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Volume 29,Issue 4,2021 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Research Progress on Nutrition and Functional Properties of Germinated Quinoa(Online First, Recommended Article)
    GUAN Xiao MA Zhi-min SONG Hong-dong KONG Qu-li WANG Xiao-xuan LI Cheng LI Fan
    2021, 29(4):1-11.
    [Abstract](98) [HTML](184) [PDF 5.86 M](466)
    Due to its balanced nutrition, quinoa has been gaining popularity in research and among consumers. Germination, as a common processing method for cereals, can improve the product flavor and sensory quality, reduce harmful substances and promote the enrichment of functional ingredients such as polyphenols and flavonoids. Therefore, quinoa has been used to the development of food for diarrhea and diabetes patients. With the aim of providing a scientific evidence for the development of new generations of quinoa products with targeted functions, this paper focuses on illustrating the changes of quinoa’s main nutrients in germination process and understanding quinoa’s functions.
    2  Progress in the Investigation on Nutrition and Starch Properties of Quinoa(Online First, Recommended Article)
    WANG Xiao-xuan ZHANG Yu QIAN Cheng YI Xue-er MA Zhi-min LI Fan LI Cheng GUAN Xiao
    2021, 29(4):12-19.
    [Abstract](356) [HTML](188) [PDF 1.06 M](902)
    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) has gaining wider attention for its well-balanced nutrition in recent years. As the main ingredient of quinoa grain, starch accounts for more than 50% of the dry weight, which plays an important role in defining the functions and properties of quinoa-contained products. Quinoa starch has smaller granules (1~3 μm) and lower amylose content, compared with other grains. Its amylopectin contains a larger amount of short chains and super-long chains. In terms of nutrition, quinoa starch contains a higher proportion of slow-digesting starch (SDS), indicating its possibility of being applied to produce processed food with low glycemic index. Furthermore, quinoa starch has many applications within and outside of the food industry. To provide theory to support the application of quinoa in different industries, this paper reviewed quinoa’s composition, starch structure and related properties.
    3  Research on Microwave Inactivation of Lipase from Quinoa and Improvement of Flavor(Online First, Recommended Article)
    CAO Hong-wei LE Xiang-yun WANG Yu-qi SUN Ru-lian ZHANG Ying YI Cui-ping GUAN Xiao
    2021, 29(4):20-29.
    [Abstract](45) [HTML](182) [PDF 877.94 K](292)
    By evaluating the results of treating quinoa with different microwave conditions, this paper compares the effects of microwave heating and traditional conduction heating (water bath and baking) on lipase and flavor components of quinoa. Experiments results show that with the increase of microwave power and the extension of treatment time, the activity of lipase decreased significantly. After heating at 600 W power for 4 min, the lipase activity tended to be stable. Through analyzing flavor components in quinoa, we found microwave treatment dramatically reduced the levels of Methyl Ketone, 1-octen-3-ol and trans-2-Nonenal. Moreover, with the extension of storage time, the oxidation of oil in quinoa was inhibited by microwave, with the peroxide value and acid value of quinoa decreased. Compared with the traditional heating methods, microwave heating can significantly reduce the activity of lipase in quinoa, and improve the flavor and organoleptic attribute of quinoa milk.
    4  Research on Vitro Antioxidant Properties of Quinoa Solid-State Fermentation and its Products(Online First, Recommended Article)
    LI Meng-yao SHI Jun-ru BUHEJIAER Kerremuniyazi CAO Hong-wei HUANG Kai LI Sen GUAN Xiao
    2021, 29(4):30-36.
    [Abstract](160) [HTML](188) [PDF 640.95 K](542)
    In order to filter quinoa varieties with higher nutritional value and reveal the differences in antioxidant properties between quinoa varieties, this paper used red quinoa, white quinoa and black quinoa as raw materials, and conducted solid-state fermentation on quinoas. The total sugar content, total acid content, amino acid nitrogen content and pH value in fermentation products were considered to evaluate the nutritional value of quinoa solid-state fermentation products. The total phenol content was examined, scavenging activity to DPPH free radicals. Iron ion reduction ability were as the antioxidant index, while the effect of different colors of quinoa varieties on the antioxidant properties of solid-state fermentation products was explored through single factor experiments. Taking rice as a reference, under the same fermentation conditions, the total sugar content of rice was significantly higher than that of quinoa (P<0.05), while the total sugar content of quinoa of different colors was also different. The total acid content of black quinoa and red quinoa was significantly higher than that of white quinoa (P<0.05). The amino acids nitrogen content of quinoa was higher than that of rice (P<0.05), and black quinoa and red quinoa were slightly higher than white quinoa. The scavenging activity to DPPH free radicals of black quinoa was higher than that of red quinoa and white quinoa. The iron reduction ability of quinoa was much higher than that of rice, and red and black quinoa were stronger. Among the three types of quinoa, the black quinoa and red quinoa had stronger antioxidant properties and higher nutritional value, but the white quinoa was more balanced in total sugar and total acid.
