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Volume 29,Issue 5,2021 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Research on the Enzyme Assisted Extraction of Rice Bran Oil(Online First, Recommended Article)
    ZHANG Min XU Duo-xia WANG Zhen-hua HAO Jia YANG Huan-yue
    2021, 29(5):1-10.
    [Abstract](71) [HTML](186) [PDF 1.12 M](379)
    The key technology in enzymatic extraction of oil in the aqueous system is the enzymatic hydrolysis and demulsification performance. The process of extracting rice bran oil by enzymatic method under aqueous system is studied in this research. The results show that more than 84.10% rice bran oil extraction yield could be obtained under the following procedure and conditions. The extruded rice bran is screened through a 40- mesh sieve and mixed with ultrapure water at a ratio of 1∶7.5 (w/v), after which 2% (w/w) Alcalase 2.4 L is added to the mixture and the system is continuously incubated for 150 minutes at 57 ℃ and pH 9.0. After centrifugation, the pH of the emulsion to 7.0 reacting is adjusted further at 60 ℃ for 60 minutes to obtain the oil by breaking the emulsion. The quality of rice bran oil extracted, especially the content of bioactive substances, is obviously better than that extracted by the traditional solvent method. In addition, carbohydrase could not improve the oil extraction yield, while alkaline conditions are more favorable for rice bran oil extraction. Alkaline conditions and CaCl2 treatment are not conducive to demulsification, while 20%~30% ethanol treatment could improve the demulsification rate of the emulsion. The technology can promote the applications of aqueous enzymatic method in the vegetable oil manufacture industry, as well as the utilization of rice bran.
    2  Research Progress and Outlook of Food Grade Rice Bran(Online First, Recommended Article)
    MA Zong-hui YIN Bao-ru ZHANG Hai XU Xue-bing
    2021, 29(5):11-20.
    [Abstract](122) [HTML](164) [PDF 529.27 K](615)
    This paper reviews the nutrition and utilization of rice bran and the future development of food grade rice bran. Rice bran has high nutritional value and rich biological activities. The utilization of rice bran fiber is mainly through modification. The combination of physical and enzymatic methods and supercritical CO2 treatment are beneficial to improve the soluble dietary fiber content and fiber extraction rate. The utilization of rice bran protein includes extraction and modification. The study of extraction of rice bran protein focuses on the combination of physical and enzymatic methods. Moreover, subcritical water, which is a new green extraction technology, has gradually become a research hotspot. The rice bran protein is mainly modified using enzymatic method to improve the function and biological activity of the protein. Therefore, studies on the development of food grade rice bran will be a trend in the future.
    3  Nutrition and Applications of Rice Bran Oil Overview(Online First, Recommended Article)
    Riantong Singanusong Jorg J. Jacoby
    2021, 29(5):21-25.
    [Abstract](70) [HTML](180) [PDF 434.86 K](190)
    Rice bran oil is a healthy oil from many aspects. The oil has a balanced fatty acid profile comparing with many other vegetable oils. The key difference is the minor components or micronutrients or unsaponifiable matters contained in the oil that are very special and in larger percentages. The oil contains more than 1.5% oryzanol that gives nutritional and pharmaceutical functions from the studies so far. More studies are needed to demonstrate the wide functions in many aspects. The oil also contains large percentage of phytosterols which received huge amount of studies for nutritional applications. Furthermore, the oil contains tocopherols and tocotrienols, in which for the later particularly it gives many special functions including prevention of breast cancers for example. When the oil is properly processed and used in foods, those functions are more and more demonstrated in nutritional or biological studies. Thus the oil in food and pharmaceutical applications is in exploring both in academic studies and industrial practice. In this work, an overview of such progress is given.
    4  Production of Rice Bran Oil in India: a Technical Evaluation(Online First, Recommended Article)
    Pradosh Prasad Chakrabarti Ram Chandra Reddy Jala
    2021, 29(5):30-35.
