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Volume 29,Issue 1,2021 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Analysis of Volatile Flavor Compounds in Corn under Different Treatments by GC-MS and GC-IMS
    SUN Jia-qing FENG Tao ZHANG Can ZHANG Kang-yi
    2021, 29(1):1-9.
    [Abstract](312) [HTML](0) [PDF 5.49 M](431)
    Corn was used as the research material, based on gas chromatography ion mobility spectroscopy (Gc-IMS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the odor fingerprints of corn were analyzed under 9 different treatments, including frying, steaming, boiling, quick freezing, precooling, freeze-drying, bleaching and dyeing, washing, and so on. The results showed that there were n-hexanal, 1-octen-3-ol, octanol, 2-pentylthiazole and other compounds in corn under all different treatment methods. The kinds of volatile organic compounds were the same, but the contents were different.
    2  Analysis of Volatile Flavor Compounds in Green Beans under Different Treatments by GC-MS and GC-IMS
    FENG Tao SUN Jia-qing ZHANG Can ZHANG Kang-yi
    2021, 29(1):10-19.
    [Abstract](216) [HTML](0) [PDF 6.22 M](362)
    Green beans was used as the research material, based on gas chromatography ion mobility spectroscopy (GC-IMS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the odor fingerprints of green beans were analyzed under 9 different treatments, including frying, steaming, boiling, quick freezing, precooling, freeze-drying, bleaching and dyeing, washing, and so on. The results showed that there were n-hexanal, 1-octen-3-ol, octanol, 2-pentylthiazole and other compounds in green beans under all different treatment methods. The kinds of volatile organic compounds were the same, but the contents were different.
    3  Analysis of Volatile Flavor Compounds in Green Wheat Kernel under Different Treatments by GC-MS and GC-IMS
    ZHANG Kang-yi SUN Jia-qing ZHANG Can FENG Tao
    2021, 29(1):20-30.
    [Abstract](216) [HTML](0) [PDF 5.00 M](344)
    Green wheat kernel was used as the research material, based on gas chromatography ion mobility spectroscopy(GC-IMS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the odor fingerprints of Green wheat kernel were analyzed under 9 different treatments, including frying, steaming, boiling, quick freezing, precooling, freeze-drying, bleaching and dyeing, washing, and so on. The results showed that there were n-hexanal, nonanal, benzaldehyde, 2-pentylthiazole and other compounds in Green wheat kernel under all different treatment methods. The kinds of volatile organic compounds were the same, but the contents were different.
    4  International Research Progress on Encapsulation and Release of Flavor Substances by Starch-based Wall Materials
    KONG Ling-yan ZHOU Jing-yi HU Zhong-shan FENG Tao
    2021, 29(1):31-40.
    [Abstract](246) [HTML](0) [PDF 705.96 K](332)
    The entrapment and release of flavor substances is a frontier topic in the field of food flavor research. This paper mainly reviews the research progress on the entrapment and release of flavor substances based on starch-based wall materials. Starch-based wall material refers to a kind of natural polymer material which uses starch or its derivatives to cover fat-soluble components through its hydrophobic cavity. This paper mainly focuses on the methods and classification of hydrolysis, physical modification and chemical modification of starch-based wall materials, molecular dynamics simulation of non-covalent interaction between starch and flavor substances, preparation and structural characterization of starch-based flavor microcapsules, starch-based flavor microcapsules release process, influencing factors, flavor release mechanism (diffusion, erosion, degradation, swelling, melting, etc.). And the application of starch-based flavor microcapsules was reviewed. In order to have a comprehensive understanding of the domestic and foreign research progress on the entrapment and release of flavor substances in starch-based wall materials, and provide certain theoretical and practical references for the development of starch-based flavor materials.
    5  Research Progress on Flavor Substances of Rice and Its Derivatives
    LIANG Yi ZHUANG Hai-ning FENG Tao YAO Ling-yun
    2021, 29(1):41-49.
    [Abstract](273) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.76 M](571)
    As the main grain product in China, the flavor and quality of rice have attracted much attention. Different varieties or different producing areas may give rice unique flavor. The current methods of extracting rice flavor compounds (SAFE, SDE, SPME, P&T, SFE, etc.) were compared. The mechanism of producing rice flavor substances was discussed. Different rice varieties, growth environment, storage conditions, amylose content, cooking method, soaking time and so on would affect rice flavor, but the relationship between volatile matter and aroma is still not clear. However, 2-AP is generally considered to be a marker to distinguish aromatic rice from non aromatic rice. At the same time, the flavor compounds, processing methods, production mechanism and other thing of some rice derived foods were also listed. It provides a certain reference and theoretical basis for the recovery and application of rice flavor substances.