    5  Analysis of Flavoring Substances in Defatted Quinoa Noodles(Online First, Recommended Article)
    HUANG Rui-han ZULIDEZI Tuerde HUANG Kai CAO Hong-wei ZHOU Xiao-ling XU Bin GUAN Xiao
    2021, 29(4):37-49.
    [Abstract](57) [HTML](177) [PDF 1.65 M](364)
    In order to improve the quality of quinoa noodles and inhibit the negative effect of rancid taste caused by oil oxidation on noodles in processing quinoa powder, the defatting treatment of quinoa powder was introduced, and the volatile substances in common noodles, quinoa noodles, defatted quinoa noodles and their soups were analyzed. In experiment, n-hexane was used as the leaching solvent for defatting, while the volatile flavor compounds in quinoa noodles and defatted quinoa noodles were detected by solid-phase microextraction technology and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Results show that repeated defatting for three times could effectively reduce the oil content of quinoa. Compared with wheat flour, the aldehydes, furans and ketones in the volatile flavor substances of quinoa noodles were increased. The grass and wine taste of quinoa flour products could be reduced by defatting treatment. The ketones and esters in the volatile flavor substances of defatted quinoa flour products showed significant difference. Defatting treatment can improve the flavor of quinoa, and has little effect on the structure of protein and starch in quinoa flour. Thus, it can be applied as a processing method for quinoa in the future.
    6  Summary of Application and Development of Sulfuryl Fluoride Fumigation Technology(Online First, Recommended Article)
    XU Yong-an
    2021, 29(4):50-56.
    [Abstract](126) [HTML](343) [PDF 450.89 K](312)
    Sulfuryl fluoride is a broad-spectrum fumigant pesticide. The pesticide was registered for the first time in the United States in the 1950s. However, it has only been used as a food (grain) fumigant for more than a decade internationally. This is mainly because its problems are prominent, and it has been a controversial fumigant from the start. At present, “reducing the dose of pesticides, reducing residues, and reducing emissions” is an inevitable requirement for the development of sulfuryl fluoride fumigation and insecticide technology. The research and development of sulfuryl fluoride efficient fumigation and insecticide technology featuring “low dose, low residue, and low emission” is likely to be a feasible technical approach.
    7  Research on the Correlation between the Attenuation of Sulfuryl Fluoride Gas Concentration and the Air Tightness of Warehouses(Online First, Recommended Article)
    WANG Zhong-ming JIANG Chuan-fu GAN Shuang-qing HUANG Cheng-bing FANG Jiang-kun HONG Wen-kui SHEN Zong-hai CUI Miao
    2021, 29(4):57-61.
    [Abstract](59) [HTML](181) [PDF 538.55 K](272)
    In order to understand the concentration decay law of sulfuryl fluoride fumigation in warehouses with different airtightness, five warehouses were selected in this experiment. Through the concentration monitoring during the fumigation process, the correlation between the decay half-life of the gas concentration and the air tightness of the warehouses is analyzed and compared. The results show that when the airtightness of the warehouse is 143 s, the maximum concentration half-life is 8.5 d, while with the airtightness of 53 s and 46 s, the maximum concentration half-life are 2.7 d and 4.6 d, respectively. The half-life of gas concentration in warehouses where air-tightness cannot be detected is about 2~3 d. The higher the concentration of sulfuryl fluoride gas, the faster the decay speed, however the concentration decay process does not show a certain connection with the air tightness of the warehouses.
    8  Comparative Research on the Effect of Different Application Methods of Sulfuryl Fluoride Fumigation in Large Warehouse(Online First, Recommended Article)
    CUI Miao LIU Shang-feng ZHU Hua-jin LIU Xu-guang LV Ming SHEN Zong-hai WANG Zhong-ming
    2021, 29(4):62-67.