    [Abstract](43) [HTML](178) [PDF 501.55 K](204)
    India has the highest utilization of rice bran oil in terms of the available resources in the country. Parboiled rice tradition has made the available rice bran in relatively good quality. This makes the quality of crude rice bran oil being also high. Therefore the following processing is made relatively simple comparing with those high free fatty acid content crude rice bran oils. In India, physical refining is commonly used. Thus the oil refining yield is usually high. The unsaponifiable content is also higher comparatively. For example, oryzanol content is usually 1% to 1.5% in weight. Although there are a large number of rice bran oil small plants in India, the technology is relatively mature for the production of relatively good quality rice bran oil. In this short overview of the production technology of rice bran oil in India, the state of the art has been elaborated in a simple form. Particularly, the problems and challenges of the production technology have been evaluated with the background of decades of research and technology development work in India.
    5  Research on Crystallization and Melting Behaviors of Rice Bran Oil(Online First, Recommended Article)
    ZHOU Shuai SUN Yue WANG Yong JIANG Yuan-rong
    2021, 29(5):43-48.
    [Abstract](27) [HTML](181) [PDF 4.15 M](219)
    In this paper, the isothermal and non-isothermal crystallization and melting behaviors of rice bran oil (RBO) are studied, and the composition of the precipitates under cold temperatures from RBO is analyzed. The results show that the isothermal shear rheology is an effective method to characterize the cold performance of RBO. With the increasing of the cooling rate, the onset crystallization temperature of RBO gradually decreases, and the melting enthalpy gradually decreases before it finally becomes stable. The crystal form of the precipitates from RBO after stored at 4 ℃ for 90 days is mainly β form, and its melting peak temperature is at 21.5 ℃. The two crystallization peak temperatures are 5.6 ℃ and - 43.9 ℃, respectively. Compared with virgin RBO, the relative content of palmitic acid in the precipitates increases significantly, and the relative content of oleic and linoleic acids decreases obviously.
    6  Research on the Process of Improvements on the Whole Grain Flat Noodle Stretching Quality(Online First, Recommended Article)
    YI Cui-ping LUO Chen XU Li LIU Yang DONG Hong-hao ZHU Hong WANG Qi ZHANG Xin-quan
    2021, 29(5):49-55.
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](156) [PDF 1.55 M](202)
    This article aims to improve the stretching quality of the flat noodles products by optimizing the key processes such as refining, formula and steaming on the breaking distance of whole grain flat noodles. The results show that the breaking distance of whole grain flat noodles prepared by backfilling rice bran is significantly better than that of whole rice refining. Meanwhile, scanning electron microscopy analysis shows that the grains of backfilled whole grain rice slurry are small, fine and uniform. The particle size results show that 83.91% of the particles are below 10 μm, and 14.93% of the particles are between 10 μm to 100 μm, while only 1.16% of them are larger than 100 μm, which is close to polished rice slurry. To further improve the stretching quality, the rice bran to be backfilled is selected. At the same time, the effect of adding soy protein isolate, guar gum, konjac mannan, cassava starch, gluten and other ingredients on the breaking distance of flat noodles is compared. The stretching quality of whole grain flat noodles prepared from homologous defatted rice bran and added soybean protein isolate is the closest to that of ordinary rice noodles. The material-to- liquid ratio of the optimized steaming process is 1∶1.4 (g∶mL) and the products are steamed for 9 min.
    7  Research on Flavor Substances of Cooked Rice by Electromagnetic Induction Heating with Pots Made of Different Materials Based on GC-IMS(Online First, Recommended Article)
    FU Jie WU Yue SUI He-qi
    2021, 29(5):56-63.
    [Abstract](35) [HTML](161) [PDF 15.29 M](239)
    The rice cooked by IH electromagnetic heating do not normally appear to be pinched and appear to be more uniform, while the rice heated by the electric heating element is easier to pinch and paste pot. Based on gas phase ion mobility spectrometry analysis of the volatile substances produced by IH electromagnetic heating of Japonica rice and Indica rice in pots with stainless steel, enamel, aluminum alloy and cast iron as inner tanks, the changes of flavor substances in the heated rice cooked with pots of different materials and utensils were investigated and the IH electromagnetic optimum is taken as a confirmed material. The results show that the material of the IH electromagnetic heating pot will affect the concentration of rice flavor substances, and the effects on different varieties of rice are distinctive. The concentration of caprylic aldehyde and 1-octene-3-one in the stainless-steel pot heated Japonica rice increases, and the concentration of 3-hydroxy-2-butanone in the rice cooked with the cast iron pot increases. The aluminum alloy pot and the cast iron pot bring up the concentration of the alcohols and ketones in cooked Indica rice. The concentration of similar substances increases too. Both Japonica rice and Indica rice heated with aluminum alloy pots show an increase in the concentration of butyl acetate, and furfural is produced while cooking rice in enamel pots. Through comparative analysis of all flavor substances and their concentrations of IH electromagnetic in heating rice, we conclude that rice cooked in cast iron pot have the best flavor, followed by that in stainless steel pot, while aluminum alloy pot brings down the rice flavor to below average level, and pasting pot is often observed in the enamel pot.
