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Volume 28,Issue 6,2020 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Breeding of Japonica Rice for Good Taste in Hokkaido in Cold Zone of Japan(Online First, Recommended Article)
    Hisashi Tanno
    2020, 28(6):1-9.
    [Abstract](218) [HTML](0) [PDF 1018.16 K](387)
    Abstract:
    In the northernmost Japan, Hokkaido, there wasn’t a brand name of rice variety like “Koshihikari” for a long time, and its rice received poor evaluations for eating quality. Therefore, it has been 28 years since 1980 that Hokkaido Prefectural (current Hokkaido Research Organization) Experiment Station started a project of rapid research on the good eating varieties good eating variety of Japonica rice. In this project, In order to achieve the goal of rapid research and development, the breeding years were successfully shortened by generation promotion cultivation method and another culture method; By expanding the breeding scale, and using the internal and external effective genes such as good taste and cold tolerance, the varieties with good taste and early cold tolerance were bred. To select good eating strain effectively, the analysis of rice protein content, especially amylose content were performed in early generation, after that estimating by eating a small amount of rice cooking were used. As a result, on introduction of gene for good eating quality, firstly, accumulating good eating quality genes of Hokkaido varieties was used in breeding of “Yukihikari”. In the next, good eating quality of “Koshihikari” and “Akitakomachi” of Tohoku and south area variety were introduced to “Flash 397” and “Hoshinoyume” respectively. Amylose content of those new varieties was lower 2% than 22% of old variety. Moreover good eating quality of “Kokuhorose” of USA variety was introduced to “Nanatsuboshi”, and amylose content reduced another 1% in its variety. After that, using low-amylose variant “Hokkai 287” induced by culture as parent, “Yumepirika” with amylose content of 15%~16% was bred which had excellent stickiness, softness and good eating quality as same as “Koshihikri”.
    2  Breeding for Good Eating Non-glutinous Rice in Cold Region of Hokkaido in Japan (Japanese text)(Online First, Recommended Article)
    Hisashi Tanno
    2020, 28(6):10-19.
    [Abstract](186) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.04 M](401)
    Abstract:
    In the northernmost Japan, Hokkaido, there wasn’t a brand name of rice variety like “Koshihikari” before, and its rice received poor evaluations for eating quality. Therefore Hokkaido Prefectural (current Hokkaido Research Organization) Experiment Station started a project from 1980 for twenty eight years to breed good eating variety quickly. In its project, to shorten development period, accelerated generation advance and anther culture were used. Using resources of good eating quality and cool weather resistance and so on inside and outside of the country effectively, in order to develop variety with good eating quality, cool weather resistance and early maturity all, number of breeding materials were increased. To select good eating strain effectively, amylose content in particular and protein content in early generation, and after that generation estimating by eating a small amount of rice cooking were used. As a result, on introduction of gene for good eating quality, at first accumulating good eating quality genes of Hokkaido varieties was used in breeding of “Yukihikari”. In the next, good eating quality of “Koshihikari” and “Akitakomachi” of Tohoku and south area variety were introduced to “Kirara 397” and “Hoshinoyume” respectively. Amylose content of those new varieties was lower 2% than 22% of old variety. Moreover good eating quality of “Kokuhorose” of USA variety was introduced to “Nanatsuboshi”, and amylose content reduced 1% in its variety. After that, using low-amylose variant “Hokkai 287” induced by culture as parent, “ Yumepirika” with amylose content of 15%~16% was bred, and had excellent stickiness, softness and good eating quality as same as “Koshihikri”.
    3  Breeding Research for Good Appearance Quality of Non-glutinous Rice Grain in Cold Region of Hokkaido in Japan(Online First, Recommended Article)
    Hisashi Tanno Tohru Yoshimura Masafumi Kinoshita
    2020, 28(6):20-28.
