northern China. During the summer, using air-conditioning temperature control technology, the warehouse temperature and the average grain temperature on the surface can be effectively controlled below 22 ℃, but the temperature at different locations of the same grain layer varies greatly. The grain temperature in local areas near the surface of the grain pile, the west wall, and the south wall are still above 25 ℃. Affected by the high temperature of the external environment in summer, the temperature difference between the center of the grain pile to the side wall is more than 10 ℃, and there is water migration happening caused by “cold heart and hot skin”. Moisture and temperature tend to rise at a distance of 0.5 m from the surface of the grain pile and the side wall of the warehouse, which makes it a key place where mold is easy to grow. At the same time, it is also the location where the germination rate decreases and the fatty acid value increases. Therefore, in the process of temperature-controlled grain storage, it is necessary to strengthen the monitoring of the grain condition on the surface of the grain pile and the side wall of the warehouse.
    25  Research on the Regional Management Mode and the Construction of Information Platform of “China Good Grain and Oil”
    QIN Wen XING Yong
    2021, 29(6):254-258.
    [Abstract](12) [HTML](19) [PDF 642.86 K](47)
    Abstract:
    In order to effectively safeguard and improve the quality of the grain and oil products in China, to further implement the requirements of the grain supply-side reform, and to finish the regional “China Good Grain and Oil” project management work including product selection, as well as the quality and logistics traceability from field to dining table, this paper studies and analyzes the status quo, as well as the problems in the “China Good Grain and Oil” regional project management and business operation modes, suggesting to use information platform construction as a the supplementary mean for management work, so as to effectively improve the regional management in the “China Good Grain and Oil” project.
    26  Research on the Intelligent Factory Construction of “China Good Grain and Oil”
    QIN Wen XING Yong
    2021, 29(6):259-263.
    [Abstract](12) [HTML](25) [PDF 489.68 K](48)
    Abstract:
    This paper targets at the “China Good Grain and Oil” example enterprises, with the focus on their aims to strengthen production management and marketing for “China Good Grain and Oil” products by constructing an intelligent factory system. Considering the market demands on "China Good Grain and Oil" products and the requirements for regional “China Good Grain and Oil” project management, we studied the project management and business operation modes for regional "China Good Grain and Oil" example enterprises, along with the required information and technologies. We also proposed solutions to the "China Good Grain and Oil" intelligent factory system, so as to provide support for effectively improving "China Good Grain and Oil" project management and example enterprises’ information management levels.
    27  Research on the Forecast and Analysis of Policy Grain’ Quality and Price(Online First, Recommended Article)
    LI Teng-fei LI De-yan WANG Tao
    2021, 29(6):264-270.
    [Abstract](10) [HTML](23) [PDF 420.34 K](37)
    Abstract:
    It plays a significant role in promoting the high quality and good price of grain in modernization of grain circulation. Based on the management and industrial development demand of policy grain, this paper studies the trends of change of policy grain in the stock period, analyzes the main influencing factors of the policy grain on auction price, and decomposes the quality factors into four kinds of variables. This paper also quantifies the relationship between quality index and price, as well as constructs a analysis framework and prediction analysis model of policy grain on the relationship between quality and price, for the purpose of promoting the close relationship between policy grain quality and price, and establishing a more scientific and effective grain price formation mechanism.

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