    8  Research on the Effects of Starch Nanocrystals on Physico-chemical Properties of Rice Starch-based Films(Online First, Recommended Article)
    XIAO Qian HUANG Min LIU Yu-xin
    2021, 29(5):64-70.
    [Abstract](55) [HTML](170) [PDF 1.51 M](185)
    The rice starch-based films reinforced with waxy maize starch nanocrystal (SNC) is prepared by solvent casting method. The effects of SNC concentration on the mechanical properties, water vapor permeability, thermal stability and microstructure of rice starch blend films are investigated in this study. All tested SNC/rice starch film-forming solution show the shear-thinning behavior. The tensile strength (TS) of SNC/rice starch blend films are increased with the rising of SNC concentration from 0% to 5%. However, a significant decrease in TS of blend films is observed with an increasing SNCs concentration above 5%. It’s noticeable the opposite trends are observed for the WVP values of SNC/rice starch blend films. The SEM results show that the relatively homogenous dispersion of SNC is distinguished in 5% SNC/rice starch blend films, whereas SNC tend to form the large aggregations in blend films with addition of 15% SNC. Base on the X-ray diffraction experiment and thermogravimetric analysis, incorporating SNC into rice starch films significantly increased their crystallinity and thermal stability of SNC/rice starch blend films.
    9  Research on the Separation and Reorganization of Wheat Protein and the Quality of Wheat Noodles(Online First, Recommended Article)
    LI Ting LI Shuang ZHOU Xiao-ling WANG Fa-xiang YU Jian LIU Yong-le LI Xiang-hong
    2021, 29(5):71-77.
    [Abstract](26) [HTML](167) [PDF 637.39 K](165)
    This study uses Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and acid polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (A-PAGE) to identify the composition of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and the translocation of gliadin 1BL/1RS in two high quality wheat flour. The gliadin and glutenin are separated and extracted from wheat flour by separating and recombining, then re-proportionated with proportions. The cooking quality and texture of reconstituted noodles are analyzed to identify the relationship between gliadin, glutenin and noodle’s quality. The results show that when the protein content is constant, the water absorption of recombinant noodles is negatively correlated with (gluten: alcohol) (P<0.05), while the dry matter loss rate is not highly relevant to gluten: alcohol. The hardness, firmness and tensile strength of recombinant noodles are positively correlated with gluten: alcohol (P<0.05). The viscosity is negatively correlated with gluten: alcohol (P<0.05). Meanwhile, it is found that when the properties of high molecular weight glutenin and gliadin are the same, only the composition of low molecular weight glutenin is different from the precipitation value, but the properties of reconstituted noodles are similar. Therefore, we conclude that high molecular weight glutenin has a greater impact on the quality of noodles.
    10  Research on the Effects of Crushing Mode on Physical and Chemical Properties of Mung Beans(Online First, Recommended Article)
    LI Yi-si XIE Lan ZHU Hong LIU Yan-lan QUAN Ke LUO Ke-da GUAN Xiao YI Cui-ping
    2021, 29(5):78-83.
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](203) [PDF 1.07 M](170)
    Effects of dry grinding, wet grinding and wet grinding after fermentation on the physicochemical properties of mung bean were studied. The results indicated that the composition of wet ground mung bean after fermented flour (FWMB) changed the most, protein content decreased from 23.68% to 21.02%, the starch content decreased from 56.97% to 55.11%, and the amylose content increased from 14.48% to 19.72%. The analysis of pasting and hydration properties showed that wet ground mung bean flour (WMB) and FWMB had higher peak viscosity, minimum viscosity, attenuation value and final viscosity than dry ground mung bean flour (DMB), and water absorption index and swelling power were increased, but water solubility index was decreased. Particle size analysis found the average particle sizes of DMB, WMB and FWMB were 120.13, 105.21, 92.94 μm, respectively; scanning electron microscope observation showed that the ultrastructure of WMB and FWMB was relatively intact, while DMB had the greatest damage; damaged starch content confirmed WMB, FWMB and DMB were 9.92%, 5.99% and 6.07%, respectively. It indicated that wet grinding and wet grinding after fermentation can improve the pasting viscosity and hydration properties by reducing the damaged starch content and average particle size of mung bean.