    [Abstract](75) [HTML](179) [PDF 527.47 K](284)
    This study aims at sulfuryl fluoride fumigation in large warehouses. By comparing and analyzing the penetration, uniformity and insecticidal effect of three different methods of application in the real warehouses. The best technology for sulfuryl fluoride fumigation in the real warehouses was explored. Research results show that sulfuryl fluoride gas can diffuse through the grain pile naturally within 2.5 hours, and penetrate the entire warehouse within 24 hours. Recirculation fumigation can accelerate the uniformity of the gas, but it causes more chemical loss. Among the three fumigation methods, the whole warehouse fumigation operation is the simplest and the most effective in killing adults. The upward recirculation fumigation under the membrane causes large chemical loss, while for the downward recirculation fumigation under the membrane, the concentration is uniformly distributed, even though the dosage is smaller. The concentration of the agent is maintained for a long time, and the insecticidal effect is significant.
    9  Research on the Effectiveness of Sulfuryl Fluoride Fumigation in Brick Silo(Online First, Recommended Article)
    CUI Miao HUANG Cheng-bing FANG Jiang-kun FANG Zhi-yi WANG Zhong-ming
    2021, 29(4):68-72.
    [Abstract](51) [HTML](188) [PDF 439.17 K](234)
    To investigate the insecticidal and protective effectiveness of sulfuryl fluoride fumigation in brick silos, three warehouses with different air-tightness were used for evaluation by analyzing gas uniformity, concentration retention time and insecticidal effects. Whole warehouse non-circulation fumigation and circulation fumigation were adopted with different fumigation concentrations applied. The experiment results show that sulfuryl fluoride gas can naturally diffuse thoroughly through a 10 m grain pile within 4 hours, and achieve uniform gas in the entire warehouse within 24 hours. However, circulation fumigation caused a large amount of chemical loss and the concentration retention time was comparatively short. Results also prove the concentration of 5 g/m3 can achieve a desired and rapid killing effect of 4 main types of pests in stored grains.
    10  Research on the Diffusion Pattern of Sulfuryl Fluoride Gas in Different Grain Piles(Online First, Recommended Article)
    CUI Miao LIU Shang-feng GAN Shuang-qing JI Zhen-jiang YANG Xu HONG Wen-kui LV Ming WANG Zhong-ming
    2021, 29(4):73-78.
    [Abstract](45) [HTML](181) [PDF 363.10 K](213)
    To understand the diffusion and distribution of sulfuryl fluoride in wheat, rice and soybean piles, experiments were carried out in 6 warehouses to compare and analyze the diffusion speed, uniformity, and attenuation speed of fumigant gas in different grain piles. Data were collected in the process of fumigation. Experiment results show that the diffusion rate of sulfuryl fluoride gas in different grains is quickest in the soybean pile, followed by the rice pile and wheat pile: the soybean pile can achieve uniform gas in its warehouse as soon as 8 hours after fumigation. The average gas concentration half-life is longest in the soybean pile, shortest in the rice pile with the wheat pile stands in the middle: the fumigation concentration of 5.0~12.7 g/m3 can safeguard an insect-free environment for 6 months.
    11  Study on the Effect of Sulfuryl Fluoride on Ozone Elimination and Technology for Tail Gas Treatment(Online First, Recommended Article)
    ZHANG Bing ZHANG Rui ZHU Lin WANG Song-xue WANG Zhong-ming GUO Bao-yuan
    2021, 29(4):79-84.
    [Abstract](62) [HTML](198) [PDF 635.16 K](235)
    It is of vital importance to evaluate the environmental risks brought by sulfuryl fluoride before applying it wildly as an alternative to aluminum phosphide in grain storage. Degradation kinetics of 350 mg/m3 ozone was investigated under sulfuryl fluoride concentrations of 5, 10 and 20 g/m3. The results show that ozone degradation was significantly accelerated by sulfuryl fluoride in air. The half-life of ozone concentration in the sulfuryl fluoride-free environment is 275.2 min, while the half-lives of ozone in the 5, 10, and 20 g/m3 sulfuryl fluoride concentration are 157.4, 166.4 and 161.8 min, respectively. In this study, we compared the sulfuryl fluoride elimination of active carbon, neutral aluminum oxide, calcium hydroxide suspension and sodium hydroxide solutions to eliminate sulfuryl fluoride, and sodium hydroxide solution was employed finally. The study found that temperature is a key factor in the process of sulfuryl fluoride elimination. The half-lives of sulfuryl fluoride were 592.5, 404.2, and 323.5 min at 20, 25, and 30 ℃, while the sodium hydroxide solution was 0.25 mol/L.
    12  Quality Analysis of Buckwheat Noodles in China Market
    TIAN Xiao-hong TAN Bin WANG Li-ping LUO Hui-fang CHEN Jie-xia LIU Yan-xiang LIU Ming YE Guo-dong
    2021, 29(4):85-92.
