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Volume 29,Issue 2,2021 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Concept, Category and Development Prospect of Functional Wheat Varieties(Online First, Recommended Article)
    TIAN Ji-chun XU Qian
    2021, 29(2):1-8.
    [Abstract](246) [HTML](286) [PDF 467.26 K](351)
    Combined with the contents of nutrition-oriented agriculture and functional food advocated by the world, the concept of “functional wheat variety” was put forward for the first time in this paper, which was defined as “containing healthy ingredients, regulating of beneficial metabolism, meeting special needs to the certain group of patients and serving as a daily non-toxic side effect food with normal taste”. With the epidemic virus warning and the social demand that people dietary change from “full” and “good” to “healthy” after China enters the post-industrial era, the breeding goal of cultivating “functional wheat varieties” was proposed after “high-yield varieties” and “high-quality varieties”. Based on the results of long-term research on starch, protein, esters and other components, this article introduced new functional wheat varieties (lines) with “Glycine”, “High pigment”, “High resistant starch”, “Zinc-rich”, “Low gliadin” and “Low phytic acid” characteristics. According to the “healthy China 2030” plan and other national strategies, the development prospect of “the cultivation of functional varieties is the key foundation to solve the problem of” sticking neck “of China’s functional food, a kind of functional variety can form a kind of functional food, a variety of functional varieties can form China’s functional flour products industry, and promote the development of China’s entire food industry” was carried out. As the stability and reliability of functional varieties and related food is the “lifeline” of products and markets, specific suggestions were put forward from the height of being responsible for consumers in the areas of functional crop varieties such as establishment of functional ingredient testing institutions, formulation of national standards or commercial sign for varieties-derived foods, construction of the commercial marks of functional food and functional crop varieties and so on, to ensure the healthy development of functional crop varieties and related food in China.
    2  Effects of Different Granule Bound Starch SynthaseⅠ Subunit Combinations on Starch Content and Noodle Quality of Wheat(Online First, Recommended Article)
    DENG Zhi-ying LI Wen-shu GUO Ying-xin ZHAO Yun-zhe CHEN Guang-feng WANG De-hua WANG Guan-ying TIAN Ji-chun
    2021, 29(2):9-14.
    [Abstract](163) [HTML](232) [PDF 576.91 K](321)
    Granule Bound Starch SynthaseⅠis the key gene of amylose synthesis. The expression of this gene affects amylose content and final processing quality. In this study, RIL populations with different Wx protein subunit combinations were used to study the effects of different combinations on amylose and amylopectin content and texture of dry noodles and cooked wet noodles. The results indicated that there were 8 kinds of combinations in the population. Different Wx protein subunits deletion had a certain effect on amylose and amylopectin content of wheat, and the influence degree was different. There was no significant difference in amylose content between double deletion types, but significant difference was found in mutant and total deletion types compared with other combinations. For the texture parameters of dry noodles, the deletion of Wx protein subunits mainly affected the breaking strength of dry noodles. Under the condition of double deletion type, when there was Wx-B1 deletion site in the combination, the noodle breaking strength was greatly affected, and it was not easy to break. Under the condition of single deletion type, the severity of tensile parameters of cooked noodles was Wx-A1 deletion type ≥ Wx-B1 deletion type > Wx-D1 deletion type. Under the condition of double deletion, both Wx-B1 and Wx-D1 deletion showed best. When the three loci were deleted at the same time, the stretching distance of cooked noodles was mainly affected, followed by the curve area and tensile force. These results provide a reference for the cultivation of new wheat varieties with high quality and special use.
    3  Screening and Breeding Utilization of Wheat Germplasm Resources Rich in Beneficial Mineral Elements(Online First, Recommended Article)
    WANG Wei GUO Hong YU Hui WU Chong-ning LI Xiao-kang CHEN Guang-feng TIAN Ji-chun DENG Zhi-ying
    2021, 29(2):15-24.