    6  Suggestion of Special Legislation to Curb Food Waste
    QIANG Jun-jie
    2021, 29(1):50-54.
    [Abstract](196) [HTML](0) [PDF 387.07 K](421)
    With the rapid economic development, people’s living standards have been significantly improved, but the food waste caused by this is becoming more and more serious and has attracted widespread attention from all walks of life. Although our country’s current laws stipulate the content of “strict economy and oppose waste”, there are still problems such as scattered laws and regulations, no operability and pertinence, which leads to the problem of food waste. In order to fill the gaps and loopholes in the law, it is necessary to suggest to learn from the experience of extraterritorial legislation and make special legislation on food waste. By formulating comprehensive laws and regulations against food waste, effectively combat food waste and promote the healthy and orderly development of the food service industry.
    7  Research on Application of Potato Powder in Noodles
    LV Mei ZHAO Yue ZENG Wen-ying WANG Di XU Bo YAO Yan SONG Hui-min XUE You-lin
    2021, 29(1):55-61.
    [Abstract](185) [HTML](0) [PDF 12.11 M](555)
    In this study, the potato whole flour was added to wheat flour with wheat gluten was auxiliary added to make potato noodle. Three groups of the potato powder noodles with different total flour content were studied from three levels: texture characteristics, microstructure and physicochemical properties of noodles. It was found that the potato powder had a certain effect on the mechanical properties of dough, the formation and structure of gluten network, and the cooking parameters and appearance of noodles. The results showed that the overall index was the best when the total amount of the potato powder was 20% (g/g) and the amount of gluten was 0.03% (g/g). It was also found that the effect of the potato powder on dough was bidirectional. The effect of the potato starch on the dough was negative, but the polysaccharides and protein in the potato powder may have a positive effect on the dough and gluten network. At the same time, the addition of wheat gluten can improve the stability of dough and the quality of noodles.
    8  The Influence of Secondary Extrusion Process on The Quality of Instant Rice Noodle
    ZHANG Xing-can LIU Jian YANG Jian HUA Miao-miao REN Yuan-yuan WU Miao ZOU yu KANG Jian-ping
    2021, 29(1):62-70.
    [Abstract](160) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.31 M](360)
    In order to study the influence of the two-stage extrusion process on the quality of instant rice noodle, the key parameters of the two-stage extrusion process including: the first and second stage extruder barrel temperature, the first and second stage extruder screw speed, feeding speed, and the template hole diameter were taken as the single factor research objects, and the single factor experiment and response surface experiment were used to optimize them. The results show that the optimization of extrusion parameters can improve the quality of instant rice noodle in a certain range. The final optimization of the two-stage extrusion process parameters are as follows: the first stage extruder barrel temperature was 173 ℃, the second stage extruder barrel temperature was 39 ℃, the first stage extruder screw speed was 30 Hz, the second stage extruder screw speed was 20 Hz, the feeding speed was 11.8hz, and the template aperture was 0.7 mm. Under this condition, the instant rice noodle product is made with Strong fragrance and good comprehensive quality which can reach market product quality. This study can provide a reference for the continuous production of instant rice noodle.
    9  Extraction of Antioxidant Effective Components from Black Wheat Bran and Evaluation of its Antioxidant Capacity
    YU Zhang-long LIU Rui SONG Yu XIE Sa-ying CAI Yue SUN Yuan-lin GUO Yuan-yuan LIU Feng-juan
    2021, 29(1):71-76.
    [Abstract](183) [HTML](0) [PDF 592.84 K](357)
    Black wheat bran is by-products of the black wheat processing, which is rich in many physiological active substances, including anthocyanins, phenolic acids and dietary fiber. In this study, the antioxidant activity of black wheat bran was extracted with different solvents and its antioxidant capacity was evaluated. The results showed that the dry matter yield of 75% ethanol extract was the highest, which was 10.72%. The content of total phenol extracted by 50% ethanol extract was the highest, which was 2.9 mg/ 100 mL. The scavenging power of DPPH was the strongest in 50% ethanol extract, and the antioxidant extraction capacity of DPPH was the strongest in 75% ethanol extract. 75% acetone extract had the strongest scavenging effect on ABTS, and 75% methanol extract had the strongest antioxidant extraction effect on ABTS. Therefore, the antioxidant capacities of different solvent extracts are different, and the comprehensive comparison shows that 50% ethanol is more suitable for the extraction of antioxidant active components from black wheat bran.