    [Abstract](93) [HTML](201) [PDF 620.88 K](250)
    Forty-two buckwheat noodle products were collected from the market and their quality indexes were analyzed to provide data support for the establishment of buckwheat noodle standard. The results showed that among the 42 samples, the moisture content was 9.07% ~ 13.53%, the cooking loss rate of 73.8% samples was ≤10.0%, the weight gain rate of cooking was 93.2% ~ 241.7%, the cooked broken ratio was 0% ~ 3.3%, all ≤5.0%, the naturally broken ratio was 0% ~ 7.1%, the naturally broken ratio of 95% samples was ≤5.0%. The total flavonoids content in Tartary buckwheat noodles was 0.15% ~ 1.94%, the total flavonoids content in other buckwheat noodles was 0.10% ~ 0.55%. The L* value, a* value and b* value of buckwheat noodles were 32.35~86.12, 0.85 ~ 7.25 and 11.95 ~ 38.15 respectively. The acidity value of 100% buckwheat noodles were less than 4.0 mL/10g, and the storage quality was good.
    13  Research Progress on Regulation of Adipose Thermogenesis by Functional Ingredients of Wholegrains(Online First, Recommended Article)
    DING Si-yuan XU Han ZENG Si-rui ZHANG Jin-peng LI Yi-hong ZHANG Kui-liang WANG Li LI Yan
    2021, 29(4):93-100.
    [Abstract](48) [HTML](166) [PDF 551.36 K](218)
    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in energy expenditure, which is different from white adipose tissue (WAT) possessing the function of energy storage. With a significant thermogenesis, BAT is an energy consuming tissue. In addition, WAT can convert into BAT phenotype, forming the beige adipocytes, which can also consume energy. Therefore, thermogenic adipose tissues are effective targets for the treatment of obesity and related diseases. Many food ingredients have positive effects on thermogenic adipose tissues. Some of these ingredients are widely found in wholegrains, such as phenolic acids, anthocyanins, dietary fiber, carotenoids, phytic acid, and rutin, which have been reported to promote thermogenesis of adipose tissues. In this paper, the basic functional characteristics and key regulatory factors of thermogenic adipocytes were introduced, and the research progress about wholegrain functional ingredients influencing energy metabolism via regulation on the function of thermogenic adipocytes was summarized. This paper provided suggestions for the regulation of wholegrain diet on obesity and the development of wholegrain functional foods.
    14  Application of Compound Enzyme in Wet Processing of Corn Starch
    WANG Bin-de ZHANG Hong-rong XU Guang-chao
    2021, 29(4):101-104.
    [Abstract](76) [HTML](179) [PDF 361.71 K](316)
    Corn starch processing complex enzyme is a special enzyme product, mainly composed of cellulase and xylanase, for corn starch processing. In order to explore the technological effect of complex enzyme in the wet processing of corn starch, the application of complex enzyme in the washing process of corn fiber was studied in this paper. The changes of viscosity of corn starch slurry and the water absorption of fiber, yield of starch and protein, steam consumption and other parameters after enzyme reaction were investigated. The results show that the enzyme could decompose the endosperm starch cell wall and seed coat fiber of corn, wash the fiber smoothly, reduce the free starch content from 4.1% to 2.4%, increase the starch yield by 0.07%, reduce the fiber moisture by 3.7% after dehydration, and save steam consumption effectively in the fiber drying process. The results of research on application test are as follow: the use of composite enzyme preparation can quickly and effectively degrade the viscosity of corn starch slurry and the water absorption of fiber, effectively separate starch and protein, improve the washing effect of fiber, increase the yield of starch and protein, reduce the consumption of steam and electricity, and improve the utilization rate of equipment.
    15  Effect of Camellia Seed Oil on Rheological Properties of Processed Cheese
    XU Hang-rong
    2021, 29(4):105-107.
    [Abstract](43) [HTML](179) [PDF 497.51 K](186)
    Cheddar cheese, rennet casein, camellia seed oil were used as the main raw materials, emulsified salt, skimmed milk powder, etc. as auxiliary materials to develop spread processed cheese. A single factor method was used to add different amounts of camellia seed oil to prepare the spread processed cheese. The storage modulus (G′) and loss modulus (G″) of spread processed cheese under different oscillation frequencies were studied, The difference of the critical point temperature (melting temperature) of viscoelastic change of processed cheese with different amount of camellia seed oil was observed. The results showed that G'and G' of the spread processed cheese decreased with the increase of camellia seed oil, and the temperature at which the products reached the critical point of viscoelastic change also decreased. The sample with the added amount of camellia seed oil below 50% was more stable.
