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Volume 29,Issue 3,2021 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Research on the Ecological Development of the Catering Industry in China(Online First, Recommended Article)
    YU Gan-qian YANG Yao
    2021, 29(3):1-8.
    [Abstract](127) [HTML](194) [PDF 456.56 K](392)
    The construction of Ecological Civilization has been one of China’s major strategies. Ecological development is the basic industry related to people’s livelihood and the fundamental requirement of high-quality development of China’s Catering Industry under the new development pattern of “Dual Circulation” as a happiness industry in national economy. This paper analyses the necessity and urgency of ecological development of China’s Catering Industry following the theory of Industrial Symbiosis, and summarizes the ecological development path through ecological industrial structure, ecological enterprise operation, ecological industrial culture, ecological technology and ecological competitiveness. Therefore, in the view of advancing the ecological development of China’s Catering Industry, this paper puts forward the following five strategies, enhancing dynamic monitoring of industrial resource consumption and environment protection, strengthening the subjective status of industrial enterprises, perfecting the market mechanism, improving the technology content and the environmental benefits, as well as deepening supply-side structural reform.
    2  A Study on Organicalization of Food in China from the Perspective of Ecological Civilization(Online First, Recommended Article)
    WANG Zhi-he HU Yue-gao YU Lan
    2021, 29(3):9-18.
    [Abstract](106) [HTML](174) [PDF 521.77 K](244)
    Ecological Civilization as a great transformation inevitably requires transcendence of industrial agriculture, and walking towards “organicalization” (i.e., implementing organic agriculture) of food. The organicalization of food is not only the inevitable requirement of ecological civilization, but also a key part of ecological civilization. From the perspective of ecological civilization, organic food includes organic food production and organic food consumption. The so-called organic food is to engage in food production and food consumption adhere to the organic ecological principle of ecological civilization in order to form a good ecological cycle of land health, food health and national health. If “the hope of ecological civilization is in China” as Dr. John Cobb stated, then the hope of organicalization of food is also in China. Not only does the national development strategy of ecological civilization written into the constitutions of both the Party and China, as well as China’s people-centered socialist system, provides an institutional support for organicalization of food, but also a strong traditional culture provides rich resources for organicalization of food. Moreover, China’s current rural revitalization movement provides powerful physical support for food organicalization of and the agriculture ecologicalization of.
    3  Situation, Challenge and Strategic of Japan’s Rice Development(Online First, Recommended Article)
    SI Qin-fu
    2021, 29(3):19-24.
    [Abstract](159) [HTML](167) [PDF 414.50 K](416)
    This paper summarizes the latest trends of rice production, circulation and consumption in Japan, the export status of rice and rice processed products, and Japan’s policies and strategies, including stablishing rice supply and demand, main management policies for rice planters, technology revolution and flexible use of local resources for decreasing the processing costs, periodly monitoring the planting condition, matching the supply and demand between producing areas and catering industry, disseminating information according to consumers’ conscious modification to rice, the stratagic of expanding export of rice and its foods, improving rice breed and branding, etc. Based on this, the author has forecasted four aspects of rice development trends, in order to understand the situation, challenge, and its strategic of Japan’s rice.
    4  Quality Traits Analysis of Red-grained Rice Landraces from Hani’s Terraced Fields in Yunnan Province(Online First, Recommended Article)
    LU Bing-yue LIU Fan ZHANG Wei MENG Heng-ling WANG Tian-tao LEI En
    2021, 29(3):25-31.
    [Abstract](99) [HTML](204) [PDF 614.94 K](257)
    In this study, grain quality of thirty-six red-grained rice landraces from Hani’s terraced fields in Yunnan province were studied. The results showed that the quality traits were significantly different among different red-grained rice landraces, the coefficient of variation of 9 quality traits was above 10%. The largest coefficient of variation was chalkiness degree (90.47%), while grain length was smallest (5.08%). The most landraces in Hani terrace had better milling quality, while the number of Indica Rice Varieties with high chalkiness and amylose content was less when compared with the Agricultural industry standard - Cooking rice variety quality (NY/T593—2013). Four principal components were extracted by principal component analysis (PCA), the accumulative contribution ration amounted to 77.004%. The first principal component (PC1) explained 24.384% of the total variance, which was contributed by chalkiness degree, chalky area and amylose content. Cluster analysis showed 36 red-grain rice landraces grouped into three clusters, the first cluster included 3 landraces with poor milling quality, the main cluster II involved 31 landraces, and the cluster Ⅲ included 2 waxy rice landraces. The results could provide scientific reference for protection and application of red-grained rice resources from Hani’s terraced fields.