    10  Research Progress on Factors Influencing the Stability of Grinding System of Mill
    GAO Yang-yang WU Wen-bin JIA Hua-po LI Meng-meng LIU Pei-kang HOU Ning-pei
    2021, 29(1):77-83.
    [Abstract](150) [HTML](0) [PDF 508.27 K](401)
    The grinding system is the main working part of the mill. Its running stability determines the grinding quality of the mill. Combined the research on the stability of the grinding system in domestic and foreign, this article analyzed the reasons that affect the stability of the grinding system from the aspects of the mill parts accuracy, processing parameters and assembly quality. Moreover, the influence mechanisms of each factor are clarified, and the corresponding solutions are put forward, which can provide reference for the research of grinding stability of the mill.
    11  Optimization of Soxhlet Extraction of Proso Millet Oil by Response Surface Methodology
    JIN Can LI Ke-hu Harold Corke JIANG Yan-miao
    2021, 29(1):84-90.
    [Abstract](185) [HTML](0) [PDF 3.40 M](364)
    In order to establish a fast and feasible extraction method of proso millet oil in laboratory, the current study determined the optimal Soxhlet extraction conditions by response surface test analysis, used petroleum ether as solvent. The results showed that all the three factors had significant effects on the extraction yield, and extraction temperature had the largest effect, followed by the ration and the extraction time. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: the ratio of petroleum ether to millet powder was 20 (mL/g), the extraction temperature was 80 ℃, and the extraction time was 30 min. This experiment is of great significance for the later studies on proso millet oil.
    12  Research on Enzymatic Degumming Process of Jatropha Crude Oil and Mechanism Analysis
    ZHAO Guang-hui SUN Shu-kun ZENG Qun-ying YANG Chun-ji MA Ke-cun
    2021, 29(1):91-95.
    [Abstract](162) [HTML](0) [PDF 466.89 K](269)
    Jatropha crude oil and compound phospholipase were used as raw material and degumming enzyme respectively, the enzymatic degumming process was studied by single factor test and orthogonal array test. The results showed that the optimal conditions were confirmed as follows: enzyme dosage, 50 μg/g; pH5.5; reaction temperature, 50 ℃, stirring speed, 350 r/min; reaction time, 2 h. The contents of phosphorus, metal, nitrogen and other trace impurities were significantly reduced in degumming oil, and the degumming effect was obvious. On the basis of test research, enzymatic degumming mechanism of crude oil was also analyzed.
    13  Effects of Particle Size and Gluten Content on Starch Digestibility of Noodles in Vitro
    XIE Fang DING Li HUANG Qiang ZHANG Bin WANG Gui-dan
    2021, 29(1):96-102.
    [Abstract](145) [HTML](0) [PDF 7.11 M](321)
    In order to study the effects of particle size and gluten content on the starch digestibility of noodles in vitro, 0%, 5% and 10% of gluten were added into wheat flour with different particle size to make Chinese noodles, and noodles with large and small particles were separated after drying and grinding. The morphology, structural thermal properties and in vitro starch digestion properties of noodle samples were investigated. The results showed that with the increase of gluten content in noodle samples, the surface smoothness and gelatinization temperatures were increased, while the enthalpy values were decreased, and the area of gluten network formed in the noodles after cooking were increased. The in vitro digestion kinetics results showed that the starch digestion extent was decreased with the decreasing of flour size or the increasing of gluten content.
    14  Effects of Malt Flour and Ascorbic Acid Additions on Bread Baking Quality
    CHANG Liu DUAN Xiao-liang HONG Yu XING Xiao-ting ZHOU Gui-ying SUN Hui
    2021, 29(1):103-109.