    16  Optimization of HS-SPME-GC/MS Analysis of Volatile Components in Camellia Seed Oil
    YANG Kai-zhou WEI Zheng WANG Jia-ya LUAN Xia DUAN Zhang-qun GUO Mi-mi YANG Xi XUE Ya-lin
    2021, 29(4):108-115.
    [Abstract](53) [HTML](195) [PDF 694.34 K](305)
    An analysis method for the volatile components of squeezed Camellia oleifera seed oil was established by using automatic sample preparation-headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) technology. The optimum extraction conditions are: Divinylbenzene/Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) solid-phase micro- extraction column, extraction temperature 60 ℃, extraction time 50 min, resolution time 5 min, compared with traditional manual water bath extraction method, it has higher total peak area and main peak area; A total of 47 volatile components in pressed camellia seed oil were identified and quantified using this method, of which aldehydes are the main volatile components in camellia seed oil; The characteristic flavor compounds of pressed camellia seed oil obtained by relative odor activity value (ROAV) analysis are 2-hydro-3-hydroxy- 4,4-dimethyl-2(3H)furanone, dihydroxy-2(3H)furanone, 2-methyl Propionaldehyde, phenylacetaldehyde, nonanal, n-hexanal, trans-2-nonenal, decanal, 1-heptanol, 3-ethyl-3,5-dimethyl-pyrazine.
    17  Research Progress on the Effects of Common Hydrocolloid on the Quality of Bakery Products(Online First, Recommended Article)
    TAN Zhi-feng ZHANG Chuang-chuang XU Ze-kun CHEN Xiao-jing ZHOU Run-zong SUI Zhong-quan
    2021, 29(4):116-121.
    [Abstract](86) [HTML](179) [PDF 423.16 K](425)
    Hydrocolloids have good functional properties, such as improving emulsification, gelation, solubility and texture of food. In bakery products, hydrocolloids are used to improve the properties of dough, bread and cake, increase sensory quality and extend shelf life. Studies have reported the potential use of hydrocolloids in breads, biscuits, cakes and pasta preparation. Effects of common hydrocolloid (xanthan, guar, Arabic, k-carrageenan, karaya, alginate, methylcellulose, carboxy methyl cellulose, hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose) on the rheology, physicochemistry, texture and other quality characteristics of baked foods were summarized. The addition of hydrocolloid significantly improves the color, appearance, flavor and overall acceptability of the product.
    18  Preparation, Characterization and Application in Pickering Emulsion of Starch-lipid Composite Nanoparticles(Online First, Recommended Article)
    LUO Wen-bo WEI Yu-qing SHAO Miao LI Song-nan
    2021, 29(4):122-129.
    [Abstract](71) [HTML](185) [PDF 4.04 M](303)
    Starch-lipid composite nanoparticles were prepared by using dry and wet methods. The properties of nanoparticles, such as the lipid composite index, solubility, microscopic morphology, particle size distribution, three-phase contact angle, crystal structure, and emulsifying property, were studied to create a new starch-based Pickering emulsifier. The results show that the lipid composite index of the nanoparticles prepared by using the dry method is significantly higher than by using the wet method, which is related to the combination form between lipids and starch demonstrated by X-ray. Scanning electron microscopy results show that both particles exhibited the aggregated nanoscale distribution, and the average particle size of the dry method is significantly higher than the wet. The contact angle of the nanoparticles prepared with the dry method is significantly higher than that with the wet method. Emulsification property results show that the Pickering emulsion stabilized by nanoparticles prepared with the dry method has a smaller particle size and a more even distribution. Pickering emulsion gels were formed after 7 days of storage with the addition of 3%~5% emulsifier.
    19  Effect of Enzyme-Assisted Pregelatinization on Edible Quality and Physicochemical Properties of Brown Rice
    LIU Ming ZAN Xue-mei TAN Bin
    2021, 29(4):130-143.