    [Abstract](152) [HTML](245) [PDF 1.63 M](337)
    Beneficial mineral elements are one of the indispensable nutrients in human body. With the adjustment of diet structure, people’s demand for mineral elements in wheat is becoming stronger and stronger. Therefore, screening wheat germplasm resources with low heavy metal content and high beneficial mineral elements has important theoretical and practical significance for cultivating new wheat varieties with high nutrient mineral elements and low heavy metal content and ensuring the quality and safety of agricultural products. In this study, 205 wheat germplasms from 2 areas were collected to determine the content of mineral elements and screen germplasm resources with high beneficial mineral elements and low heavy metals under four environments in three years. The results showed that the contents of mineral elements were different in different environments and different wheat varieties. In general, the content of each element showed continuous distribution, which was a typical quantitative character. The contents of calcium, manganese, copper, zinc and selenium in wheat grain in Dezhou point were significantly higher than those in Tai'an, while the contents of heavy metals in Tai’an were lower than those in De Zhou. A total of 38 varieties (lines) with high content of beneficial mineral elements were selected, such as B111 with the highest content of calcium, and the variety with the highest iron content, such as B189. There were 24 varieties (lines) with high contents of various beneficial mineral elements, such as B45, B38 and B21, whose grains contained 4 kinds of high contents of beneficial mineral elements. A total of 33 varieties (lines) with high beneficial mineral elements and low harmful mineral elements contents were identified, such as B125 with higher content of Ca, Fe, Cu and lower Pb.
    4  Cluster Analysis and Association Mapping of Phytic Acid Content among Wheat Cultivars(Online First, Recommended Article)
    CHEN Guang-feng LI Dong-mei DENG Zhi-ying FENG Jian-ying ZHENG Shi-ying ZHENG Fang WU Xiu-fen TIAN Ji-chun
    2021, 29(2):25-33.
    [Abstract](144) [HTML](226) [PDF 1.42 M](309)
    In this study, 205 elite wheat lines from winter wheat region of China were used as materials to analyze the phytic acid content, and the cluster analysis and related was further conducted. The results showed that the average Phytic acid content of the two environmental groups was 4.99 g/kg and 3.31 g/kg, and the variation range was 17.90 g/kg and 10.20 g/kg, respectively. The variation range was relatively large. The results of cluster analysis showed that there were significant differences in Phytic acid content among 6 groups. B54, B40, B86 and B126 have the lowest phytic acid content among the extended varieties or backbone parents, which can be used as important parents in low Phytic acid wheat breeding. The higher generation lines B131, B141, B181 and B149 had the lowest phytic acid content. Combined with excellent agronomic traits, it is expected to select new functional wheat varieties with low Phytic acid content. A total of 36 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with phytic acid content in wheat grains were detected (P < 0.001), which were distributed on chromosomes 2B, 3A, 3B, 3D, 6A and 6B. The contribution rate of phenotypic variation of a single Association site was 5.73% ~ 9.69%.Excellent alleles of genes with low Phytic acid content were identified such as tdurum, were identified_contig35799_208-G、Excalibur_c96134_152-C and tdurum_contig43538_1687-A, etc. which had a greater effect on low Phytic acid content.
    5  Correlation Analysis of Wheat Protein and Starch Components to Flour Gelatinization Characteristics Using Advanced Breeding Lines(Online First, Recommended Article)
    PAN Qiu-xiao PENG Li CHEN Jian-sheng YU Hai-xia DENG Zhi-ying WANG Yan-xun YANG Ming SUN Xue-zhen
    2021, 29(2):34-40.
    [Abstract](141) [HTML](295) [PDF 454.64 K](340)
    Protein and starch are the main components of wheat, and their composition, proportion and correlation are the decisive factors on flour quality and processing use. In this study, the effects of protein content, wet gluten, farinograph parameters and starch components on flour gelatinization characteristics were analyzed using 100 wheat high-generation materials, in order to breed new varieties with multi-quality index and suitable for processing and utilization of some special foods. The results showed that there was no significant correlation between wheat protein content and wet gluten content and flour gelatinization characteristic parameters. The correlation coefficients between amylose content and peak viscosity and breakdown value of flour were –0.214 and –0.322, which reached significant and extremely significant level respectively. The correlation coefficient between amylopectin content and trough viscosity was 0.324, the positive correlation reached an extremely significant level. The total starch content was positively and negatively correlated with the trough viscosity and the trough viscosity, with the correlation coefficients of 0.255 and –0.258, respectively. Ash content was negatively correlated with flour gelatinization properties, which are the important factors influencing the starch gelatinization characteristics and should be given more attention in variety improvement. Through the study, we found that the content and quality of gluten exist significant negative correlation, which need to be modified and coordination to improve both of them. The correlation between starch and protein quality improvement is relatively small, and it is easy to achieve collaborative improvement. At the same time, new lines like WDP77, WDP2 and shannon 102, shannon 116–8 with strong gluten and low peak viscosity were selected which can be used for a specific research and new materials for special processing purpose. The results provide a reference basis for wheat quality improvement and breeding of new wheat varieties.
    6  Research Progress on Special Colored Grains and Creation of New Pigment Functional Wheat Varieties(Online First, Recommended Article)
    XU Qian MIAO Yong-hui LIU Zhen WANG Qun-qing BI Jian-jie WU Peng TIAN Ji-chun
    2021, 29(2):41-49.