    [Abstract](192) [HTML](0) [PDF 944.59 K](398)
    Abstract:
    In Hokkaido, improving appearance quality of non-glutinous rice grain nearly up to those of varieties in the area south of Tohoku district has been the important breeding objective for a long time. For decreasing immature grain such as milky white and white-belly rice so on, increasing whole grain and heightening the whiteness of brown and of milled rice, selections mainly by visual estimation have been used up to the present time. The results was that, in the new and old varieties cultivated after 1903, with the renewal of breeding year, the whole grains were become more and more, and the immature grains, damaged grains and colored grains gradually decreased. In particular, genetically “Yukara” bred in 1961 had extremely more whole grains comparing to varieties bred in, before or the same age. From the pedigree, its excellent characteristics were inherited by many rice varieties bred after “Yukara” with good quality and good taste. The main varieties bred in 1984 and after had rather less whole grain, and had rather more immature kernel than the main brand-name varieties in the area south of Tohoku district. Varieties bred before 1971 had many white-belly rice so on, and in new and old varieties bred lately didn’t have higher whiteness of brown and milled rice. In varieties bred in 1971 and after, varieties bred lately, however, had higher the whiteness of brown and of milled rice, and negative correlation was found between protein content and the whiteness of brown and of milled rice. Although the present main varieties of Hokkaido had lower whiteness of brown rice comparing to main brand-name varieties in the area south of Tohoku district, those varieties of Hokkaido had the same whiteness of milled rice, the same transparency of brown rice, the same transparency of milled rice, and the same whiteness of brown rice especially with only whole grain. Although the present main varieties of Hokkaido had rather more immature kernel and rather less whole grain comparing to main brand-name varieties in the area south of Tohoku district, in grain appearance quality there weren’t clear differences between those varieties of Hokkaido and of the area south of Tohoku district.
    4  Breeding for Good Appearance Quality of Non-glutinous Rice Grain in Cold Region of Hokkaido in Japan (Japanese text)(Online First, Recommended Article)
    Hisashi Tanno Tohru Yoshimura Masafumi Kinoshita
    2020, 28(6):29-37.
    [Abstract](171) [HTML](0) [PDF 989.52 K](309)
    Abstract:
    In Hokkaido, improving appearance quality of non-glutinous rice grain nearly up to those of varieties in the area south of Tohoku district has been the important breeding objective for a long time. For decreasing immature grain such as milky white and white-belly rice so on, increasing whole grain and heightening the whiteness of brown and of milled rice, selections mainly by visual estimation have been used up to the present time. In new and old varieties bred in 1903 and after, the varieties bred lately had more whole grain, and less immature grain, less damaged grain and less colored grain. Genetically “Yukara” bred in 1961 had extremely more whole grains comparing to varieties bred in before or the same age. On their pedigree record the main varieties bred after “Yukara” with good eating and good appearance quality of grain inherited the good appearance quality from “Yukara”. The main varieties bred in 1984 and after had rather less whole grain, and had rather more immature kernel than the main brand-name varieties in the area south of Tohoku district. Varieties bred before 1971 had many white-belly rice so on, and in new and old varieties varieties bred lately didn’t have higher whiteness of brown and milled rice. In varieties bred in 1971 and after, varieties bred lately, however, had higher the whiteness of brown and of milled rice, and negative correlation was found between protein content and the whiteness of brown and of milled rice. Although the present main varieties of Hokkaido had lower whiteness of brown rice comparing to main brand-name varieties in the area south of Tohoku district, those varieties of Hokkaido had the same whiteness of milled rice, the same transparency of brown rice, the same transparency of milled rice, and the same whiteness of brown rice especially with only whole grain. Although the present main varieties of Hokkaido had rather more immature kernel and rather less whole grain comparing to main brand-name varieties in the area south of Tohoku district, in grain appearance quality there weren’t clear differences between those varieties of Hokkaido and of the area south of Tohoku district.
    5  Cultivation Techniques of Nonglutinous Rice for Suppressing the Occurrence of White Immature Kernel in Cold Region of Hokkaido in Japan(Online First, Recommended Article)
    Hisashi Tanno
    2020, 28(6):38-46.
    [Abstract](198) [HTML](0) [PDF 3.53 M](366)
    Abstract:
    The increase of white immature kernel decrease the percentage of whole grain and lower the inspection grade. In the occurrence rate of white immature kernel, especially in those of milky white rice kernel and in immature base rice kernel, differences among varieties were found. Number of white immature kernel were increased by decreasing quantity of photosynthesis treated with defoliation of flag leaf. Poor panicle uniformity results from abnormal heading in early stage caused by high temperature in sparse planting and seedling raising, and delay in harvesting time etc., All of this will cause the increase of white immature grains. In addition, lodging will lead to the increase of green and white immature grains. Under the condition of good growth at the initial stage, deep water irrigation from tillering stage inhibited the production of excess tillers, increased grain weight and brown rice yield, and improved the quality of brown rice. Because the soil in mature stage is too dry, the decrease of quality and 1000 grain weight caused by the production of abdominal white grains will lead to the decrease of yield. Number of these white immature kernels were decreased by increasing the amount of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) translocated from rice shoot to rough rice(per rough rice) during the period from heading to 10 days after full heading time and by increasing the amount of NSC (per rough rice) that is subtracting grain yield of crude brown rice from its translocated NSC. In order to decrease the number of white immature kernels, the amount of fertilizer application, planting density, temperature in rearing seedling house, time of transplanting, soil moisture during grain filling period and time of harvesting are needed to be in proper, and increasing initial growth are necessary. The large numbers of tiller is controlled by deep-flood irrigation from initial growth. Addition to those improved cultivation method, using color-sorting machine in the common drying and storage facilities after the mid-1990 s, the proportion of first-class rice in Hokkaido exceeded the national average level in Japan.