    [Abstract](235) [HTML](0) [PDF 619.28 K](430)
    To study the effect of malt flour and ascorbic acid addition on the quality of bread baking, the sensory score, texture and c-cell product image changes of the breads with malt flour and ascorbic acid addition were studied by using 29 representative samples from two major wheat producing provinces of henan and shandong. The results showed that, the volume, the volume score, the appearance score and the final comprehensive score of bread were significantly improved after the addition of malt flour and ascorbic acid. The bread crown became larger and the neck became more prominent; however, the color, texture and texture structure of bread scores changes were not obvious. In the analysis of texture, the hardness and toughness decreased significantly, the attenuation ratio did not change obviously. The slice area, slice circumference, cell number and cell density of bread increased significantly in the analysis of c-cell results. The slice brightness and cell diameter of the slices decreased significantly. There is a correlation between the instrument evaluation index and some parameters in the bread sensory evaluation.
    15  Effect of Walnut Protein on the Quality of Prepared Food
    LI Xiang-yang LIU Xiao-nan YIN Yan-lin ZUO Dong-ying MA jian-gang WANG Zhan-yong GUO An-min
    2021, 29(1):110-115.
    [Abstract](330) [HTML](0) [PDF 457.25 K](307)
    China is rich in walnut meal resources, the protein content of walnut meal is high, but it has not been fully utilized. Low fat food is in line with people’s health consumption concept, but it often has some problems such as high hardness, low moisture content, poor taste and flavor. Walnut protein was prepared from walnut meal by appropriate enzymatic hydrolysis technology, and the walnut protein was applied to the processing of prepared food to explore its influence on the quality of prepared food. The results showed that the walnut protein prepared by moderate enzymatic hydrolysis technology could significantly improve the quality and the cooked yield of prepared food. This study can provide technical support and theoretical basis for making full use of walnut meal resources and developing new low-fat conditioning food.
    16  Reserarch on the Formulation Process of Malt Chewable Tablets and Its Digestion Promoting Function
    GAO Ru-yi CAO Miao-miao GUO Xiao-li DENG Chen-chen HU Bao-ling LIU Wen-ying XU Ming-jun
    2021, 29(1):116-121.
    [Abstract](227) [HTML](0) [PDF 467.33 K](362)
    Study on the formulation process of malt chewable tablets and its digestion promoting function. Using a method combining orthogonal experiment and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation to study the formulation process of malt chewable tablets; using small intestine ink advance rate of mice, pepsin excretion of rats, and animal weight change as indicators to study the digestion promoting function of malt chewable tablets. The best formulas are as follows: citric acid is 2%, stevioside is 1%, microcrystalline cellulose is 40%, and magnesium stearate is 1%. 2.67 g/kg BW (body weight) of malt chewable tablets can improve the ink advancing rate of the small bowel movement experiment in mice (P<0.001), and the chewable tablets had no adverse effects on rat weight gain, food intake, and food utilization. Malt chewable tablets preparation process is stable and reliable, and the animal function experiments show that it has the function of promoting digestion.
    17  Research Progress of Isoquinoline Alkaloids against Liver Cancer Based on Network Pharmacology and Literature
    SUN Xing-qian CAI Jun-fei GAO Jia-ju PU Juan MA Yun-shu
    2021, 29(1):122-130.
    [Abstract](156) [HTML](0) [PDF 3.61 M](311)
    To explore the anti-hepatocellular mechanism of five kinds of isoquinoline alkaloids, with the help of TCMSP, string, venny database and WebGestalt online analysis software to obtain the target and perform protein interaction network (PPI), gene ontology (GO), gene interaction (KEGG) function enrichment analysis, and use Cytoscape software to construct the network. At the same time, berberine in proberberine, Tetrandrine in dibenzyl alkaloids, sanguinarine in Phenphenanthroline, sinomenine in morphine and lycopine in pyrrolidine were obtained by literature review, induction, sorting and analysis. According to the structural mechanism of action, the potential of each type of representative isoquinoline alkaloid in the treatment of liver cancer and the mechanism of anti-liver cancer were expounded. Five active ingredients were screened and 52 targets such as p53 (tumor suppressor gene), NCOA2 (nuclear receptor co-activator 2), IL-2 (interleukin 2) were obtained which mainly involved calcium ion signaling pathway, estrogen receptor signaling Pathways and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Through network pharmacology and literature collection, it is confirmed that isoquinoline alkaloids may be involved in the regulation of PI3K-Akt pathway, etc., and can have therapeutic effects on liver cancer through multiple targets and multiple pathways. This paper can provide reference and basis for further clinical research on the anti-liver cancer effect of isoquinoline alkaloids.