    [Abstract](148) [HTML](228) [PDF 1.18 M](372)
    Due to its functional、nutritional and ornamental characteristics, the special colored grains are increasingly favored and become an important direction of high-end crop industry. These natural pigments can not only increase the color of food, but also have special functions such as antioxidant, anti-cancer, and improving vision etc. This paper focuses on the biosynthesis, main functions and related products of anthocyanins, tricin and carotenoids in special color crops, and then focuses on wheat, an important food crop, and introduced two newly cultivated pigments functional wheat including “Shannong lanmai 1” and “Shannong 101”. This paper provides a reference for the research and variety creation of special color crops.
    7  Primary Mycotoxins in Edible Vegetable Oils and Their Removal Methods
    JI Jun-min LV Ya-fang ZHANG Yan LIU Yu-lan WANG Xue-de
    2021, 29(2):50-58.
    [Abstract](178) [HTML](201) [PDF 1.20 M](535)
    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by some fungi during crop growth. They are highly toxic and widely exist in plant, seriously polluting food, and have been a significant threat to human health. Edible vegetable oil, as a necessities of daily consumption, is easy to be polluted by mycotoxins in itself and its source (oil seeds) which has been widely concerned by public. This article generalized the types and characteristics of primary mycotoxins and their pollution in oil commodities, the current common detoxification methods were further summerized.
    8  Preparation and Properties of Time-Resolved Fluorescent Strip for Zearalenone Detection(Online First, Recommended Article)
    GU Jian-hua YAN Yi-lin YANG Ting-ting QI Su-xian ZHANG Hai-tao WANG Bao-chun
    2021, 29(2):59-65.
    [Abstract](147) [HTML](240) [PDF 521.19 K](354)
    The purpose of this study was to prepare a kind of Zearalenone fast quantitative test strip based on time-resolved fluorescence immunochromatographic assay. Europium nanoparticles were used as fluorescent probes to label anti-zearalenone monoclonal antibodies, and a quantitative immunochromatography method was established based on competitive inhibition principle. The results showed that the sensitivity of Zearalenone fluorescent detection strip was 0.1 ng/mL, the linear range was 0.1~5.0 ng/mL, the standard recovery rate of negative samples of corn and wheat was between 93.45% and 112.2%, and the coefficient of variation of 5 repeats for the same sample was less than 15%. The results show that the Zearalenone fluorescent test strip has the technical characteristics of high sensitivity, short reaction time and accurate quantification, which is suitable for the rapid quantitative detection of Zearalenone in grain and its products.
    9  Recent Advances in Mycotoxin Degradation by Photocatalytic Technology in Grain and Oil
    SHI Jing-jing LIU Kuan-bo WANG Yong-wei HE Bei-bei WANG Li LI Ai-ke
    2021, 29(2):66-70.
    [Abstract](145) [HTML](179) [PDF 432.66 K](418)
    Grain and oil crops was always faced with the problem of fungal diseases. Fungi produce mycotoxin under certain conditions, which not only caused food waste, but also seriously endangered the health of human and animal. Physical, chemical and biological detoxification methods can remove some mycotoxin, but there were some problems to be considered, such as desorption, residual solvent and complex degradation product. In recent years, the photocatalytic technology had achieved great process in degradation of mycotoxin. In this work, the latest progress of photocatalysis technology in mycotoxin degradation in grain and oil was briefly summarized which providing a reference for further understanding the mechanism of photocatalytic degradation and promoting the application of photocatalytic mycotoxin degradation in grain and oil crops.
    10  The Research Status, Problems and Opportunities of Sprouted Whole Grain
    GAO Kun TAN Bin WANG Li-ping LIU Yan-xiang TIAN Xiao-hong LIU Ming
    2021, 29(2):71-80.
    [Abstract](156) [HTML](261) [PDF 601.53 K](390)
    In recent years, with the increasing attention to whole grain health, whole grain food is developing rapidly. Sprouted whole grain, as an important ingredient of whole grain foods, also received a great attention. Germination treatment could further increase the nutritional value and bio-availability of whole grain products, improve the sensory quality of baked products, and have a positive effect on the prevention and control of chronic metabolic syndrome. The research achievements on the definition of sprouted whole grain, molecular mechanisms, bio-active compounds, beneficial functions, anti-nutritional factors and processing of sprouted whole grains were summarized in the paper, the problems in sprouted grain industry and the suggestions for future development of sprouted grain were further put forward. It is expected to provide some references for the preparation, processing, product creation and policy formulation of sprouted whole grain.