    5  Enlightenment from Foreign Research on Reducing Food Waste from the Perspective of Sharing Economy(Online First, Recommended Article)
    CHENG Xiao-min YU Gan-qian
    2021, 29(3):32-38.
    [Abstract](99) [HTML](173) [PDF 413.20 K](382)
    The sharing economy has the characteristics of resource-saving and environment-friendly, which is consistent with the goal of reducing food waste, and the cooperative consumption brought by sharing also is in line with the principles of food surplus redistribution and food waste management.In the current practice of reducing food waste in China, the sharing economy model, which is mature in other fields, has less penetration into the food sector, although the overseas food sharing models had become very popular, which definitely exerts a positive effect in reducing food wastage. Therefore, focusing on reducing food sharing practices, the paper combed foreign literature research for the relationship between reducing food waste and sharing practices,the food sharing models and the innovative ideas on reducing food waste in the era of digital economy. On this basis, it also proposed that it is necessary to investigate how to apply the sharing model of platform economy to the food waste management in China and put more intensive energy on the research topics on sharing participants, sharing fields, sharing platform and sharing policy.
    6  The Application of Cellulose Nanocrystals in Pickering Emulsion as the Particle Stabilizer(Online First, Recommended Article)
    N.A. Michael Eskin NI Yang DUAN Hui FAN Liu-ping
    2021, 29(3):39-46.
    [Abstract](112) [HTML](189) [PDF 7.73 M](347)
    Pickering emulsions stabilized by solid particles have attracted considerable interest by the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), with their high aspect ratio, renewability, degradability and biocompatibility, proved to be excellent Pickering stabilizers. This paper will initially review the purification and extraction methods used for targeted cellulose nanocrystals. This will be followed by a discussion of factors influencing the stability of Pickering emulsions containing cellulose nanocrystals. The applications of Pickering emulsions stabilized with cellulose naocrystals will be briefly discussed as well as research ideas for their future uses.
    7  Preparation of Cellulose Nanofibrils (CNFs) and its Application in Pickering(Online First, Recommended Article)
    FAN Liu-ping NI Yang DUAN Hui LI Jin-wei
    2021, 29(3):54-60.
    [Abstract](84) [HTML](161) [PDF 4.05 M](249)
    Ginkgo seed shells were used as raw material in this study. The high-pressure homogenization (HPH) was applied to prepare CNFs and its applications in Pickering emulsions were studied. The results showed that CNFs with different size can be obtained by altering homogenization pressure ranging from 10~70 MPa. The higher the homogenization pressure, the smaller the size of CNFs. Moreover, these CNFs with different size exhibited different physical properties. CNFs-10 with large size showed higher crystallinity and hydrophilcity, while CNFs-70 with small size had lower crystallinity and higher hydrophobicity. Additionally, the stability of emulsions was closely related to properties of CNFs. The emulsion prepared with large size and high hydrophilic CNFs-10 has poor stability, while the emulsion prepared by CNFs-70 with small size and high hydrophobicity shows excellent stability. These results prove that CNFs can also produce stable Pickering emulsions which providing a certain method for the utilization of shell waste.
    8  Fingerprint Chromatography Analysis of Lentinan by PMP-HPLC and its Relationship with Immunoactivity(Online First, Recommended Article)
    ZHAO Xiu-ting ZHANG Yan-jie FU Meng LI Jin-wei ZHU Song FAN Liu-ping
    2021, 29(3):61-69.
    [Abstract](92) [HTML](248) [PDF 1.78 M](281)
    A PMP-HPLC method for the determination of monosaccharide composition of Lentinan was established. Polysaccharide hydrolysates were performed on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 column, with a mobile phase consisting of 0.1mol/L phosphate buffer solution-ethyl alcohol (80:20 v/v) at the flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The detector was ultraviolet detector (245 nm), and the column temperature was 30 ℃. Methodological studies showed that this method had high accuracy, reproducibility and stability, a good linear relationship in a certain concentration range (R2≥0.998 5) and a high sample recovery (80.6%~91.4%, RSD≤5%), so it could be applied to the analysis of monosaccharide composition of Lentinan. Through the analysis of 81 Lentinan samples, a PMP-HPLC fingerprint based on polysaccharide monosaccharide composition was constructed, and seven common characteristic peaks were identified, including fucose, glucosamine, galactose, glucose, mannose and xylose, with the similarity above 0.94. In addition, partial least squares regression (PLS) was used to analyze the correlation of Lentinan monosaccharide composition and the survival rate of RAW264.7 cells. The results showed that the glucosamine, ribose and glucose of Lentinan were positively correlated with the cell survival rate, and the former two had a higher correlation.