    18  Research on Anti-cancer and Anti-tumor Functional Components and Mechanism of Grape Seed Oil based on Network Pharmacology
    ZHANG Li-ming MA Ya-ge ZHANG Xi ZHAO Sheng-lan CHEN Chao-yin LIANG Zhong-xiong
    2021, 29(1):131-140.
    [Abstract](180) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.27 M](406)
    In this paper, information of the main active ingredients in grape seed oil and corresponding target proteins were obtained through literature search and TCMSP database, cancer and tumor-related targets were screened out from Genecards and OMIM databases and common targets for drugs and diseases were gained by the Venn online platform, “active ingredient-disease target” network diagram were constructed with Cytoscape 3.7.2 software, protein interaction (PPI) network were drawn by String database, GO (Gene Ontology) function enrichment and KEGG signal pathway analysis for key targets were performed by David database. Furthermore, the anti-cancer and anti-tumor functional components and mechanism of grape seed oil were further explored based on the method of network pharmacology. The results showed that a total of 15 active ingredients in grape seed oil were screened, 236 targets were obtained, 686 cancer and tumor-related targets were obtained from the disease database, and 93 common targets for drugs and diseases were obtained through the Venn diagram. PPI network analysis showed the key anti-cancer and anti-tumor targets of grape seed oil were signal transducer, transcription activator 3, mitogen-activated protein kinase 1, mitogen- activated protein kinase 3, and cell tumor antigen p53. GO functional analysis obtained 477 biological processes with P < 0.05, which were mainly involved in regulating biological functions such as enzyme binding, protein binding, transcription factor binding, protein heterodimerization activity, and DNA binding in the transcription regulatory region. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis obtained 113 pathways with P < 0.05, involving NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, p53 signaling pathway, ErbB signaling pathway, mTOR signaling pathway, VEGF signaling pathway, Wnt signaling pathway and other classic signaling pathways. The research predicted the anti-cancer and anti-tumor functional components, targets, biological processes and enrichment pathways of grape seed oil, revealed its mechanism of action, and provided references for further research on the anti-cancer effects of grape seed oil.
    19  Research on the Immunoregulatory Effect of Jujube Polysaccharide on Lymphocyte in Mice
    LI Feng-jiao LI Jing-shuang WANG Yi-lun JIN Xin LI Xian YU Yang
    2021, 29(1):141-147.
    [Abstract](166) [HTML](0) [PDF 500.73 K](278)
    To study the immunomodulatory effect of jujube polysaccharide on mouse lymphocytes. Mouse lymphocytes were sterile separated, cell suspension was prepared, and the blank group, the positive group (levamisole) and the jujube polysaccharide group with different mass concentrations (final concentrations of 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 living μg/ml) were designed. The effect of jujube polysaccharide on the proliferation of mouse lymphocytes was observed by MTT method. The effects of jujube polysaccharide on the levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interleukin-12 (IL-12) in the supernatant of mouse lymphocytes were observed by ELISA. The effect of jujube polysaccharide on the expression of IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12 mRNA in mouse lymphocytes was detected by QRT-PCR. Jujube polysaccharide could promote the proliferation of mouse lymphocytes and the secretion of cytokines in the range of 20-320 μg/ml, which further promoted the expression of cytokines IL-2 and IL-6, as well as IL-10 and IL-12 mRNA. Conclusion: jujube polysaccharide enhances immune function by inducing lymphocyte proliferation and the secretion and mRNA expression of lymphocyte cytokines IL-2 and IL-6, as well as IL-10 and IL-12.
    20  Research on the Quality Improvement of Bamboo Shoot Parfait
    WU Miao ZHANG Yu-rou ZHANG Xing-can LIU Jian YANG Jian HUA Miao-miao ZHONG Xue-ting LUO Shuang-shuang
    2021, 29(1):148-154.
    [Abstract](168) [HTML](0) [PDF 579.11 K](323)
    In order to improve the existing issues of bamboo shoot parfait such as the stiffness and lack of elasticity, taking sensory score as index, the effects of sodium bicarbonate, citric acid, single octylic acid glyceride, compound phosphate and sorbitol on the quality of bamboo shoots foam were studied by single factor test and orthogonal test. The experimental results showed that: When the addition of sodium bicarbonate, citric acid, monocaprylic glyceride, compound phosphate and sorbitol were at 0.15%, 0.02%, 0.04%, 0.4% and 0.3% respectively, the bamboo shoot parfait was soft and elastic, and the sensory score reached 96.21 points. On this basis, the texture properties of the bamboo shoots parfait can be compared with those of the market samples. The texture properties of the bamboo shoots parfait were measured as follows: hardness 94.2, elasticity 0.92, chewability 711.51, viscosity 90.23, adhesion 537.79, which were similar to the texture properties of the market products.