    11  Analysis on the Effects of Wheat Planting Status and Quality Evaluation on High Quality Product Rate Improvement in Shandong Province
    ZHAO Ying WANG Rui-jie LI Zhen-hua SUN Xue-yuan WANG Hong-yao WANG Xue-yan
    2021, 29(5):84-90.
    [Abstract](16) [HTML](172) [PDF 1.06 M](318)
    In order to evaluate the high quality product rate of wheat in Shandong Province, and guide practice of grain circulation in production and consumption, the survey collected the wheat planting status and quality evaluation data in Shandong Province from 2017 to 2020, and analyzed them with the investigation method and quantitative analysis method. Results show that Shandong's wheat planting is stable and the total and per unit yields are increasing, as well as rate of high-quality wheat varieties. The evaluation of Shandong high-quality product evaluation demonstration area shows that since the start of “Good Grain and Oil of China” project, the rate of high-quality products has increased significantly. The study also discusses the wheat planting situation in Shandong and the existing issues, and proposes targeted solutions to improve the high quality product rate.
    12  Research Progress on γ-Oryzanol in Rice and its Processed By-Product Rice Bran
    GAO Kun JIANG Ping TAN Bin Wu Na-na ZHAI Xiao-tong QIAO Cong-cong
    2021, 29(5):91-98.
    [Abstract](53) [HTML](167) [PDF 1.01 M](296)
    China is one the of the major production country of paddy rice, while during the processing of paddy rice, there is usually a high portion of nutrients loss and rice bran by-products are produced. γ-oryzanol is a mixture of bioactive compounds in the unsaponifiable part of rice bran layer. Research has been focusing on it in recent years due to its outstanding physiological functions. This paper reviews the effects of rice raw materials, precision of rice processing, rice processing methods on the content of γ-oryzanol and the research progress on the extraction of γ-oryzanol from rice bran. We suggest to stress the importance of the data collection of γ-oryzanol content of rice, advocate moderate processing of rice, develop brown rice products by extrusion, advance germination and fermentation techniques, and strengthen the separation of active components from rice bran. This is in line with the major development strategies of grain saving and waste reduction, which helps build a healthy China and support high quality development of China.
    13  Research on the Effects of High-resistant Starch Rice to the Quality and GI of Instant Rice Products
    LUO Shuang-shuang ZHANG Xing-can YANG Jian ZHOU Ze-lin LIU Jian
    2021, 29(5):99-106.
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](188) [PDF 1.76 M](235)
    The study takes the high RS (resistant starch) rice and common rice as raw materials to produce instant rice products, so as to study the effects of high RS rice content in instant rice products on their texture features, flavor scores and GI. By analyzing the texture features and differential scanning calorimeter of instant rice products, the effects of high RS rice content in instant rice products on returning raw with different storage time are also studied. The results show higher proportion of high RS rice in products increase the hardness, viscosity, chewiness of instant rice products, as well as the amylose and resistant starch. However, the flavor evaluation and GI decreases. In addition, as the storage time increases, the higher the amount of high-RS rice added, the higher the hardness, relative crystallinity, and enthalpy of recovery of the instant rice products. This paper hopes to provide theoretical support for the development of instant rice products and deep processing of rice.
    14  Edible Olive Oil Trade Promotion Organization—Analysis on the International Olive Council
    CHENG Zhao-hua YANG Jun WANG Xiao-qin FANG En-hua
    2021, 29(5):107-113.