    11  Research on Quality Millet by the Three-step MIR Spectroscopy(Online First, Recommended Article)
    ZHAO Xiao-yan ZHANG Bin LI Qian SHA Shu-li LI Dan-dan ZHOU Guan-lin XIAO Xiao YU Hong-wei
    2021, 29(2):81-87.
    [Abstract](172) [HTML](195) [PDF 3.57 M](388)
    The structures of five kinds of millet from Shandong, Shanxi, Hebei and other provinces were studied by mid infrared (abbreviation: MIR) spectroscopy. The results showed that the infrared absorption modes of millet mainly include OH stretching vibration mode (νOH), CH3 asymmetrical stretching vibration mode (νasCH3), CH2 asymmetrical stretching vibration mode (νasCH2), CH2 symmetrical stretching vibration mode (νsCH2), CH stretching vibration mode (νCH), C==O stretching vibration mode (νC==O), protein amide Ⅰ band mode (νamide-Ⅰ), protein amide Ⅱ band mode (νamide-Ⅱ), protein amide Ⅲ band mode (νamide-Ⅲ) and C—O stretching vibration mode (νC—O). Furthermore, the corresponding synchronous 2D-MIR spectroscopy of millet, including νasCH3-2d, νasCH2-2d, νsCH2-2d and νCH-2d, have some differences, which can quickly and accurately identify the five kinds of millets. This paper expanded the research scope of three-step MIR spectroscopy in structure and rapid identification of high-quality millet.
    12  Research on the Appearance Characteristics of Japonica Rice with Different Bran Degree Based on White Light Interference, Scanning Electron Microscope and Colorimeter(Online First, Recommended Article)
    REN Hai-bin QI Sheng-min WANG Lu YANG Hai-qing LI Hui ZHANG Lian-hui REN Chen-gang
    2021, 29(2):88-93.
    [Abstract](150) [HTML](234) [PDF 2.49 M](422)
    In this study, by measuring the white light interference images, scanning electron microscope pictures and whiteness, transmittance, fine whiteness, L value, a value and b value of japonica rice with different bran degrees, the changed of japonica rice appearance and characteristics were studied. Studies showned that the grain cortex on both sides of the rice grain is ground first, and the abdomen and back of the rice grain are difficult to grind; the surface roughness increases first and then decreases with the bron degree; Aleurone layer and endosperm cell structure, as the decreases of bran degrees, are milled layer by layer; the whiteness, permeability, fine whiteness and L value of the sample are gradually increased, and the a value and b value are gradually reduced.
    13  Stability of Quality Characters and Applicability of Food Processing of Strong Gluten Wheat Variety Zhoumai 33
    HONG Yu WU Hai-bin DUAN Xiao-liang CHANG Liu XING Xiao-ting SUN Hui
    2021, 29(2):94-99.
    [Abstract](281) [HTML](205) [PDF 420.02 K](323)
    The quality of wheat is affected by genotype and environment. Different varieties of wheat show different quality, and the influence of environment and genotype is also different. In this paper, the indexes of quality and food processing quality of 31 samples of Zhoumai 33 from different planting areas of Henan, Anhui, Jiangsu and Shanxi in 2018 and 2019 were studied and analyzed. The results showed that the quality performance of Zhoumai 33 was different in different locations, among which gluten content, farinograph stability, tensile energy, extensibility, maximum resistance, peak viscosity and bread quality varied greatly in different planting locations. The variation degree of noodle quality was little. The average score of sensory taste of bread and noodles in two years reached 81.7 and 87.1 respectively, all of which reached the level of high-quality bread and high-quality noodle wheat. The noodles had bright yellow color, good luster, good elasticity, high sensory score, the noodle score was not sensitive to environmental changes, and the quality was relatively stable.
    14  Statistical Analysis of Wheat Quality Monitoring Data in Hebei Province from 2010 to 2019
    TAN Jun-feng WANG Jing WANG Lei
    2021, 29(2):100-106.