    9  Research on Fingerprint of Lentinan Composition by Microwave Hydrolysis-Ion Chromatography(Online First, Recommended Article)
    ZHAO Xiu-ting ZHANG Xin FU Meng LI Jin-wei ZHU Song FAN Liu-ping
    2021, 29(3):70-77.
    [Abstract](96) [HTML](180) [PDF 1.90 M](280)
    A microwave hydrolyzation-ion chromatography method for the determination of lentinan monosaccharide composition was established. Conditions of microwave hydrolysis of polysaccharide: the concentration of trifluoroacetic acid was 3.0 mol/L. The hydrolysis temperature was 130 ℃. The hydrolysis time was 30 min. The solid-liquid ratio was 20 mg polysaccharide sample/7 mL trifluoroacetic acid solution. Polysaccharide hydrolysate was performed on an CarboPac PA-20 ion exchange column, with a mobile phase consisting of 3.75 mmol/L NaOH solution at the flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The detector was pulsed ampere electrochemical detector, and the column temperature was 30 ℃. Compared with the conventional hydrolyzation-PMP derivatization-liquid chromatography, the analysis time of each sample was reduced from 365 min to 65 min. Methodological study showed that the method has high accuracy, reproducibility and stability, and can be applied to the analysis of monosaccharide composition of lentinan. Through the analysis of 106 lentinan samples, an ion chromatographic fingerprint based on polysaccharide monosaccharide composition information was constructed, and 6 common characteristic peaks were determined, which were fucose, glucosamine, galactose, glucose, mannose and xylose, with the similarity was above 0.95. The establishment of the fingerprint provides a more comprehensive reference for the quality control of lentinan.
    10  Advances on the Effect of Processing Technology on Structure Activity Relationship and Solution Behavior of Polysaccharides(Online First, Recommended Article)
    ZHAO Xiu-ting SONG Zhi-ping FU Meng LI Jin-wei ZHU Song FAN Liu-ping
    2021, 29(3):78-86.
    [Abstract](96) [HTML](194) [PDF 1.05 M](300)
    Polysaccharides are natural polymers formed by more than 10 monosaccharide molecules connected by glycoside bonds. The structure is the basis of the biological activity of polysaccharides. The structure of polysaccharides is complex and diverse, and its biological functions are also varied, including the regulation of immunity, anti-tumor, anti-oxidation and hypoglycemia. Therefore, polysaccharides have a broad application prospect in health food and medicine. The food processing technology has great influence on the structure, biological function and solution behavior of polysaccharides. Ultrasonic, microwave and high pressure homogenization treatment can cause degradation of the polymers, thus affecting the biological function and rheological property of the polysaccharides. This review focuses on the effects of processing technology on the structure-activity relationship and solution behavior of polysaccharides, which will provide the guidance for the exploitation and application of polysaccharides.
    11  Comparative Analysis and Research on Post Production Management Mode of Grain in China(Online First, Recommended Article)
    ZHONG Yu
    2021, 29(3):87-90.
    [Abstract](84) [HTML](174) [PDF 361.76 K](234)
    Strengthening the post production management of grain is of great significance to improve the quality of grain consumption and reduce the loss of grain quantity. According to the operation target, operation means, operation subject, operation process and other standards, this paper summarized grain postpartum management mode in China into four modes: revenue risk minimization, land output maximization, quality optimization and promotion, and “three chain collaborative” development. Through the comparative analysis of the advantages and disadvantages, scope of application and operation mechanism of the four modes, this paper provides a useful reference for the selection of grain postpartum management mode and helps the local grain industry economic development.
    12  Research on Monitoring and Investigation of Grain Primary Processing Mechanization Level in China(Online First, Recommended Article)
    LOU Zheng ZHU Guang-fei XIE Qi-zhen WANG Xiao-meng SHAO Guang ZHAO Yu-qiang SHI Jian-fang ZHAO Hui-ning
    2021, 29(3):91-97.