    [Abstract](34) [HTML](204) [PDF 1.18 M](159)
    International Agreement on Olive Oil and Table Olives is an international commodity agreement, driven by the United Nations and signed between major olive oil producers and consumers. From 1959 to 2015, after five revisions, the International Olive Council (IOC) was established in Madrid, the capital city of the largest exporter of olive oil, according to this agreement. The International Olive Council is managed by the Member Council, under which the executive Secretariat and sub committees are set up to be responsible for the regulation of industry standards, international olive oil trade information collection, olive industry promotion, etc.. The grade classification based on the quality index of virgin olive oil in IOC olive oil trade standard has been universally recognized around the world. This paper analyzes the classification standards, physical and chemical indexes and sensory analysis of olive oil, meanwhile, the approved olive oil laboratories by IOC are introduced. Understanding the international trade agreements in olive oil industry is a must enter the international trade market.
    15  Research on Key Factors Affecting Storage Quality of Peanut Nougat and Improvement Methods
    XIAO Xun-wei LIU Ye-jia DUAN Zhuo ZHANG Jun YANG Peng
    2021, 29(5):114-119.
    [Abstract](32) [HTML](167) [PDF 435.15 K](184)
    To explore reasons and solutions for the rancidity of peanut nougat in storage, this paper investigates the oxidation stability of shelled peanuts and unshelled peanut stored in different temperatures and the quality of nougats prepared by adding peanuts treated in different ways. The results show that when raw peanuts are stored at temperatures of 25 ℃, 37 ℃ and 60 ℃, the oxidation rate of shelled raw peanuts is slower than that of unshelled raw peanuts. The peroxide value of shelled peanuts does not change significantly and is stable below 2 mmol/kg, while the peroxide value of roasted cooked peanuts changes faster when stored at 60 ℃, and the change of the shelled peanuts is slower than that of the unshelled peanuts. The oxidation rate of baked shelled peanuts is slower than that of unshelled, which could potentially prolong the shelf life of peanut nougats made of them.
    16  Research Progress on Extraction Technology and Pharmacological Functions of Perilla Oil(Online First, Recommended Article)
    GUO Xu TIAN Rong-rong ZHANG Dong
    2021, 29(5):120-130.
    [Abstract](59) [HTML](183) [PDF 540.04 K](470)
    Perilla (Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt.) is one of the traditional medicinal and edible plants in China. Perilla oil, extracted from the seed of perilla, contains the highest concentration of alpha-linolenic acid. It has huge market development potential in food, medicine and many other industries. With the continuous advancement and development of the big health industry, perilla oil byproducts have played an increasing role our lives. This paper comprehensively and systematically reviews the extraction process, chemical composition, pharmacological effects, development and application of perilla oil, to guide applications of perilla oil.
    17  Optimization and Mathematical Model Analysis on Extraction of Chlorogenic Acid from Chrysanthemum indicum by Enzyme-assisted Polyethylene Glycol-200(Online First, Recommended Article)
    LIU Xia FANG Xiao-jun PENG Min-juan
    2021, 29(5):131-137.
    [Abstract](28) [HTML](179) [PDF 1.11 M](193)
    This study analyzes the extraction conditions of enzyme-assisted polyethylene glycol (PEG)-200 extraction of chlorogenic acid from Chrysanthemum indicum. Single factor test and response surface method are used to optimize the extraction process by employing chlorogenic acid extraction rate as inspection index, with cellulase dosage, liquid-solid ratio, enzymolysis temperature and enzymolysis time as test factors. Under the optimized extraction condition, four mathematical models of chlorogenic acid extraction from Chrysanthemum indicum at different liquid-solid ratios are established. The results show that the optimal extraction condition are as follows: 0.8% cellulase, with a liquid-solid ratio of 20∶1(mL∶g), at 55 ℃enzymolysis temperature and of 2.5 hours enzymolysis time. This optimal condition brings up the extraction rate of chlorogenic acid from Chrysanthemum indicum to 3.92%. Slogistic1 model can simulate the mathematical model process and best describe the extraction process of chlorogenic acid from Chrysanthemum indicum.
    18  Research on New Products of High Fiber Mixed-grain Noodle Premixed Powder
    REN Yuan-yuan WU Miao MENG Zi-kuan ZOU Yu HUA Miao-miao ZHANG Xin
    2021, 29(5):138-144.