    21  Simultaneous Determination of 15 Mycotoxins in Grains by Solid Phase Extraction with Impurity Adsorption and UPLC/MSMS
    LIU Xiao-xiao DING Hui WU Fu-xiang MIAO Qian JI Liang-liang PENG Tao ZHANG Jing-jing
    2021, 29(1):155-167.
    [Abstract](163) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.46 M](298)
    To establish a method for the simultaneous determination of 15 mycotoxins in grains by ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MSMS). Samples were extracted by acidified acetonitrile solution, purified by impurity adsorption column prime HLB, and compensated for matrix effect interference by adding stable isotope internal standard. Phenomenon Kinetex Bipheny l100A column was used as separation column, gradient elution, UPLC-MS/MS for detection and internal standard method for quantification. The results showed that the linear correlation coefficient of 15 mycotoxins was greater than 0.996, the detection limit was 0.2-15 μg/kg, the quantitative limit was 0.8- 30 μg/kg, the recovery of three levels of three kinds of matrixes was 76.9%-116.1% and the RSD was 1.4%- 10%. The certified reference materials of corn matrix were The results from test and verification of corn matrix reference materials showed that the detection values of 8 mycotoxins were in the marked range. This method has been used to detect 135 batches of food sold in the market, 97 batches of samples were detected have mycotoxin with a detection rate of 71%, multi toxin simultaneous pollution was common. The method is simple, rapid and reliable, and can be used for the rapid and accurate detection of 15 mycotoxins in grains.
    22  Application of Automatic Graphite Digestion Method in Inspection of Total Arsenic in Grain Inspection
    HU Xue-chun REN Ling-yun WANG Li-juan JIN Zeng-wei WU Zhen-zhen ZHAO Ying WANG Rui-jie
    2021, 29(1):168-172.
    [Abstract](150) [HTML](0) [PDF 455.96 K](283)
    By testing the parameters of graphite digestion instrument, the effects of graphite digestion method and microwave digestion method on the determination of total arsenic in rice were analyzed and compared. The results showed that the RSD of rice standard sample digested by graphite digestion method was 5.25%~6.86%, and the relative error between the test result and the standard value was 5.66%~7.55%. The RSD of rice standard sample digested by microwave digestion method was 8.67%~12.26%, and the relative error was 17.96%~21.7%. The accuracy and precision of graphite digestion method are higher than that of microwave digestion method.
    23  Uncertainty Evaluation of Benzopyrene Determination in Foods by HPLC
    WANG Qiu LIU De-qun ZHOU Ming-lin JIANG Qi HE Hai-tong
    2021, 29(1):173-179.
    [Abstract](144) [HTML](0) [PDF 460.95 K](271)
    To assess the precision and accuracy of the benzopyrene detection method, uncertainty evaluation model was established by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Uncertainties in each components were analyzed in this paper, and the composed and expanded uncertainties of three different food samples (rice samples,smoked meat samples and edible vegetable oil samples) were measured. The results of the expanded uncertainties of rice samples, smoked meat samples and edible vegetable oil samples were all 0.5 mg/kg. The assessing results showed that calibration solution preparation had the most impact on all these three different food samples,and the relative composite uncertainty was 0.02326. Meanwhile, the uncertainty from electronic balance for edible vegetable oil samples was the highest among the three samples and the relative composite uncertainty was 0.010 21.
    24  The Application of Plant Essential Oil in Antifungal of Grain and Oil Food
    ZHANG Xin GENG Qing-he GUO Chao ZHANG Xiao-yao WANG Chao LIU Yan-li
    2021, 29(1):180-186.
    [Abstract](157) [HTML](0) [PDF 3.28 M](308)
    In the process of production, processing, storage and transportation, foods are easily infected by fungi and mycotoxins, which will not only affect the quality of food, but also harm people's health. Plant essential oils have been developed into different preparations (such as microcapsule, compound film, liposome, hydrogel, aerosol etc.) owing to their advantages of high speed of biological degradation in the environment and being safe to people and animals, which could be widely used in food preservation. The types of fungi and mycotoxins, antibacterial components of essential oil, and the development and application of essential oil preparation were discussed in this paper in order to provide the basis for further research, development and application of plant essential oil in food antifungal.