    [Abstract](51) [HTML](196) [PDF 19.85 M](268)
    In this study, pregelatinization and exogenous enzymes were combined to treat brown rice. The central combination test model was used to design a response surface analysis test with four factors and three levels, namely enzymolysis temperature, enzymolysis time, pregelatinization time and enzyme addition amount as independent variables, and the cooking time and sensory score as response values. At the same time, the effects of enzyme-assisted pregelatinization on the basic components and the thermodynamic properties of brown rice were studied. The results showed that there were significant influence on cooking time and sensory score of brown rice by enzymolysis temperature, enzymolysis time, pregelatinization time and enzyme addition amount. According to response surface analysis and validation tests, the optimal conditions were as follows: enzymolysis temperature was 61 ℃, enzyme addition amount was 2%, enzymolysis time was 127 min and pregelatinization time was 12 min.Under the optimal conditions, cooking time was 22.39 min and sensory score was 78.75. Enzyme-assisted pregelation technology significantly reduced lipids content of brown rice and was beneficial to the storage. Enzyme-assisted pregelation technology not only changed the gel temperature range of brown rice, but also made it easier to gelatinize.
    20  Network Pharmacology-based Research on Lipid Lowering Mechanism of Walnut Cold-press Meal(Online First, Recommended Article)
    GUO Yan MA Ya-ge ZHANG Xi CHEN Chao-yin ZHAO Sheng-lan
    2021, 29(4):144-152.
    [Abstract](40) [HTML](178) [PDF 1.88 M](280)
    This paper explores the action mechanism of walnut cold-press meal in reducing fat from the perspective of network pharmacology. Active components and potential targets of walnut cold-press meal were obtained through TCMSP database and literature mining. GeneCards and other databases were used to predict and screen Hyperlipidemia (HLP) related genes, while Cytoscape 3.7.2 software was applied to construct a “drug-active component-disease-target” network to the formation of walnuts to prevent HLP components and target interactions, and analysis of GO function and KEGG pathway enrichment. Results show that 14 active components of Walnut cold-press meal were identified, among which 7 components have 59 HLP-related targets. HAS2, NCOA2, ESR1, CAT, AR, VEGFA and POR may be the key targets of HLP, with the main signaling pathways being HIF-1 signaling pathway, TNF signaling pathway, Chagas disease, and malaria signaling pathway. HLP is prevented by multi-component, multi-target and multi-pathway, among which the most targeted components are quercetin, rutin, catechin, erucic acid and ellagic acid. Targets most affected by the compounds are hyaluronate synthase 2, nuclear receptor coactivator factor 2, estrogen receptor, catalase, androgen receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor A and NHLPPH-- cytochrome P450 reductase.
    21  Effect of Mung Bean Sprout Powder on Quality and Nutrition of Yoghurt
    FU Li-xue HAN Chi LI Zhi-jiang QIU Yan-chao LI Dian-wei ZUO Feng QIAN Li-li
    2021, 29(4):153-160.
    [Abstract](44) [HTML](176) [PDF 691.66 K](225)
    In order to study the effect of germinated mung bean powder on the quality and nutrition of yogurt, different varieties of mung bean were selected in this paper, germinated mung bean sprout powder and pure milk as raw materials, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus as fermentation strains, solidified germinated mung bean yoghurt was developed by single factor and orthogonal test; The contents of vitexin, isovitexin and cellulose in the germination mung bean powder were determined by high performance liquid chromatography and enzyme-weight method to explore the effects of adding germination mung bean powder on the quality and nutrition of yogurt. The results showed that the addition of germinated mung bean powder could strengthen the tissue structure of yogurt, increase the number of viable lactic acid bacteria, and give the yogurt a unique mung bean flavor; Moreover, the addition of germinated mung bean powder could enhance the antioxidant properties of yogurt, increase soluble dietary fiber, beneficial ingredients such as vitexin and isovitexin, and give yogurt physiological health functions. The best process for coagulated germination mung bean yogurt was: adding 2% germination mung bean powder, 7% sucrose, 0.3% CMC stabilizer, adding starter at the ratio of 1.5 g/L, and incubating at 42 ℃ for 5 hours. Under these conditions the germinated mung bean yogurt had a stable structure and good flavor and taste.
    22  Research Progress on Substitutes of Antibiotics Used as Feed Additives
    WANG Li LI Ai-ke DUAN Tao WANG Yong-wei SHI Jing-jing CHEN Li-xian CHENG Jun-lin WANG Wei-wei
    2021, 29(4):161-169.
    [Abstract](41) [HTML](196) [PDF 553.43 K](399)
    Feed antibiotics have played a great role in disease prevention and growth promotion, but in the past years, the negative problems caused by antibiotics, such as drug residues and bacterial resistance, have caused serious harm to human production and life. In recent years, some feed additives have been used in livestock and poultry breeding industry to resist disease, promote growth and play a role in replacing antibiotics. To provide support for the research and development of reducing or replacing antibiotic technology in livestock and poultry industry, the application effects of probiotics, acidification agent, plant extracts, enzyme preparation, antibacterial peptides, etc. in improving animal immunity, promoting intestinal development, ameliorating intestinal microecological environment, and enhancing feed digestibility were reviewed in this paper.