    6  Cultivation Techniques of Nonglutinous Rice for Suppressing the Occurrance of White Immature Kernel in Cold Region of Hokkaido in Japan (Japanese text)(Online First, Recommended Article)
    Hisashi Tanno
    2020, 28(6):47-56.
    [Abstract](164) [HTML](0) [PDF 3.61 M](330)
    Abstract:
    The increase of white immature kernel decrease the percentage of whole grain and lower the inspection grade. In the percentage of white immature kernel, especially in those of milky white rice kernel and in immature base rice kernel, varietal differences were found. Moreover number of white immature kernel were increased by decreasing quantity of photosynthesis treated with defoliation of flag leaf, additional nitrogen topdressing and increasing number of rough rice by it, decreasing the synchrony of heading with sparse planting and with early abnormal heading induced by high temperature in rearing seedling house, and delay in harvesting time. Lodging increased number of green and white immature kernel. In the case of good initial growth, deep-flood irrigation from initial growth increased kernel weight and grain yield, and heightened grain quality by suppressing large numbers of tiller. Shortage of soil moisture during grain filling period lowered grain quality by increasing white-belly rice, and decreased grain yield by reducing kernel weight. Number of these white immature kernels were decreased by increasing the amount of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) translocated from rice shoot to rough rice(per rough rice) during the period from heading to 10 days after full heading time and by increasing the amount of NSC (per rough rice) that is subtracting grain yield of crude brown rice from its translocated NSC. In order to decrease the number of white immature kernels, the amount of fertilizer application, planting density, temperature in rearing seedling house, time of transplanting, soil moisture during grain filling period and time of harvesting are needed to be in proper, and increasing initial growth are necessary. the large numbers of tiller is controlled by deep-flood irrigation from initial growth. Addition to those cultivation method, using color-sorting machine at rice terminal since the last half of 1990 s, first-class rice was able to be processed, the percentage of first-class rice in Hokkaido was over that of all Japan.
    7  Differences and Influencing Factors of Protein and Amylose Content in Rice from Different Years and Areas in Cold Region, Hokkaido in Japan(Online First, Recommended Article)
    Hisashi Tanno
    2020, 28(6):57-65.
    [Abstract](217) [HTML](0) [PDF 994.27 K](362)
    Abstract:
    The lower the protein and amylose contents, the better was the eating quality of non-glutinous rice. The protein content (PC) and amylose content (AC) of rice in 15 planting areas of Hokkaido from 1991 to 2006 were analyzed. The average variation range of protein content was 7.2%-8.6% (7.2%-8.2%) in all planting areas (all years), and the average range of amylose content was 18.3%-22.2% (19.8%- 21.2%). The annual variation of protein and amylose content was 1.4 and 2.8 times of that between planting areas, respectively. This was because the range of the yearly variation in the average temperature and growth characteristics like grain yield during rice cultivation season and some growth stages was 1.6-4.4 times larger than that of regional variation. During the 16 years, the earlier the heading date was, the higher the temperature at the freezing injury sensitive stage of sterile rice seedlings, the lower the sterility, the heavier the 1000-kernel-weight; the higher the grain yield, and the lower the PC.Within 40 days after heading, the daily average temperature reached 843 ℃, and the PC were lowest in the quadratic regression equation. Those relationships wasn’t clear in the area where has high wind speed during tillering, low available rate of soil nitrogen and poor initial growth, on the contrary, between PC and 1000-kernel-weight, a positive relationship was found. The regional variation of PC did not correlate with these growth characteristics, but the lower the ratio of peat soil in the paddy field and the lower the wind speed during tillering, the lower was the PC. On the other hand among both years and regions the earlier the heading date, the higher the CTAH, the lower was the AC. Among areas, the shorter distance from the sea, the lower north latitude and the smaller mean diurnal temperature range during 40 days after heading, the lower was the AC.
    8  Variation of the Protein and Amylose Contents Among Years and Among Regions in Nonglutinous Rice, and Its Occurrence Factors in Cold Region of Hokkaido in Japan (Japanese text)(Online First, Recommended Article)
    Hisashi Tanno
    2020, 28(6):66-74.