    [Abstract](27) [HTML](173) [PDF 1.37 M](211)
    This study takes tartary buckwheat, highland barley and oats as the main raw materials to analyze and develop a high-fiber noodles premixed powder. The premixed powder is blended as the following proportion: 40% plain flour, 30% tartary buckwheat, 10% highland barley and 20% oat. This proportion gives us 6.94% dietary fiber, 1.9% beta glucan, 0.8% total flavonoids in the premixed powder. Through single factor experiment, combined with the response surface analysis test and taking finished product breakout rate and cooking loss rate and sensory evaluation as a comprehensive index, this study discusses the effects of gluten, salt, sodium carbonate and konjac purified powder on the quality of premixed powder. Results show that the optimal proportion of the compound improver is: 5.4% gluten, 1.3% salt, 0.2% sodium carbonate, and 1.1% konjac refined powder, which makes the processing process of high fiber noodles premixed powder easier and the quality of finished products higher.
    19  Research on the Quality Evaluation of Commercial Whole Grain Dried Noodles
    LI Xiao-ning TAN Bin WANG Li-ping TIAN Xiao-hong YAN Zi-hao YE Guo-dong XUE Li
    2021, 29(5):145-151.
    [Abstract](44) [HTML](178) [PDF 612.13 K](166)
    This paper aims to comprehensively analyze quality features of commercial whole grain dried noodles and provide data reference for the formulation standards of whole grain dried noodles. 41 commercial whole grain dried noodles collected in 2019 and 2020 are analyzed and evaluated in this research. The moisture content is from 9.77% to 13.06%, while the acidity value between 0.00 to 4.46 mL per10 g, with a naturally broken ratio from 0.04% to 4.05%. The cooked broken ratio is from 0.00% to 3.33%. The cooked broken ratio of 90% whole grain noodle samples is 0%, with the cooking loss ratio between 2.46% and 11.36%. Taking the limits of the above indexes in LS/T 3212—2014 as the reference, except the acidity of 2 samples and the cooking loss rate of 4 samples which are beyond the limit values, all indexes of other samples meet the requirements. The total dietary fiber content is between 2.22 to 12.37 g per 100 g and the alkylresorcinols content is between 10.08 μg/g and 218.52 μg/g. The integral level of moisture content, acidity and alkylresorcinols content of samples in 2020 is higher than that in 2019, and the cooking loss rate is the lower, while there is no significant difference between two years’ samples in other indexes. The results show that the quality of commercial whole grain dried noodles varies greatly.
    20  Research Progress of Dietary Fiber Regulating Glucolipid Metabolism through Physicochemical Properties and Gut Microbiota
    FANG Wei PANG Shao-jie SONG Ge WANG Yong PENG Wen-ting QI Wen-tao
    2021, 29(5):152-158.
    [Abstract](43) [HTML](191) [PDF 457.20 K](362)
    Disorders of glucolipid metabolism is the main cause of obesity, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and other chronic diseases. As our diet becomes increasingly refined, dietary is gaining attention from academia and people outside. Moreover, it has been recognized by the nutritional sciences as the seventh category of nutrients, which plays an important physiological role in regulating glucolipid metabolism. This paper briefly reviews the relationship between the physicochemical property of dietary fiber, the microbial-mediated regulatory mechanism and glucolipid metabolism, and predicts the future research topics and applications of dietary fiber. It aims to provide insights for further research and application of dietary fiber, as well as the prevention and early treatment of disorders of glucolipid metabolism.
    21  Research on the Extraction of Total Flavonoids from Rose Residues of Rose rugosa cv. Plena and their Activities in Vitro
    ZHANG Lu LIU Jing LI Jin ZHANG Sheng-nan LI Rong-qiao
    2021, 29(5):159-165.
    [Abstract](33) [HTML](166) [PDF 488.32 K](232)
    This paper studies the total flavonoids extraction and activity in vitro of Rose rugosa cv. Plena residues from Shandong province. Single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment are designed to determine the optimal extraction conditions for flavonoids. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of total flavonoids in vitro are evaluated by free radical scavenging method and Oxford cup method. Results show that the optimal extraction process for flavonoids are as follows: set the ethanol concentration to 60% and the solid-liquid ratio of 1∶30, then shake the rose residues at 80 ℃ for 1.5 hours, after which run it ultrasonic treatment for 45 minutes at 140 W and 60 ℃. This process gives us the total flavonoids content of 58.53 mg/g. The extracted flavonoids from rose residues demonstrates good antioxidant activity. The scavenging rates of DPPH· radical, ABTS+ radical and hydroxyl radical are 91.58%, 73.71% and 467.91 U/mL respectively. The total flavonoids have good antimicrobial activity on Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. The flavonoids could significantly inhibit Staphylococcus aureus. This study would laid a solid foundation for the comprehensive utilization of Rose rugosa cv. Plena residues.