    [Abstract](98) [HTML](211) [PDF 577.56 K](344)
    Based on the monitoring survey data of 120 agricultural operators in six provinces, this paper empirically analyzed the mechanization level of grain primary processing in China in 2020. The results showed that: the mechanization level of grain primary processing is 56.95%, which is higher than the overall mechanization level of primary processing of agricultural products (37.58% in 2019); among the three major grain crops, the mechanization level of rice primary processing is the highest which is about 68.55%, followed by wheat primary processing with about 57.40%, and corn primary processing with about 49.35%; among the three major operation links, the highest mechanization level of grain threshing treatment has reached to 96.61%, the threshing process has basically realized mechanization, the mechanization level of grain cleaning treatment is 36.06% which is slightly lower, and the lowest mechanization level of grain quality guaranteeing treatment is 35.06%. The unbalanced development of various varieties and links is still prominent. From the perspective of varieties, the short board is in corn, and from the perspective of links, the short board is in quality guaranteeing treatment. This study provides a basis for analyzing and judging the level and trend of grain primary processing mechanization in China.
    13  Application of Phospholipase C from Thielavia terrestris in the Enzymatic Degumming Process of Crude Corn Oil(Online First, Recommended Article)
    HU Ting-ting WANG Ling LIN Kang-sen JIANG Zheng-qiang YANG Shao-qing
    2021, 29(3):98-103.
    [Abstract](88) [HTML](173) [PDF 502.00 K](223)
    The enzymatic degumming process of crude corn oil using phospholipase C from Thielavia terrestris was studied. The key factors affecting the enzymatic degumming efficiency of crude corn oil, including enzyme dosage, volume ratio of NaOH to citric acid, reaction temperature and reaction time, were optimized by a single-factor experiment with the content of phosphorus in corn oil as the evaluation index. The results showed that the optimal enzymatic degumming conditions were: enzyme dosage of 5000 U/kg, volume ratio (NaOH to citric acid) of 4, reaction temperature of 35 ℃ and reaction time of 1 h. Under the optimized conditions, the phosphorus content was reduced from 102.7 mg/kg to 24.0 mg/kg, with a hydrolysis rate of 76.6%.
    14  The Application of Functional Grease in the Army Diet
    WANG Yuan-li LUAN Xia HAI Xue-ru OU Bo-meng
    2021, 29(3):104-110.
    [Abstract](87) [HTML](177) [PDF 529.86 K](199)
    The comprehensive construction of modern logistics is a major strategic task of military logistics in the new century and a major guarantee to promote the modernization of national defense and military construction. Focusing on the problem of oil intake in the current military dietary structure, this paper take the Soldier special provision nutritional oil(SSPNO)canteens as the research target to explore the properties of various functional grease and the feasibility of applying them to army diets, so as to provide ideas for the design and development of such products, and also provide guarantees for further strengthening the physical quality and combat effectiveness of soldiers.
    15  Research Progress in the Effect of Thermal Treatments on the Structural and Physicochemical Properties of Starch(Online First, Recommended Article)
    SONG Lu-lu MA Meng-ting XU Yi-juan CHEN Xiao-jing XU Ze-kun SUI Zhong-quan
    2021, 29(3):111-117.
    [Abstract](102) [HTML](182) [PDF 830.83 K](287)
    Starch is a very important plant polysaccharide, which is also an important industrial raw material for food production and processing. Since natural starch has poor heat, shear and acid resistance, and is easy to retrograde. It is necessary to carry out physical modification, chemical modification and enzyme modification. Among starch modification, especially chemical modification, chemical reagents are easy to remain in modified starch, so rapid and safe physical modification has attracted more and more attention. In physical modification, thermal processing modification is widely used. This paper summarizes the effects of six thermally treated technologies on the structure and properties of starch, aiming to provide a theoretical reference for the research on physicochemical properties of physically modified starch, in order to provide a certain theoretical basis for the production and development of starch with specific needs.
    16  Optimization of Preparation Process of Chitosan-carrageenan Edible Composite Membrane Based on Response Surface Methodology
    ZHANG Shu-ai GUO Fang ZHOU Ming-yi LI Dan-dan ZHANG Zhen GUO Xue-song
    2021, 29(3):118-124.