    [Abstract](162) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.06 M](315)
    Abstract:
    The higher was the protein content, the lower was the amylose content, and the better was the eating quality of nonglutinous rice. In 1991—2006, the protein content (PC) and amylose content (AC) were examined in 15 areas of Hokkaido. The range of the yearly (regional) variation on the average of all areas (years) was 7.2%~8.6% (7.2%~8.2%) in PC, and 18.3%~22.2% (19.8%~21.2%) in AC. That range of the yearly variation in those AC, PC was 1.4, 2.8 times respectively, larger than that of regional variation. That was because the range of the yearly variation in the mean temperature during rice cultivation season, during of some growth stages and growth characteristics like grain yield was 1.6~4.4 times, larger than that of regional variation. Among years, the earlier the heading date, the higher the temperature during the sensitive stage to stelile-type cool injury; the lower the sterility, the heavier the 1 000-kernel-weight; and, the higher the grain yield, the lower was the PC. At 843 ℃ of the cumulative daily mean temperature during 40 days after heading (CTAH), the PC were lowest in the quadratic regression relationship. Those relationships wasn’ t clear in the area where is high wind speed during tillering, low available rate of soil nitrogen and poor initial growth, on the contrary, between PC and 1 000-kernel-weight a positive relationship was found. The regional variation of PC did not correlate with these growth characteristics, but the lower the ratio of peat soil in the paddy field and the lower the wind speed during tillering, the lower was the PC. On the other hand among both years and regions the earlier the heading date, the higher the CTAH, the lower was the AC. Among areas, the shorter distance from the sea, the lower north latitude and the smaller mean diurnal temperature range during 40 days after heading, the lower was the AC.
    9  Variation and Its Occurrence Factors of the Appearance Quality of Nonglutinous Rice Grains Among Years and Among Regions, in Cold Region, Hokkaido in Japan(Online First, Recommended Article)
    Hisashi Tanno
    2020, 28(6):75-85.
    [Abstract](187) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.96 M](321)
    Abstract:
    Appearance quality of rice grains, including percentages of whole, immature, damaged, colored and opaque grain, and whiteness of brown, milled rice were examined in 15 areas of Hokkaido during 1999—2006 (6~8 years). The range of the yearly variation in those appearance qualities was 1.5~6.4 times larger than that of regional variation. That was because the annual difference of average temperature and mature temperature (40 days after heading) in sensitive stage to stelile-type cool injury (SSC, 24 days before heading and 30 days after heading) is 3.0~3.7 times larger than that of regional difference, while the rate of non seed setting, the growth characteristics of 1000 grain weight and brown rice yield and the protein content of rice are 1.4~3.3 times higher than that of regional difference. Among years, the heavier the 1 000 grain weight, the higher the whole grain ratio, and the higher the whole grain ratio, the lower the protein content due to high yield. In addition, the higher the temperature in SSC, the lower the rate of non seed setting, the lower the protein content, and the higher the CSTH, the higher the whiteness of brown rice and milled rice. There was a positive correlation between the ratio of damaged grain and colored grain. The higher the CTAH was, the lower the ratio was before the CTAH reached 890 ℃ and 850 ℃. Moreover, the ratio of immature grains was the lowest at 808 ℃ and showed a quadratic correlation, especially the effect of the second half of 40 days is greater than that of the first half. The lack of sunshine also makes the immature grains more frequent, too. Among regions, although these relationships are still unclear compared with those among years, the ratio of dead rice trends to increase in areas with low gray soil ratio and high peat soil ratio. At the present, these cultivation techniques that can improve the appearance quality of rice grains are gradually developed, further are popularized and guided by farmers. At the present cultivation techniqures that improve those appearance quality of rice grains have been developed and have disseminated to farmers.
    10  Variation of the Appearance Quality of Nonglutinous Rice Grains Among Years and Among Regions, and Its Occurrence Factors in Cold Region, Hokkaido in Japan (Japanese text)(Online First, Recommended Article)
    Hisashi Tanno
    2020, 28(6):86-96.
    [Abstract](167) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.87 M](357)
    Abstract:
    In 1999—2006(6~8 years), appearance quality of rice grains, namely percentages of whole, immature, damaged, colored and opaque grain, and whiteness of brown, milled rice were examined in 15 areas of Hokkaido. The range of the yearly variation in those appearance qualities was 1.5-6.4 times respectively, larger than that of regional variation. That was because the range of the yearly variation in the mean temperature during of some growth stages such as both the temperature during the sensitive stage to stelile-type cool injury (TSSC) and the cumulative daily mean temperature during 40 days after heading (CTAH) and in growth characteristics like grain yield and protein content (PC) was 3.0-3.7, 1.4-3.3 times, larger than that of regional variation. Among years, the lower the sterility, the heavier the 1000-kernel-weight; the higher was the percentage of whole grain. Higher the percentage of whole grain, the higher the grain yield; the lower was the PC. The higher the TSSC, lower the sterility, the lower the PC; the higher the CTSH, the higher the whiteness of brown rice, the higher was the whiteness of milled rice. Moreover between the percentages of both damaged and colored grains a positive correlation was found, and the higher the CTAH to 890, 850 ℃ respectively, those percentages were the lower. At 808 ℃of the cumulative daily mean temperature during CTAH, the percentage of immature grains were lowest in the quadratic regression relationship, and the latter half of CTAH affected greater on percentage of immature grain than the first half of it. Poor sunshine increased number of immature grains, too. The regional variation of appearance quality of rice grains did not correlate with these growth characteristics, but the lower the ratio of peat soil in the paddy field, the higher the ratio of gray lowland siol, the lower was the percentage of opaque grains. At the present cultivation techniqures that improve those appearance quality of rice grains have been developed and have disseminated to farmers.