    22  Research and Preparation on the Certified Reference Material for the Determination of Wheat Flour Quality Curve - Stabilization Time
    GAO Yan LU Xue-rui SHI Cui-xia ZHANG Yue
    2021, 29(5):166-170.
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](0) [PDF 965.78 K](200)
    According to the requirements of GB/T 15000—2008 《Directives for the work of reference materials preparation》, the method of preparing reference materials for determination of wheat flour quality curve- stability time is established. High quality wheat flour, fully mixed and packed and without any additives, is used as raw materials. The uniformity and stability test and fixed value analysis of the stability time of the samples are carried out by Farinograph. The results show that the reference materials have good uniformity and stability under the storage condition with the temperature of 0 ℃ to 10 ℃ for 24 months. A cooperative certification is conducted with 11 qualified laboratories. The certification result of the reference material is 10.3 min and the expanded uncertainty is 0.6. The reference material conform to the technical requirements of the national standard sample development guidelines and can be used for the verification of wheat flour stability time test method and Farinograph, and it also has applications in the level assessment of laboratory personnel and the quality control of the detection process.
    23  Research on the Determination of Cadmium in Grain by Rapid Digestion-Standard Addition
    WANG Xiao-wei LIU Min REN Ling-yun ZHU Da-wei ZHU Mei-jie
    2021, 29(5):171-177.
    [Abstract](44) [HTML](189) [PDF 458.23 K](188)
    Rapid digestion-standard addition based on graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) for determining cadmium in grain of four kinds of matrix (brown rice, corn, wheat and rice) is established, by studying on digestion conditions, optimizing the proportion of sample and nitric acid, and using digested sample to prepare standard solution. The results show that the correlation coefficients are 0.995 to 0.999. The detection limit of method is 0.003 mg/kg. The relative error between the test result and the standard value is –3.8% to –1.1%. The standard recoveries of cadmium in low, medium and high gradient are 99.1% to 103.4%, and the RSD values of the standard substances and real samples are 1.2% to 2.7%. Compared with the results of microwave digestion method, the detection values of cadmium have no significant difference (P>0.05). The method have shown advantages in terms of accuracy and precision, and it is a rapid and accurate method to calculate cadmium in large quantities of grain samples.
    24  Research on Effect of Ultra-high Pressure on the Structure and Phosphorylation Activity of Vibrio Stressosome Protein(Online First, Recommended Article)
    LI Yu-wei WANG Bo-ran JIA Xin
    2021, 29(5):178-183.
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](184) [PDF 1.12 M](175)
    The pathogenicity of bacteria is closely related to their tolerance to environmental stress. When the pathogenic Vibrio bacteria is exposed to external stressosome, a protein-signaling hub within Vibrio bacteria senses and transmits stress signals through reversible phosphorylation. In order to explore the influence of ultra-high pressure (UHP) on the conformation of RsbT protein kinase in Vibrio and on its downstream signaling transduction, three pressure points of 100 MPa, 300 MPa and 500 MPa are used in this experiment. Each pressure point is kept for 5 minutes. After western blotting, in the RsbT protein kinase, phosphorylation ability decreases as the pressure increases. The RsbT conformation alters and its phosphorylation ability almost disappears when the pressure is above 300 MPa. This study offers new theoretical support for the influence of pressure on RsbT protein kinase conformation and biological activity in stressosome, which provide insights into treatment of food-bone bacteria using UHP.
    25  Research on the Diversity of Insecticidal Proteins Derived from Microorganisms
    SONG Jia YAN Xue XIA Li-yuan SUN Wei-wei SUN bo FAN Huan WANG Wen-jie ZHAO Chen
    2021, 29(5):184-190.