    [Abstract](123) [HTML](206) [PDF 539.20 K](312)
    In order to provide wheat quality information for wheat purchasing & storage companies and processing companies in Hebei Province and provide technical basis for the rational use of local wheat resources, The newly harvested wheat from the main wheat producing areas in Hebei Province from 2010 to 2019 was tested for quality indicators such as test weight, mass of 1000 grains, unsound kernel content, sprouted kernel content, moisture content, hardness index, falling number, wet gluten content, and protein content. The quality of wheat in Hebei Province in the past ten years was analyzed from three aspects: the annual change of each detection index, the comparison of the average value of the detection index of each city, and the comparison of the selection of the detection index of each city. The results showed that the quality of wheat was normal except for 2013 and 2018. The quality of wheat in 2013 was the worst in ten years. The test weight, mass of 1000 grains and falling number of wheat were all at the lowest values. The unsound kernel content and sprouted kernel content and moisture content were at the highest values. In the data of past ten years, the wheat in Xinji City has obvious comparative advantages in terms of high test weight, high mass of 1000 grains weight, low unsound kernel content, and high wheat hardness index. In addition, wheat from Handan, Xingtai and Shijiazhuang City has obvious comparative advantages in terms of high test weight.
    15  Research on Application and Expansion of Co-cooking Technology
    SONG Shan-wu
    2021, 29(2):107-113.
    [Abstract](153) [HTML](222) [PDF 989.35 K](370)
    This article introduces a multi-grain rice compounding scheme for improving nutritional deficiencies in rice. According to the nutritional needs of different populations, combined with amino acid score difference method theoretical calculations, physical and chemical properties tests, tasting score experiments and other formulas, the experimental results show mixed grain rice can effectively improve the nutritional deficiency in rice, meet the nutritional needs of different populations, and has important reference significance for preventing certain diseases.
    16  Comparative Research on the Attached Certificate of Indonesia Shortening, ISO/IEC17025 and China National Food Safety Standard
    LI Bin ZHAO Kai FENG Ying-cai WANG Li-li WANG Hong-wu YANG Wen-you
    2021, 29(2):114-121.
    [Abstract](126) [HTML](198) [PDF 717.76 K](301)
    The safety of imported shortening is still a key content in port supervision and inspection. For port scientific regulation, accurate inspection, safe and fast clearance, food safety assurance and trade development promotion, 94 laboratory analysis certificates, health certificates and plant quarantine certificates that must attached in 47 batch of shortenings imported from Indonesia from May 2019 to June 2020 were studied comparatively with ISO/IEC17025, shortening and their relevant Chinese national food safety standards. The results showed that 4 laboratories’ certificate of shortening analysis had 12~20 testing items, the components of the sample test date were incomplete or different, and 3 of them did not indicate the test date. 2 laboratories’ test certificates did not indicate the testing and conformity assessment which were obtained based on Chinese national food safety standards; 1 laboratory issued two kinds of analysis certificates (5 copies of which cited or 10 copies of which did not cited Chinese national food safety testing and conformity assessment standards); Invalidation standard citation or cited standards were too many and inaccurate. The solvent residue conformity assessment was carried out according to GB2716:2005, and there was a risk of exceeding the standard. The antioxidant application conformity assessment method did not specify the requirements of GB2760A, A.2, and there was a risk of exceeding GB2760 limits. The core content of the health certificate was expressed in a variety of ways, which was not standardized and unified. The plant quarantine certificate did not indicate the scientific name, Latin scientific name of plant varieties and the shortening production (press) time.
    17  Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition Profiles in Panicum miliaceum L. Grain
    JIN Can LI Ke-hu Harold Corke LI Hai-quan
    2021, 29(2):122-128.
    [Abstract](134) [HTML](218) [PDF 822.43 K](342)
    Oil content and fatty acid composition profiles in grain of 18 proso millet accessions were investigated. The results showed that oil content in proso millet ranged from 2.54% to 4.00%, and averaged 3.71%. The major fatty acids detected were linoleic (18:2n6), oleic (18:1n9) and palmitic (16:0), ranging from 0.075 to 5.19, 0.150 to 3.02, and 0.897 to 1.81 g/100 g, respectively. Minor fatty acids included palmitoleic, stearic, linolenic, arachidic, arachidonic, docosanoic and tetracosanoic acids. The unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) accounted for 82.1%~94.6% of the total oil. Both correlation analysis and principal component analysis indicated significant inter-relationships among ten fatty acids. Cluster analysis suggested that the fatty acid profile was significantly related to genotypes.
    18  Research Progress on Material and Composite Structure of Konjac Glucomannan Composite Gel
    LIU Lu PANG Jie
    2021, 29(2):129-134.
    [Abstract](152) [HTML](253) [PDF 1.69 M](334)
    Gel is a special dispersion system with properties between solid and liquid. Konjac glucomannan (KGM) gel has poor stability and low strength, and physical blending can improve its gel properties conveniently and quickly. This paper mainly reviewed the network structure changes of KGM composite gels, and introduced the application of different composite gels in food, medicine, material engineering and other fields. The analysis showed that KGM composite gel network could improve its gel properties by hydrogen bonding, schiff base reaction, formation of multiple network structures and filling.