    [Abstract](85) [HTML](181) [PDF 1.07 M](226)
    Chitosan was mixed with carrageenan and tea polyphenols, and chitosan-carrageenan composite film was prepared by the fluidized bed method and its properties were tested. The light transmittance, mechanical property and water resistance of the composite film were investigated by single factor test, and then the response surface experiment was carried out to optimize the preparation process of the composite film with water vapor transmittance as the evaluation index. The results showed that the optimal process of chitosan - carrageenan edible composite film was as follows: adding 1.5% of chitosan, 0.4% of carrageenan, 0.6% of glycerol, 0.6% of tea polyphenols, and drying temperature of 50 ℃. Under this condition, the thickness of the composite film was uniform and the mechanical properties were good. The water vapor transmission rate was 1.37 (10–11 g/m·s·Pa).
    17  Research on the Inheritance and Innovation of Health Preserving Snacks on Ancient Food Treatment Prescriptions(Online First, Recommended Article)
    DING Ying
    2021, 29(3):125-133.
    [Abstract](119) [HTML](174) [PDF 526.96 K](254)
    Health preserving leisure food is a kind of traditional leisure food products which are based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine and food homologous products or have health function claims. The main sales channels of health and leisure food are based on online e-commerce platforms such as Taobao, tmall and Jingdong, as well as micro stores, youzan mall and wechat channels. Nowadays, health and leisure food has developed into a sub category that cannot be ignored under the category of online leisure food. Comprehensive investigation of online health and leisure food, a considerable part of which was influenced by the ancient food and nutrition thought and the theory of traditional Chinese medicine. From the material formula to the efficacy declaration, they all inherited the ancient food treatment formula and the idea of medicine and food homology. The health and leisure food inherited the intangible heritage of ancient Chinese food and treatment prescription, to a certain extent, promoted the cultural heritage of China, but its high reducibility also exposes the inherent defects of the development of health preserving leisure food, that is, there is more duplication and less innovation, which may also be an important reason for restricting the development of health preserving leisure food. With the continuous development of e-commerce economy, some health care leisure food brands have creatively improved and upgraded food hardware and software on the basis of making the past serve the present, and made beneficial attempts and breakthroughs, provided Chinese wisdom and Chinese solutions for the future development of leisure food industry.
    18  Preparation Technology of Fresh and Wet Convenient Rice
    LUO Shuang-shuang ZHANG Xing-can YANG Jian ZHOU Ze-lin LIU Jian
    2021, 29(3):134-140.
    [Abstract](138) [HTML](170) [PDF 1.94 M](357)
    The market common rice was used to make fresh and wet convenient rice in this study. The effects of soaking time, soaking temperature, cooking temperature, cooking time and cooking pressure on the quality of fresh and wet convenient rice were studied. Moreover, the effects of different concentration of fructo-oligosaccharides on texture and sensory score were studied on the fresh and wet convenient rice. And the effects of different amounts of fructo oligosaccharides on hardness, viscosity, sensory score and enthalpy on fresh and wet convenient rice were also studied under different storage time. The results showed that the optimum soaking temperature was 45 ℃ and the soaking time was 60 min. Through orthogonal test, the optimum cooking process of fresh and wet convenient rice was determined as follows: the cooking pressure was 0.25 Mpa, the cooking time was 30 min, and the water ratio of cooking rice was 1∶0.9. When oligosaccharides was added to 1.5% of fresh and wet convenient rice, it had obvious anti-aging effect and the highest sensory score.
    19  Analysis of Malt Root Nutritional Components and Its Application Prospect
    LI Jing TONG En-jie LI Hui QIANG Wan-li YANG Hai-ying GONG Xue ZHANG Lian-hui YAN Guo-zheng
    2021, 29(3):141-146.