    11  Effect of Bt Transgenic Rice on the Growth and Development of Indian Meal Moth, Plodia interpunctella during Storage (Hübner)(Online First, Recommended Article)
    WU Xue-you CHEN Er-hu WANG Kang-xu TANG Pei-an
    2020, 28(6):97-103.
    [Abstract](221) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.60 M](395)
    Abstract:
    The effects of transgenic Cry1Ab/Cry1Ac rice (Huahui 1) and its original parent (Minghui 63) the on the growth and development of indian meal moth during storage were studied. The results showed that, transgenic rice with Cry1Ab/Cry1Ac gene has a strong lethal effect on the youth larvae (1st to 3rd instars). Temperature has a significant effect on the development duration and speed of each stage of indian meal moth, and the development period was significantly prolonged after being fed with 2% transgenic brown rice meal. The nonlinear model of temperature-dependent developmental rate showed that the developmental threshold temperature of indian meal moth was 7.40 ℃ to 15.94 ℃, while those fed with 2% transgenic brown rice meal was 4.90 ℃ to 17.36 ℃. Our research can deepen the understanding of ecological safety of Bt transgenic rice in theory, and provide theoretical support for scientific development and utilization of Bt transgenic rice in practice.
    12  Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of the Indian Meal Moth Fed with Transgenic Cry1Ab/Cry1Ac Rice Powder(Online First, Recommended Article)
    TANG Pei-an TAO Ye-xin WANG Kang-xu WU Xue-you CHEN Er-hu
    2020, 28(6):104-110.
    [Abstract](237) [HTML](0) [PDF 3.85 M](411)
    Abstract:
    The Cry1Ab/Cry1Ac transgenic crops can effectively control pests. In the present study, the world-wide distribute pest, Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella (Hübener), was taken as the research object. The genes closely related to Bt toxin protein were sequenced using a high-throughput sequencing to reveal the insecticidal mechanism of Bt transgenic rice. The results showed that the de novo assembly generated a total of 37,246 unigenes among of which 23,310 unigenes could be annotated after the transcriptome sequencing was performed on the non stressed population and Bt transgenic rice meal stressed population of Indian rice borer, respectively. Then, 34,466 significantly differentially expressed genes including 15,741 up-regulated genes and 18,725 down-regulated genes were determined by the Reads Per kb per Million reads (RPKM) method. Our database provides powerful tools for transcriptome analysis of P. interpunctella and further understanding of the molecular basis of Bt related mechanisms in P. interpunctella.
    13  Degradation of Bt Protein in Stored Transgenic Rice and its Effect on the Activity of Three Protective Enzymes in Indian Meal Moth, Plodia interpunctella(Hübner)(Online First, Recommended Article)
    WANG Kang-xu WU Xue-you TAO Ye-xin CHEN Er-hu TANG Pei-an
    2020, 28(6):111-117.
    [Abstract](281) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.58 M](429)
    Abstract:
    Transgenic cry1Ab/cry1Ac rice (Huahui 1) is able to control the stored pest Plodia interpunctella. Our previous study confirmed that the enzymatic activities of three major antioxidases, including POD, CAT, and SOD, could be significantly changed after short-term stressed with these Bt containing rice. This study focused on the characteristics of rice during storage, the results showed that the Bt protein content in rice husk and brown rice was 5.534 μg/g and 1.003 μg/g respectively, and after 270 days at 25 ℃, the degradation rate was 67.3% and 27.7%, respectively. Moreover, the enzymatic activities of three antioxidases in P. interpunctella long-term fed with transgenic cry1Ab/cry1Ac rice powder would be addressed by enzymatic detection assays. Our data showed that the SOD activities could be significantly inhibited by the Bt containing rice after fed with Bt-rice powder for 12 days or 5 months, However, the enzymatic activities of POD and CAT significantly increase with the concentrations of Bt toxins. In addition, the change trend of protective enzyme activity in the Indian Meal Moth fed with transgenic rice flour for 5 months was consistent with that after 12 days of feeding. Our researches find that there are differences in the trend of increase and decrease of the three major protective enzymes after fed with Bt containing rice powder for a long time, which indicates that the expression mechanisms of the three protective enzymes might be different. Our results provide a theoretical basis for the study of toxicology and related resistance mechanism of transgenic Bt crops.