    19  Research on Hot-air Drying Characteristics and Kinetics of Non-fried Extruded Potato Instant Noodles
    ZHANG Xin REN Yuan-yuan MENG Zi-kuan ZOU Yu ZHOU Ze-lin ZHANG Xing-can WANG Yong-jun
    2021, 29(2):135-142.
    [Abstract](124) [HTML](210) [PDF 585.96 K](298)
    In order to improving the drying property and quality of non - fried extruded potato instant noodles, the drying characteristics of non-fried extruded instant noodles with diametral of 0.7 mm, 1mm and 1.2 mm under the conditions of 40 ℃, 50 ℃, 60 ℃ and 70 ℃ were studied respectively. On this basis, an optimal drying kinetic model was established. The result showed that the drying stage of instant noodles mainly belonged to the speed reduction stage, and the noodle diameter and drying temperature had a great influence on its characteristics. Page model can express and predict the variation of moisture ratio (MR) with drying temperature (T) at any time of instant noodle drying. The effective water diffusion coefficient of instant noodles was between 0.463×10–9 m2/s and 1.845×10–9 m2/s. The drying activation energy of instant noodles with diameter of 0.7 mm and 1mm was 47.904 kJ/mol and 65.265 kJ/mol respectively. Properly reducing the noodle diameter can effectively reduce the energy loss in the drying process. This study provides data support for equipment selection, energy saving and consumption reduction and industrial design of non-fried extruded potato instant noodles drying process.
    20  Research Progress on the Preservation and Processing of Sweet Potato Leaves
    GAO Qi SUN Ming-yang YUAN Xing-ling SHA Xuan-li PENG Xue XUE You-lin
    2021, 29(2):143-151.
    [Abstract](163) [HTML](201) [PDF 608.98 K](401)
    Sweet potato is an important food crop in China. Its stems, leaves and petioles are rich in nutrients (collectively called sweet potato leaves), and have many physiological functions such as antioxidant, lipid-lowering, reducing cholesterol, hypoglycemic, anticancer and antibacterial functions. Therefore, the development and utilization of sweet potato leaf resources will help to play its value. To provide references for the full utilization of sweet potato leaf resources and related industrial development, the main problems and countermeasures for the preservation and processing of sweet potato leaves in China were discussed in this paper.
    21  Research Progress on the Effects of Main Components in Flour on the Quality of Steamed Bread(Online First, Recommended Article)
    WANG Xin-yu HAN Yan-fang LI Yan GUO Zi-xuan HUAN Mei-li REN Chen-gang
    2021, 29(2):152-157.
    [Abstract](176) [HTML](205) [PDF 427.99 K](366)
    The quality of steamed bread is not only related to the formula and production technology of steamed bread, but also in connection with the quality of flour. With the development of society and the improvement of people's living standards, the advantages of special flour for steamed bread have become increasingly prominent. In this paper, the effects of starch, protein, lipid and ash in flour on the quality of steamed bread were reviewed to provide theoretical support for the production of high-quality steamed bread flour and the production of high-quality steamed bread.
    22  Research and Development of Guiling Fortified Rice Noodles
    HUANG Wei-an MENG Yi WEI Xiao-ming CHEN Lei HUANG Kun-ying TENG Guang
    2021, 29(2):158-165.
    [Abstract](160) [HTML](200) [PDF 604.50 K](267)
    In order to optimize the raw material formula and processing technology of Guiling fortified rice noodle, L9(34) orthogonal test was used to study the effects of the four factors on product quality and processing efficiency including water content of flour, the amount of corn starch, the amount of concentrate extracted from food materials and the amount of spice powder, when the comprehensive score of cooking quality, sensory quality, rehydration rate and processing effect was take as the evaluation index. The results showed that the effect was as follows: water content of flour>amount of corn starch>amount of food material extract concentrate>amount of spice powder. The optimum formula was as follows: when the rice flour was 100 kg, the moisture content of the flour was 40%, the amount of edible corn starch was 10 kg, the amount of food material extract concentrate was 1.5 kg, and the amount of spice powder was 0.4 kg. Under these conditions, good processing effect and good product quality could be obtained.
    23  Research on the Effect of Freeze-thaw on Stability and Rheological Properties of Red Bean Pulp
    JIANG Ping TAN Bin GONG Xue-mei WU Na-na CHEN Ying
    2021, 29(2):166-172.