    [Abstract](102) [HTML](400) [PDF 434.31 K](465)
    In this paper, the nutritional composition, active ingredients, and digestibility of malt roots were measured and analyzed and compared with those of wheat bran. The results showed that the content of protein (34.3%) and dietary fiber (39.4%) in malt roots are higher than those in wheat bran. The content of essential amino acids (8.37 g/100 g) is twice than that of wheat bran (4.03 g/100 g). The content of lysine, threonine and valine are relatively high in malt roots. Additionally, malt roots not only contain vitamin E (3.14 mg/100g), but also have a higher content of vitamin B2, B6 and B12, folic acid, and vitamin C than those in wheat bran (0.6 mg/100 g, 0.46 mg/100 g, 0.11 μg/100 g, 0.17 mg/100 g, 4.35 mg/100 g, respectively). Furthermore, the malt roots are rich in sodium, potassium, calcium, zinc, copper, phosphorus, iron, and magnesium. It also contains a high content of total polyphenols (1.09%) and a small amount of polysaccharides. At the same time, the regulatory status, application status and application prospect were analyzed from the feed, food and cosmetics fields, which provided a basis for the high-value utilization of malt root by-products.
    20  Advances in Glycemic Index of Cereal Foods
    YAN Zi-hao WANG Li-ping TAN Bin LIU Yan-xiang QIAO Cong-cong TIAN Xiao-hong ZHENG Xian-zhe
    2021, 29(3):147-156.
    [Abstract](118) [HTML](261) [PDF 500.03 K](394)
    In recent years, diabetes has become a public health problem troubling all mankind. Studies have shown that diabetes has a significant correlation with the Glycemic Index (GI). Grain is the main dietary source of Chinese and is closely related to human health. The glycemic index of cereals is influenced by a number of factors, including its basic components and processing methods. In this review, factors, mechanisms affecting the glycemic index of cereals as well as the national and international studies on advances in low GI cereals in recent years were introduced, so as to provide reference and assistance for the dietary choices of patients with high glucose and the research and development of low-GI foods.
    21  Relationship between Vomiting Toxin and Quality in Wheat and its Changes during Processing
    WU Li-hua ZHAO Sheng-juan ZHAO Jing-jing
    2021, 29(3):157-162.
    [Abstract](113) [HTML](166) [PDF 476.51 K](344)
    In this study, unit weight, Gibberella damaged kernels, imperfect kernels, color, vomiting-toxin and other indexes in wheat samples were studied and tested. Through data analysis, it was concluded that there was a certain positive correlation between vomiting-toxin and scab grains in wheat. And the content of vomit toxin in different parts of wheat grain was detected. The results showed that the cortex and aleurone layer were higher than the endosperm. After screening wheat, impurities and scab grains were removed. And the vomiting-toxin content would decrease from 4.6% to 22%. Comparing the content of vomiting-toxin in wheat flour and wheat flour steamed buns, it was found that wheat flour was not decreased and still had high residue after cooking and other processing.
    22  Determination of Five Synthetic Colorants in Grain Food by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrum
    ZHANG Chun-e LIAO Ruo-yu SUN Yue LIU Xin-bao TIAN Jian-wen
    2021, 29(3):163-169.
    [Abstract](96) [HTML](202) [PDF 790.06 K](301)
    A new application of baking soda was developed, the synthetic colorant in cereal was extracted by adding with methanol solution in this paper. To develop new uses of edible bicarbonate, synthetic colorants were extracted from cereals by adding methanol water solution of edible bicarbonate in this paper, Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was used to test standard recovery. The extraction effect of edible bicarbonate of soda on five synthetic colorants of sunset yellow, amaranth red, carmine red, alluvium red and bright blue in cereals was investigated. The sample was extracted with 70 mL 40% methanol water vortexed with 1g edible baking soda, purified with Strata X-AW SPE column and determined. The results showed that, a good linearity was observed between 0.1 and 1.4μg/mL, and for the 5 synthetic colorants, the limit of detection was between 0.07 and 0.50 μg/g. The recoveries of the 5 synthetic colorants of different food substrates at different spiked levels (1, 2 and 10 μg/g) were all found to be in the recovery range specified in GB/T27404. The recoveries for the 5 synthetic colorants were found between 80.0% and 110% with RSD from 0.7% to 5.1% (n=6). Hence, baking soda added to 40% methanol water solution can be used to extract synthetic colorants from grain products with simple operation, accurate results, high efficiency and environmental protection.
    23  Thoughts on the Construction of Inspection Teams of Grain Quality and Safety
    LIU Wen-ni LIU Liang-liang ZHENG Zhen-jun LIANG Yi LIN Dan JIANG Yue
    2021, 29(3):170-176.