    14  Application of Block-chain Technology in Grain Quality Traceability System(Online First, Recommended Article)
    LI Yan-yu CHANG Qing YUAN Jiang-hao ZHAO Hui-yi SUN Kai-yuan TENG Shyh-wei
    2020, 28(6):118-123.
    [Abstract](215) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.05 M](580)
    Abstract:
    Grain safety is of fundamental importance for the whole society. The traditional methods cannot fulfil the requirements of whole grain chain traceability. Also it is hard to combine with the modern technological developments. In view of the two bottlenecks, and based on the analysis of the application and research status of block chain technology in grain industry, the characteristics of block chain technology, such as “decentralization”, “timestamp” and “unchangeable”, and the differences between block-chain traceability mode and traditional traceability mode, this article proposed the application scenarios of block chain technology in the construction of grain traceability system, summarized the development trend of block chain technology innovation, and put forward the key issues that should be paid attention to.
    15  Sufuryl Fluoride Concentration Change and Killing Effect on Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) in Stored Wheat Warehouse Applied in Several Points and Recirculation(Online First, Recommended Article)
    WANG Hai-peng WEI Lei YANG Xu LI Yan-yu
    2020, 28(6):124-129.
    [Abstract](232) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.56 M](353)
    Abstract:
    5G technology and its potential to ‘revolutionize’ the industry are of interest to grain industry and researchers. To meet this ‘step change’, it is necessary to understand the compatibility of grain industrial chains with 5G and how 5G technology might change the industry. We conducted a discourse analysis of advantages of 5G in grain industry. Two main discourse were identified: (1) 5G as a technology that will significantly improve the efficiency of the grain industry systems, and similarly (2) 5G as a way for every participant to benefit. It provides quality service. We relate these findings and the literature on adoption of information technology in grain industry and the potential of grain participants to embrace 5G technology, highlighting key questions and issues that need to be addressed in further development of 5G technology in grain industry. This is the first study of 5G in grain industry that use discourse analysis to examine the whole grain industry system and thus make better progress in the application of 5G technology.
    16  A Grain Sampling Work Management Technology and Pattern Based on GIS and Cloud Platform(Online First, Recommended Article)
    HE Ming-tao WANG Li-dan XING Yong QIN Wen ZHANG Ying
    2020, 28(6):130-133.
    [Abstract](197) [HTML](0) [PDF 676.88 K](327)
    Abstract:
    Grain and oil quality sampling is an important work in grain trading, storage and processing. To reserve the process sample and test the quality have important sense to guarantee fair trade and control grain quality in grain storage and processing. To resolve the problem in field grain quality sampling such as lack of regional representation, process fraud and difficulty in grassroots organization building, a field grain quality sampling management mode and relative techniques based on GIS and cloud platform was provided in this article. It not only standardized the sampling process, but also realized a real-time recording and monitoring of sampling process, ensured a fair and just sample testing process, reduced fraud in the process. The sampling and testing result can be easily handled in a visible and direct way. The management style of platform rental can solve the problem of construction fund and technicians shortages at the grassroots level.
    17  Analysis on the Influence of Implementation of China Good Grain and Oil-Wheat Standard on the Development of High-Quality Wheat in Shandong Province(Online First, Recommended Article)
    WANG Rui-jie ZHAO Ying LI Zhen-hua WANG Xue-yan YOU Zhi-qiang WANG Hong-yao SUN Xue-yuan
    2020, 28(6):134-139.
    [Abstract](205) [HTML](0) [PDF 543.89 K](350)
    Abstract:
    Since the national industrial standard LS/T 3109—2017 China good grain and oil - wheat was issued and implemented, there has been a new standard for rating high quality wheat. The main feature for this standard is to add variety consistency and food grading as the ranking indicator for high quality wheat. According to requirements of the standard, the quality indexes of newly harvested wheat samples in Shandong province were tested and analyzed including 81 samples from 2018 and 83 samples from 2019. The results showed that the compliance rate of new wheat varieties increased nearly 6 times and the high-quality rate increased nearly 8 times within two years. These data show that with the extension of the standard implementation time, its leading role in high-quality wheat planting has become increasingly prominent.
    18  Research Progress on the Nutritional Value and Processing Technology of Brown Rice
    LV Cheng-yu YUE Yu-lan WANG Zheng LI Zhuo-lin LI Tie-zhu HU Ji-mei
    2020, 28(6):140-144.