    25  Research on Determination Method and Influencing Factors of Porosity of Wheat Pile
    LI Qian-qian CHEN Xin BI Wen-ya JIANG Jun-yi SHI Tian-yu
    2021, 29(1):187-193.
    [Abstract](150) [HTML](0) [PDF 601.05 K](492)
    TSZ-6A strain-controlled triaxial apparatus was used to determine bulk density of wheat under different pressures and initial pressure porosity was tested by self-made porosity mete, the porosity values of samples under different varieties, water content and pressure were calculated according to the relationship between bulk density and porosity. The results showed that the porosity of wheat decreased with the increase of pressurewhich satisfied the power function relationship; The porosity of wheat increased with the increase of water content, which satisfied the quadratic function relationship; In a certain size range, varieties had no obvious effect on porosity.
    26  Research on Effect of Two Temperature-controlled Grain Storage Techniques on Quality Change of Northeast Japonica Rice
    ZHAO Xu CAO Yi DONG Mei LIN Zi-mu ZHAO Hai-bo LI Xin-wei LI Jia
    2021, 29(1):194-199.
    [Abstract](178) [HTML](0) [PDF 573.61 K](309)
    In this paper, two kinds of temperature control technology in grain storage including air conditioning and inner circulation were carried out in actual warehouse quality test of northeast japonica rice to analyzed the changes of grain condition, storage quality, cooking quality, texture quality and change of energy consumption. The results showed that both technologies can keep the warehouse temperature at 20 ℃~25 ℃ and the surface grain temperature was within 23 ℃, but air conditioning for controlling temperature effect was more obvious, and the inner circulation grain storage had better water retention effect, the moisture content of surface japonica rice decreased by only 0.2%, and the operating cost was lower; During storage, the moisture content, taste score value, pH value of rice soup, viscosity and elasticity of rice all showed a decreasing trend in two warehouse, and fatty acid value, water absorption and expansion rate of rice, rice hardness, conglutination and chewing were on the rise, in the process of storage, both kinds of grain storage technology can effectively delay the quality deterioration of japonica rice, ensure the safety of northeast japonica rice for summer and achieve the green storage with good quality.
    27  Discovering the Economic Development of Grain Industry from the Change of Granary
    YANG Hui-ming YIN Shao-dong
    2021, 29(1):200-203.
    [Abstract](170) [HTML](0) [PDF 387.29 K](326)
    Granary is one of the main elements of the economic development of grain industry. It reflects the development of grain industrial economy and reacts on the development of grain industrial economy. It is of great significance to introduce warehouse type, sort out the development process of China's granary in Qing, Han, Sui, Tang dynasties and modern history, and put forward suggestions on the current development of granary including strengthening ability of grain storage safety, boosting lead and support of science and technology, pushing on constitution of standards of warehouses, which is an urgent need to promote the economic development of grain industry and guarantee the national food security.
    28  Development, Problems and Suggestions of Chinese Military Staple Food
    GAO Kun TAN Bin WANG Li-ping TIAN Xiao-hong LIU Yan-xiang LIU Ming
    2021, 29(1):204-210.
    [Abstract](170) [HTML](0) [PDF 532.63 K](435)
    Military food is the essential logistic replenishment for the combat effectiveness of military, and the scientific intake of staple food products is very important for Chinese military diet. The development of Chinese military staple food industry was summarized in this thesis. We analyzed the problems existing in the staple food industry of Chinese military, such as the excessive grain processing, insufficient intake of staple foods and healthy whole grains, inadequate scientific publicity and education concerning health grain, etc. Some suggestions on the improvements of military staple food industry were further put forward, for example: strengthening the concept of healthy grain scientific diet, optimization of dietary pattern, moderate grain processing, increasing the proportion of healthy cereals intake, to enhance the physical fitness and combat effectiveness and reduce the incidence of chronic diseases of Chinese soldiers. The thesis suggested to strengthen scientific and technological innovation and promote the development of the food industry by greater civil-military integration, with a view to providing reference for solving the problems of military logistics support, promoting the better development of resident grain enterprises, and helping the transformation and upgrading of the food industry.

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