    [Abstract](152) [HTML](176) [PDF 528.11 K](236)
    Grain quality and safety inspection is the basic work of grain circulation, which runs through all links of grain circulation. It is an important content of the construction of “Quality Grain Project”, and a scientific and technological team for the inspection of “China Good Grain and Oil”. Talent construction is an important technical force to carry out inspection work. With the continuous deepening reform of the grain industry, under the guidance of the national grain administrative department, the construction of the grain quality and safety inspection and detection system has been comprehensively promoted, and new and higher requirements have been placed on the quality inspection technical team. Due to the impact of factors such as staffing restrictions, unbalanced education resources in the industry, and low investment in training funds, the overall quality of the talent team has been severely restricted. How to realize the “inspection of talents” and strengthen the response to the complex situation of the inspection and testing market and solve the complex problems, and play a better role in ensuring regional food security and the sound and rapid development of the food industry, are major issues that we need to solve urgently.
    24  Optimization of Mixed Fermentation Conditions of Oat Bran and Red Yeast Rice Powder(Online First, Recommended Article)
    GAO Yu-qi ZHANG Xiu-jin LI Zai-gui
    2021, 29(3):177-182.
    [Abstract](115) [HTML](189) [PDF 503.32 K](282)
    Oat bran was used as a substrate, and red yeast rice powder was added to provide fermented bacteria for mixed fermentation. The effective lipid-lowering ingredients in the mixture were used as evaluation index, and the fermentation process conditions (fermentation time, fermentation water pH, and amount of red yeast rice powder) were optimized by a single factor experiment. The results showed that the optimal fermentation time was 72 h, the pH of the fermentation water was 6.7, and the amount of added Monascus powder was 10 g. Under this condition, the contents of monacolin K, Monascus pigment, and β-glucan in the fermentation product were 3.76 mg/g, 27.58, and 3.31%, respectively. Compared with the raw mixture of oat bran and red yeast rice powder, monacolin K and Monascus pigments increased by 38.2% and 23.0% respectively, while β-glucan only decreased by 41.2%. The fermentation product contains three kinds of high-fat lipid-lowering ingredients at the same time, and it is meaningful for the comprehensive utilization of oat bran and the development of lipid-lowering functional foods.
    25  Screening and Growth Characteristics of Probiotics for High Efficient Degradation of Corn Gluten Meal(Online First, Recommended Article)
    REN Fei LIU Yu-chun WANG Chao GUO Chao
    2021, 29(3):183-191.
    [Abstract](100) [HTML](182) [PDF 1.99 M](319)
    The strains with high protease production were isolated and screened from various sources to provide strain resources for microbial fermentation of corn gluten meal to produce corn peptide, also to provide strain resources for the value-added and comprehensive utilization of corn gluten meal. The strains were screened by corn gluten meal medium and Folinol method, and were identified by 16S rDNA sequences. The activity and growth characteristics of the target strain protease were further studied. The result showed that 405 bacteria strains were isolated and 58 strains had transparent hydrolytic circles from corn gluten meal medium plates. The strains were classified into 4 families, 5 genera, 17 species and 2 subspecies, including members of Bacillus, Lactobacillus and Planomicrobium. And the Bacillus spp. was the most abundant. The target strains can secrete alkaline, acidic and neutral proteases, and most of the strains show higher alkaline protease activity. Eight strains were selected and their growth characteristics were studied. The optimal growth temperature and pH were 30-40 ℃ and 7~9, respectively. The protease activity and growth characteristics showed the strain specificity.
    26  Research on the Removal Effect and Mechanism of Tibet Rhodotorula mucilaginosa on Zearalenone(Online First, Recommended Article)
    GUO Qian-qian ZHOU Hai-fang HAO Jia-rong YE Yun-kai CAO Yang LIU Xing-quan HU Hao
    2021, 29(3):192-197.
    [Abstract](104) [HTML](166) [PDF 878.41 K](274)
    In order to explore an environmental removal method of grain mycotoxins and to overcome the problem of poor stability of biodegradation method, the Tibetan yeast strains were selected as the research object, and the strains with better degradation effects on zearalenone (ZEN) were screened to explore the functions and mechanisms in this study. The results showed that Tibet Rhodotorula mucilaginosa had a good degradation effect on ZEN, and the degradation effect gradually improved with the increase of the bacterial concentration. Through the evaluation of the toxin removal effect of different yeast treatment solutions, it was found that the removal mechanism of the yeast on ZEN was mainly adsorption, accompanied by a certain degree of intracellular biodegradation. The degradation products of ZEN were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. It was found that the degradation products may be zearalenol and zearalenone, and the safety of the degradation products needed further verification. The stress tolerance test of Tibet R. mucilaginosa showed that it had a certain tolerance to low temperature and oxidative stress.