    [Abstract](299) [HTML](0) [PDF 472.81 K](575)
    Abstract:
    Compared with white rice, brown rice retains the nutritional value of rice better. Hower, due to the phytate, cellulose and other substances contained in the bran layer of brown rice, it has a rough taste and poor cooking, which restricts the development of brown rice food. Some studies have shown that modern food processing technology can not only effectively improve the rough taste and poor cooking of brown rice, but also improve the nutritional value of its products and promote human digestion and absorption. This article summarizes the research progress on the nutritional value of brown rice and processing technology, in order to provide a certain reference for the comprehensive utilization of brown rice.
    19  Research on the Relationships between the Aroma of Sachima and the Contents of Egg(Online First, Recommended Article)
    YANG Ping YOU Meng-chen SONG Huan-lu
    2020, 28(6):145-151.
    [Abstract](171) [HTML](0) [PDF 562.32 K](433)
    Abstract:
    The Sachima samples with different egg contents (0%, 10%, 20% and 30%) were prepared in order to explore the contributions of egg content to aroma of Saqima. The aroma compounds were determined by solid phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-olfactory-mass spectrometry. The results were as follows: Alcohols, aldehydes and heterocyclic compounds were the main aroma components in Saqima. The content of alcohols and aldehydes decreased with the increase of egg content. On the contrary, heterocyclic compounds, especially pyrazines, showed an obvious increase tendency with the increase of egg content. The content of ketones did not change too much. In addition, eleven compounds can be detected in the Sachima with egg addtion, including 2-methylbutyraldehyde, 3-methylbutyraldehyde, 6-methyl-5-heptene- 2-one, 5-methyl-2-ethylpyrazine, 2-vinyl pyrazine, 1,4-dimethylpyrazole, furfuryl alcohol, 2-acetylpyrrole, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2,6-dimethylpyrazine and 3,5-dimethyl-2-ethylpyrazine. 2-Methylbutyraldehyde and 3-methylbutyraldehydewere detected in the Saqima with 20% and 30% egg respectively. Therefore, the content of egg plays an important role in the overall aroma of Saqima.
    20  Research on the Effect of Vacuum Dough Kneading on the Quality of Noodles with Whole Potato Flour
    DU Hong YANG Jian ZHANG Xing-can HUA Miao-miao ZHANG Yi KANG Jian-ping
    2020, 28(6):152-157.
    [Abstract](228) [HTML](0) [PDF 586.56 K](345)
    Abstract:
    Whole potato flour has high nutritional value, but it is limited in the processing of vermicelli because it cannot form a good gluten structure. In this study, single factor test and double factor test were used to optimize the vacuum and noodles process of whole potato flour noodle. The results showed that the water content had the greatest influence on the overall quality of whole potato flour, followed by the mixing time, the vacuum degree and rotation speed had little influence. The optimum parameters are 36% water addition, 12 minutes mixing time, 0.06 MPa vacuum degree and 60 R/min rotating speed. It provides practical data support for further industrial production of high proportion potato noodle products.
    21  Analysis of Common Problems and Counter-measures in the Processing of Dried Rice Noodles
    HUANG Wei-an MENG Yi CHEN Lei WEI Xiao-ming HUANG Kun-ying TENG Guang
    2020, 28(6):158-165.
    [Abstract](623) [HTML](0) [PDF 488.25 K](667)
    Abstract:
    To solve some common problems, such as uneven color, half-cooked rice, coarse bubbles, adhesion, breaking, high water content, molds, low yields, etc in the processing of dry rice flour, the reason summary analysis was carried out from the raw materials and processing technique. Meanwhile, some solutions are put forth according to the present author’s experience in production practice. For example: Investment in science and technology should be increased to promote automation, intelligence, modernization, scale and standardization of equipment and technology, thereby promoting the studies and application of new craftwork, new technology, and new equipment. At the same time, new products and new consumption patterns will be created, thus enlarging consumption and increasing economic benefits.
    22  Research on Memory Improvement Function of Walnut Based on Network Pharmacology(Online First, Recommended Article)
    LV Hong-lin XU Cheng-mei CHEN Dan MA Ya-ge CHEN Chao-yin ZHAO Sheng-lan
    2020, 28(6):166-173.