    23  Research on Quality Dynamics and Shelf Life Prediction of Yogurt under Different Storage Conditions(Online First, Recommended Article)
    YANG Hai-ying NIU Tian-jiao SHEN Xiao-yi CHEN Li-shui YAO Qian-ru LI Hui SUN Er-na
    2021, 29(4):170-180.
    [Abstract](69) [HTML](171) [PDF 899.41 K](215)
    In order to study the dynamic law of the quality change in low temperature yogurts, yogurts were stored at temperatures of 4 ℃, 15 ℃, 25 ℃ and 30 ℃ respectively, and the changes in protein level, fat level, acidity level, particle size, color, texture and total number of colonies were observed. The regression equation analysis shows that the changes of a* redness value (at 15℃, 25℃ and 30 ℃), total color difference ΔE, colony number (at 4 ℃, 15 ℃ and 25 ℃), softness and consistency (at 15 ℃ and 25 ℃) match the Zero-order kinetic model, while the changes of titratable acidity and b* yellowness value match the First-order kinetic model. The established shelf-life prediction model equation provides insights in the adjustment of storage and transportation conditions of low-temperature milk products, as well as quality monitoring during the storage period.
    24  Research and Development of Automatic Detection Instrument for Stored Grain Fungi
    ZHANG Hai-yang TIAN Lin QI Zhi-hui TANG Fang
    2021, 29(4):181-186.
    [Abstract](60) [HTML](182) [PDF 1.49 M](247)
    Fungus is one of the primary factors endangering the safety of grain storage. The rapid detection of fungi on stored grain in early stage is an effective measure to prevent and control the fungal multiplication and ensure food security. In 2018, an industry standard “LS/T 6132 Inspection of Grain and Oil—Storage fungal examination—Enumeration spores of fungi” was promulgated and implemented in the grain industry. In this study, we developed an automatic detector for the detection of fungi in grain storage to promote the application of this industry standard. During the development of the detector, we built a fungal spore image library based on a large number of stored grain fungal spore pictures, and developed a fungal spore image recognition software using neural network algorithm. By optimizing the auto focusing algorithm of the microscopic imaging system, the fungal spore image under the microscope can be automatically focused and photographed. And the image recognition software was used to recognize and count the spores of the stored grain fungal automatically. This detector can realize the automatic detection of fungi on stored grain and reduce the probability of mistaken in personnel operation and identification.
    25  A Morphological Analyzer for Rice Shape Based on CNN Method
    BU Dong-wei
    2021, 29(4):187-191.
    [Abstract](35) [HTML](188) [PDF 515.74 K](174)
    A morphological analyzer for rice shape with gray and convolution processing of collected images was developed in this article based on embedded hardware platform of charge coupled device (CCD) camera and algorithm principle of convolutional neural networks (CNN). The camera gets the morphological image of rice, and translates it to gray level image, then the analyzer processes the image data using CNN network by the first and second threshold, the analyzer can get the edge of a race in the image, and gains all the pixels of the rice, counts the length and wide of the rice, gets the square of the race image. Then according the state standard, it gives the grade of the testing race. Eight groups of experimental samples were tested and analyzed, and the results showed that the absolute error of a single sample was 0.02, and the relative error was –0.31%. Meantime, the analyzer can uploaded the relative data to computer for quality control. The principle and algorithm of the rice parameter evaluation analyzer in this research is innovative and has a certain application value, which can shorten the detection time and improve the detection accuracy.
    26  Synthesis and Application of Zearalenone Substitute Cyclododecyl 2,4-Dihydroxybenzoate(Online First, Recommended Article)
    HAN Yang-ying WANG Jun LIU Hu-ju SUN Chang-po
    2021, 29(4):192-200.
    [Abstract](37) [HTML](177) [PDF 841.31 K](205)
    Cyclododecyl 2,4-dihydroxybenzoate (CDHB) is very similar to zearalenone (ZEN) in terms of size, shape, steric conformation and property. It is commonly used as a template of ZEN for the preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers. N’N′-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) and 1,8-diazabicyclo [5.4.0] Decacarbonyl-7-ene (DBU) are added in the reaction substrate as the activator and catalyst respectively to ensure the yield of CDHB. This study compares three different purification methods of column chromatography, high-speed countercurrent chromatography and preparative liquid chromatography. The method of preparative liquid chromatography obtained the highest purity product (≥98%), followed by the method of high-speed countercurrent chromatography. Based on different production requirements, all three methods can be used for the systematic preparation process. Structure of CDHB was confirmed by FTIR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS (ESI), which proved the method of CDHB synthesis was repeatable and stable. The yield of CDHB was over 70%. In terms of application, CDHB was introduced into graphene carriers during the preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers, which can greatly improve the selective adsorption capacity of molecularly imprinted polymer to ZEN. The kinetic adsorption behavior of adsorbent followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.