    [Abstract](140) [HTML](207) [PDF 675.83 K](365)
    To provide data references for the improvement of red bean pulp storage, transportation and quality stability, the changes of freeze-thaw stability and rheological properties of red bean pulp were analyzed through repeated freeze-thaw tests in this paper. The results showed that the structure system of the red bean pulp suffered serious damage after one freeze-thaw cycle (–18 ℃ storaged 7 days) , the stability coefficient significantly declined, the syneresis rate, clarify index and grain size showed significant increasing trend, these indicators had no significant changes after repeated freeze-thaw cycles, but the loss angle tangent (tanδ) showed a trend of gradual increase, indicating that the repeated freeze-thaw cycles would lead to fewer polymers and lower degree of polymerization in red bean pulp. The freeze-thaw cycle had a correlation to the elastic modulus (G′) of red bean pulp, but had little influence on the viscosity modulus (G″).
    24  Effect of Black Sesame Oil Lecithin Solution on Bone Metabolism in Naturally Growing Aged Mice(Online First, Recommended Article)
    LV Si-min HUANG Zhi-rong YU Qiong SUN Jin-ying CUI Liao WU Tie
    2021, 29(2):173-179.
    [Abstract](142) [HTML](273) [PDF 4.98 M](336)
    To observe the effect of black sesame oil lecithin solution on bone metabolism in naturally grown aging mice and compare with vitamin E. 8-month-old SPF Kunming mice were randomly divided into normal saline group (NS group), vitamin E group (VE group), black sesame oil group (Oil group). The experiment lasted for 10 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the mice were sacrificed. The right femurs were taken for Micro CT scan, and the left ulna for bone component content determination. Compared with the NS group, the bone calcium and bone magnesium contents in the Oil group were significantly increased, and the SMI was significantly reduced, while BV/TV, Density and Conn-Dens were increased, but the difference was not statistically significant; compared with the VE group, The content of bone calcium and bone magnesium in the Oil group were significantly increased; the three-dimensional map showed that the bone trabeculae were arranged evenly and tightly, with small gaps and good continuity. After 10 weeks of naturally-growing old mice given black sesame oil, the bone mass and microstructure of the femur of the mice increased, suggesting the potential applications for anti-osteoporosis.
    25  Effects of Mung Bean Germinationon on its Antioxidant Activity
    QIU Yan-chao LI Lin QIAN Li-li LI Dian-wei FU Li-xue
    2021, 29(2):180-185.
    [Abstract](142) [HTML](240) [PDF 1.44 M](416)
    To study the effect of mung bean germination on its antioxidant activity. Experimental design mung bean germination for 6 days, the antioxidant content of total phenol, flavonoid, vitamin C, antioxidant ability DPPH clearance rate, –OH clearance rate, total reduction ability were selected as indicators, combined with correlation, significance analysis and other methods to analyze the changes of each indicator. The results showed that content of total phenols and flavones increased first and then decreased, vitamin C increased all the time, and the index of antioxidant capacity increased first and then decreased. The total phenol content reached its maximum on the 4th day of germination, and varied from 0.5612 mg/g to 0.7237 mg/g on the 1st to 4th day, increased by 28.95%. On the 3rd day of germination, the flavonol content reached the highest level. The flavonol content varied from 0.6605 mg/g to 0.6974 mg/g on the 1st to 3rd day, increased by 5.59%. Vitamin C varied from 0.7833 mg/100 g to 7.4500 mg/100 g on the 1st to 6th day. From 1st to 3rd day, DPPH clearance rate, –OH clearance rate and total reduction capacity reached the highest levels of 99.28%, 97.00% and 79.26% respectively, increased by 4.68%, 1.04% and 46.76% respectively.
    26  Effect of Jiangteng Tea on the Cold Coagulation Stasis Dysmenorrhea in Rats
    MENG Jun QIN Hua-zhi ZHOU Yang LI Dan LIU Hao-qi DENG Jiao-Mei YANG Zhi
    2021, 29(2):186-192.