    27  Numerical Simulation of Lateral Ventilation for Moisture Retention of Grain Storage at Different Ventilation Temperatures(Online First, Recommended Article)
    WANG Ke WANG Yuan-cheng YU Xiao-jing YU Hai
    2021, 29(3):198-207.
    [Abstract](113) [HTML](198) [PDF 1.73 M](310)
    In order to ensure the quality of rice in long-term storage, it is of great significance to simulate and analyze the horizontal cooling and water-retaining ventilation under the conditions of same humidity and different ventilation temperatures. Based on the heat and mass transfer theory of hygroscopic porous media, this study applied the existing mathematical model of heat and moisture transfer of grain reactor, and analyzed the change rule of different air inlet temperature on the temperature and moisture of grain storage barn under the same humidity with the numerical simulation method. The results showed that when the initial temperature of the grain reactor was 25 ℃ and the air inlet temperature was 17 ℃, the cooling rate of the grain reactor was the fastest and the moisture absorption and desorption of grain reached the balance first, and the water retention effect inside the grain reactor was the best. When coupling heat and moisture transfer was carried out between the grain layer 0.4 m away from the air inlet and the air inlet at different temperatures, the grain layer temperature and moisture decreased in the same trend. The higher the air inlet temperature was, the more obvious the moisture loss was. The lower the inlet air temperature was, the greater the drop in grain stack temperature was. As the distance between the grain layer and the air inlet increased, the cooling effect of the grain layer became worse. When the ventilation temperature was 19 ℃, the temperature of the grain layer 26.2 m away from the air outlet almost kept the initial temperature of the granary unchanged, so the cooling effect cannot be achieved.
    28  Research Progress of Intelligent Monitoring and Early Warning System for Stored Grain Pests
    LU Yu-jie WANG Wen-jing REN Tian-yi LU Shao-hua WANG Zheng-yan
    2021, 29(3):208-214.
    [Abstract](105) [HTML](163) [PDF 526.70 K](355)
    At present, the infrastructure for intelligent construction of grain storage depots in our country is relatively complete. However, there is still a lack of systematic research on the construction of intelligent monitoring and early warning systems for insects. The common intelligent monitoring and early warning systems for stored grain pests based on image recognition, infrared photoelectric, acoustic detection, capacitive sensors and other technologies were summarized. The advantages and limitations of each technology are compared in this paper. At present, improving the data set capacity, counting accuracy and recognition accuracy of the intelligent monitoring system are the key technologies. Based on multi-field coupling theory, establish a mathematical model for population growth of different pests and the corresponding expert decision-making system to form the industrial chain of detection and early warning and control, which is the development direction of intelligent grain depot in the future. The industrial chain of prevention and control is the direction of the future development of intelligent grain depots. This article systematically summarizes the latest research results to help promote the construction of intelligent grain depots in my country's grain storage industry.
    29  Recent Investigation of Stored-Grain Insects and Mites in Grain-related Sites in Anhui Province
    CUI Miao WU Yi CAO Yang SUN Wei-wei JIANG Jun-yi WANG Zhong-ming
    2021, 29(3):215-221.
    [Abstract](84) [HTML](148) [PDF 1.02 M](226)
    In order to find out the types and distribution characteristics of stored-grain insect mites and provide basis for pest control in Anhui province, 59 grain-related places were investigated in 2016 and 2017. The survey results showed that a total of 51 species of 28 families and 7 orders of stored grain insects were founded in these areas, of which the amount of Coleoptera species was the largest, with a total of 40 species. According to the frequency,the main pests were Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus), Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius), with occurrence frequency of 100%, 76.3%, 66.1%, 64.4% respectively. The main occurrence of stored insects was in processing plants, and the species are abundant, accounting for 88% of the total species found, Among the three types of survey points including grain storage, processing plants and farmers, the main types of stored-grain insects were the same. The main types of occurrence were the same in different regions of the province, but the frequency of occurrence differed significantly. A total of 8 species of mites were collected, and a total of 5 species were identified. In addition, Anhui province had a rich variety of natural enemies of stored grain pests, mainly were parasitic wasps, scorpions and predatory mites.

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