    27  The Current Research and Application of Solid-state Fermentation of Wheat Bran
    ZHANG Du-qin TAN Bin WANG Li-ping YE Yan-jun
    2021, 29(4):201-210.
    [Abstract](74) [HTML](176) [PDF 500.42 K](238)
    Wheat bran is the main by-product during the milling process of wheat flour, which is rich in bioactive substances. It could be used as the substrate for microbial growth in the process of solid-state fermentation and in various industrial production fields. The current research and application of solid- state fermented wheat bran in metabolites production, microbial inoculums preparation, whole-grain food processing, and feed substitution were reviewed in this study, and their prospects were also put forward, in order to provide a theoretical reference for the further and systematic research of wheat bran solid-state fermentation.
    28  Process Optimization of Soybean Yellow Syrup Fermentation by Mixed Strains
    YU Bing GAO Yan-chao ZHANG Yan LV Jia-lu ZHANG Li-li XU Yun-he
    2021, 29(4):211-218.
    [Abstract](76) [HTML](182) [PDF 5.90 M](353)
    Using Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ferment soybean syrup water, the viable lactic acid bacteria and yeast were used as indicators to study the effect of molasses addition, initial pH, inoculation amount, inoculation ratio, culture speed, fermentation temperature and time on the number of viable bacteria in fermentation broth. On the basis of single factor experiment, the response surface method was used to optimize the technological parameters of soybean yellow slurry fermentation. The results showed that the best process parameters were: inoculation amount 6%, inoculation ratio 1∶1∶1, culture speed 120 r/min, culture time 2 days, molasses addition 5.12%, initial pH 6.80, culture temperature 30.97 ℃, under which thenumber of viable lactic acid bacteria in the fermentation broth of soybean yellow jelly was 3.18×109 CFU/mL, and the number of yeast was 4.1×108 CFU/mL.
    29  Analysis of Storage State and Condensation Risk of Paddy Pile Based on Temperature and Humidity Field Cloud Map
    WANG Shui-han LI Rui-min ZHANG Hong-qing JIN Yi YAO Qu YIN Jun
    2021, 29(4):219-225.
    [Abstract](46) [HTML](180) [PDF 3.85 M](275)
    Taking paddy as the research object, the integrated temperature and humidity sensors was used to carry out monitoring at different condensation prone locations by simulation of the actual granary. The temperature and relative humidity of different positions of grain stack from winter to summer were measured. Then the cloud map of the temperature field and humidity field of the paddy pile were drawn using Matrix Laboratory simulation software (abbreviated as MATLAB) to analyze the distribution of temperature and humidity fields of paddy. Based on the model of grain equilibrium absolute humidity and dew point temperature (CAE model), the different states (equilibrium state, saturation state, adsorption state or desorption state) of the dangerous point of rice pile were calculated, and the change rules were explored. The results of this paper will provide a theoretical basis for reducing grain storage loss and realizing grain storage safety.
    30  Effect Analysis of High-efficiency Dust-free Cleaning Screen in Grain Cleaning
    YE Wei-lin YE Wei SU Yong LUO Hui YE Wan-wan XIA Chang-yue ZHOU Chao YE Qing-song
    2021, 29(4):226-233.
    [Abstract](48) [HTML](189) [PDF 481.33 K](233)
    In order to effectively resolve the conflicts between environmental protection, output and benefit during grain cleaning, the vibration screening, specific gravity air separation, cyclone separation, pulse dust removal, closed-loop air circulation and other dust removal technologies are integrated. Efficient dust-free cleaning screens are developed. To achieve effective impurity removal, the problems of excessive dust concentration in grain depots and enterprises’ grain processing and cleaning sites are aimed to be solved. Field tests on the grain depots show that the average impurity content of the grain can be controlled under 0.7% after cleaning, and the dust suppression effect is as follows: dust concentration at 5 m of the operation range lower than 30 mg/m³, 15 m lower than 20 mg/m³ while 25 m lower than 10 mg/m³. Therefore, the cleaning effect and dust removal effect are better than common cleaning mechine.

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