    [Abstract](146) [HTML](219) [PDF 1.83 M](308)
    Jiangteng tea is composed of brown sugar, ginger, Teng tea, xylooligosaccharide and chrysanthemum. To observe the pharmacodynamic test of Jiangteng tea on cold blood stasis dysmenorrhea, and provide reference materials for the clinical trials, a dysmenorrhea model was prepared by injecting estradiol benzoate, and ginger vine tea was administered simultaneously by intragastric administration for 10 days. One hour after the last administration, 10 U of oxytocin was injected intraperitoneally. And the rat's pain response was observed within 30 minutes. The writhing response was selected as an indicator of strong uterine contraction (dysmenorrhea), the concentration of β-endorphin (β-EP) and 6-ketoprostaglandin F1α were measured, at the same time, the uterus and ovaries were taken and HE stained for histological examination. The results showed that Jiangteng tea can reduce the number of writhing in rats with dysmenorrhea, increase the levels of β-endophorin and 6-ketoprostaglandin F1α, and have a better effect on improving dysmenorrhea. At the same time, an ice bath + epinephrine hydrochloride was used to prepare a cold coagulation blood stasis model, and Jiangteng tea was administered by gavage simultaneously for 7 days with hemorheological indexes and hematocrit were measured. Compared with the model group, the hematocrit in the drug group was reduced, but there was no significant difference (P>0.05). The low-shear viscosity and low-shear relative value of whole blood in the Jiangtengcha medium-dose group were significantly reduced (P<0.05). In the high-dose Jiangteng tea group, whole blood low, medium and high shear viscosity, low shear relative value and erythrocyte aggregation index were significantly reduced (P<0.01), and Kasson viscosity was significantly reduced (P<0.05). The results showed that Jiangteng tea can reduce the whole blood viscosity and plasma viscosity of rats with cold coagulation and blood stasis, suggesting that Jiangteng tea has certain improvement on cold coagulation and blood stasis syndrome. These studies showed that Jiangteng tea has a certain effect on dysmenorrhea and cold blood stasis, and has the functions of soothing dysmenorrhea.
    27  Research Progress on the Effects of Processing on the Main Components, Efficacy and Application of Ginger
    SUN Lu WANG Meng ZHAO Xiao-yan ZHU Yun-ping ZHANG Xiao-wei LIU Hong-kai GUO Shan
    2021, 29(2):193-199.
    [Abstract](134) [HTML](564) [PDF 890.61 K](277)
    Ginger is not only a condiment for daily cooking, but also a plant crop with high medicinal value. Its medicinal effect and various processed products are recorded in Chinese medical books. By introducing the main components of ginger and different processing methods, according to the different processing methods, this paper explained the influence of processing on the main components and cell structure of ginger, discussed the reasons for the change of main components, compared the differences in the efficacy of different ginger products, and summarized the influence of different processing methods on the functional characteristics and application of ginger.
    28  Discussion on Quality Defects after Harvest and the Maintaining Quality Transportation Technology of Grain in Northeast China(Online First, Recommended Article)
    SHI Jian-fang ZHAI Xiao-na WANG Xiao-meng SHAO Guang ZHAO Hui-ning XIE Qi-zhen
    2021, 29(2):200-210.
    [Abstract](178) [HTML](257) [PDF 882.67 K](341)
    Northeast area is the main producing region and the most important outflow area of grain in China. In the process of grain transported from Northeast China Region, restricted by factors such as storage conditions, facilities and equipment, transportation pattern, quality monitoring and ecological area change, there are some grain quality problems such as higher losses of raw grain, grain damage, insect pest development, surface dew, local fever, decline of storage quality and taste quality, and even mildew. In order to promoting the technology application and provide technical reference for quality assurance transportation in China, it is suggested to promote the technical application of grain classification and classification, quality detection, green storage technology, the logistics facilities in grain transportation channels, improvement of ‘Four Deconcentrations’ transportation rate and container transportation, the grain logistics information service, food consumption and processing demand production and marketing docking, grain quality monitoring and traceability etc. Strengthen the construction of quality-oriented circulation standard system to provide technical reference for quality-oriented grain transportation in China.
    29  Simulation Analysis of the Grain Storage Fire Based on the PyroSim(Online First, Recommended Article)
    CUI Peng-cheng CHEN Xin ZHANG Tao
    2021, 29(2):211-217.
    [Abstract](118) [HTML](271) [PDF 1.32 M](298)
    In order to study the effect of the fire on the workers, the PyroSim was used to simulate the fire of in grain reserve storages in this paper. The widely used warehouse was selected as the research object, and the physical model was established. Aiming at the fire scenario caused by phosphine fumigation port, the development of fire smoke and temperature distribution were analyzed, and preventive measures were proposed. The results showed that the formation stage and upward development stage of smoke are the best time for fire fighting and evacuation of operators, and the smoke has not diffused to the entire warehouse. And the operators should evacuate immediately when the smoke diffuses at the top. The operators are forbidden to enter the warehouse when the smoke fills the warehouse. The temperature of the warehouse below 1.5 meters does not reach the limit of the personnel endurance range between 10 seconds and 100 seconds. And due to the full combustion of the combustor, the temperature keeps rising, and the operators are facing the risk of burns in 100 seconds to 10 minutes.

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