    [Abstract](31) [HTML](176) [PDF 1.67 M](336)
    Insect problem has been one of the most severe problems in agriculture and forestry, which causes great economic losses to the primary industry in China. For a long time, the use of chemical insecticides for insect control has led to many issues, such as pollution, insect resistance, etc. Therefore, in recent years, the research and application on biological pesticides of broad spectrum, high efficiency and low toxicity is increasing. Insecticidal proteins, especially those of microbial source, as an important branch of biological insecticides, have been continuously developed and applied due to their excellent insecticidal potential. This paper aims to classify the information on insecticidal proteins from microorganism over the world, and to provide fresh opinions for the application of insecticidal proteins in agriculture, forestry and other industries in China.
    26  Research on the Optimization of Mead Fermentation Technology
    DONG Cai-wen WANG Ming-lei BAI Shao-yi HU Xiao-long WANG Yue HUANG Tian-qi
    2021, 29(5):191-196.
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](175) [PDF 2.88 M](236)
    In this research, honey, wheat koji, and yeast are taken as raw materials and alcohol content is taken as the indicator to study the effects of fermentation temperature, fermentation time, the addition of ammonium dihydrogen-phosphate, and sugar content of fermentation broth through single-factor experiments. These factors are inspected on the alcohol production during honey fermentation. According to the response surface optimization results, verification experiment showed the optimal condition for alcohol content is follows: the fermentation broth have sugar content of 32.0% and is set to the pH of 4.5. 4.0% wheat koji is added with 0.2% yeast. Diammonium phosphate is added in 600.0 mg/L and the temperature is 32.0 ℃ with the culture time of 6 days. Under such a condition, the alcohol content is 13.6%.
    27  Research on Corn Ears’ Storage by Rectangle Small-scale Farm Bin with Steel Framework in Jizhou
    ZHAI Xiao-na ZHAO Yu-qiang LOU Zheng SHI Jian-fang SHAO Guang XIE Qi-zhen SHEN Jin
    2021, 29(5):197-203.
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](137) [PDF 2.64 M](198)
    The moisture of most newly harvested corn ears could be as high as 30% in Jizhou, and the method of air-drying on sides of roads, which is weather-sensitive, is mostly adopted in rural areas. Considering the small-scale farm bin has been used widely in the northeast of China, it is meaningful to explore its applicability and optimal thickness in Jizhou. In this study, JSWD-120 (4×1.5×2 m) is chosen and modified into tree small-scale bins with the thickness of 0.8 m, 1.0 m and 1.2 m. The newly harvest corn ears are stored from the middle October to early April and different quality index are analyzed timely. Results show that corn ears stored in the bin with the thickness of 1.2 m show good quality in terms of moisture of 14.05%±0.001%, lower fatty acid values of (51.59±0.007) mgKOH/100g, crude starch content of (68.66± 0.171) g/100g and amylose content of 20.65%. Moreover, mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol and ochratoxin A, are not detected. Based on the experiment results, it is reasonable to consider wider utilization of JSWD farm bins to the south of China.
    28  Research on the Standard of Grain Information Collection and Tracing Service
    LI De-yan WANG Tao DONG Bin SHANG Xiao-dong
    2021, 29(5):204-208.
    [Abstract](35) [HTML](128) [PDF 438.43 K](249)
    To collect the information of every link in grain production, and connect the product identification information on each link to form a traceable chain, this paper explores the traceability of grain quality through standard research and platform construction, by taking the current situation of grain production industry into consideration. This study will help establish a traceable chain of grain production, purchase, storage, processing, marketing link, and grain safety to improve grain quality traceability from the field to the table.
    29  Research on Provincial Grain Emergency Reserve Division Based on Spatial Clustering(Online First, Recommended Article)
    HAN Jian-jun HOU Ji-wei CHENG Yu GUO Zhi-tao
    2021, 29(5):209-214.
    [Abstract](28) [HTML](149) [PDF 1.15 M](173)
    Based on the K-Means spatial clustering algorithm, this paper introduces the features of food emergency reserves and influencing factors according to the food emergency reserve goals, and uses the distance of the gravity center of the elements as the test standard to achieve the zoning of provincial emergency food reserves and formulate corresponding food emergency reserve strategy. The results show that, by fully taking disasters, population, economy and other factors into consideration, the provincial grain emergency reserve zoning model, based on the K-Means spatial clustering algorithm, can achieve deliver better results. For the purpose of fine division, a certain degree of cost savings and efficiency are achieved. This paper provides a theoretical reference for the study of the regional emergency reserve of grain in China's provincial regions, and guides practices.

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