    [Abstract](251) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.70 M](418)
    Abstract:
    Based on network pharmacology to study the mechanism of walnut in improving memory, the TCMSP database was used to screen the active ingredients and corresponding targets of walnuts, Geencard and OMIM were used to find memory-related targets, and the “active ingredients-target” association network was constructed through Cytoscape 3.7.1 software, and GO biological function enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis were carried out for key targets. The active ingredients and targets of walnut analyzed by network pharmacology were verified by molecular docking. Walnut improves memory mainly through 8 active ingredients such as ellagic acid, galloyl glucose, juglone, etc. by the regulation on the targets including PTGS2, PRKCA, PRKCB etc and signaling pathways including vascular endothelial growth factor, NF-κB and MAPK pathway. Molecular docking showed that the active ingredients of walnuts, ellagic acid and galloyl glucose, have strong binding with targets such as PRKCA and PRKCB. This experiment provides a theoretical basis for the development of functional products of walnut improving memory.
    23  Research on the Relationship between Dietary Fructose and Dyslipidemia in Chinese Residents Aged 45 and Above
    PANG Shao-jie QI Wen-tao SONG Peng-kun YANG Chun WANG Yong SONG Ge ZHANG Jian
    2020, 28(6):174-181.
    [Abstract](203) [HTML](0) [PDF 959.03 K](394)
    Abstract:
    Using the data of China National Nutrition and Health Survey, we explored the relationship between dietary fructose intake and lipid indexes and dyslipidemia of 27 265 Chinese residents aged 45 and above. The level of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and high-density lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) were significantly lower in male while dietary fructose intake was lower in female (P < 0.001). With the increase of the dietary fructose quartile level, serum TG concentration was increased while HDL-C was decreased for male residents (Ptrend < 0.001). Among female residents, we only found serum TG concentration was increased (Ptrend < 0.001). Compared with the first quartile, the risk of low HDL cholesterolemia in the third (OR: 1.17; 95%CI: 1.03~1.33) and fourth (OR: 1.25; 95%CI: 1.08~1.43) quartile were increased after adjustment for confounding factor. There was no association between dietary fructose intake and hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, mixed hyperlipidemia, and dyslipidemia among female residents after adjustment for confounding factor (P > 0.001). There were gender differences for the effect of dietary fructose intake on lipid indexes and dyslipidemia.
    24  Simple Analysis on the Grain and Oil Standard System of International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
    WANG Li-dan HE Ming-tao ZHANG Ying
    2020, 28(6):182-190.
    [Abstract](202) [HTML](0) [PDF 561.14 K](377)
    Abstract:
    Through the collection and collation of latest information and relevant standards about Cereals, Oils and their products, the general situation of International Standardization Organization (ISO) standard system were introduced in this paper, and the classification, status quo, characteristic distribution and latest development trend of oil seed, fruit and oilseed meal, grain and beans, animal and vegetable oil standards in ISO grain and oil standard system were also introduced and analyzed systematically. The analysis results showed that the framework structure of ISO grain and oil standard is reasonable, the standard system is perfect, the emphasis is on food quality and safety, and the management standard, comprehensive standard and safety standard will be the future focus of ISO. Based on the situation of China’s grain and oil standard system, this paper proposed to improve the international influence of China’s grain and oil standard from the aspects of expanding the coverage of the standard, standardizing the management of making and revising scientific standards, and introducing new science and technology. Therefore, understanding and adopting ISO standard and formulating grain and oil standards in line with the international standards are conducive to further improving the construction of China’s grain and oil standard system.
    25  Determination of Sulfur in Crops by Triple Quadrupole Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry
    LI Geng-wei XIE Kui ZHAO Zhi-fei SONG Juan-e
    2020, 28(6):191-194.
    [Abstract](228) [HTML](0) [PDF 545.85 K](296)
    Abstract:
    Microwave Digestion-Triple Quadrupole Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS) was used to determine sulfur in crop samples, and a high sensitivity sulfur detection method in crop samples was provided. The measurement mode, interference elimination effect, linear range, detection limit and accuracy of the method were tested. The results show that the MS/MS oxygen mode can effectively eliminate the mass spectrum interference of sulfur, the method has high sensitivity, the detection limit of the method reaches 1.8 µg/g, and the sample with sulfur content below 2% can be directly analyzed by the method. The method was verified by national standard material, and the measured values were within the range of nominal value. It can be used as a new detection method for sulfur element analysis in crop samples.
    26  Evaluation of Uncertainty in Determination of Peroxide Value and Acid Value of Edible Vegetable Oil by Automatic Potentiometric Titration
    WANG Zhi-qiang YE Jian-bin LI Xu-xin PENG Yan-hui WU Ling-tao
    2020, 28(6):195-199.
    [Abstract](203) [HTML](0) [PDF 571.04 K](411)
    Abstract:
    The peroxide value and acid value in edible vegetable oil were determined by automatic potentiometric titration. Through the establishment of uncertainty mathematical model, the uncertainty components and expanded uncertainty affecting the peroxide value and acid value measurement results were analyzed and calculated. The test results showed that the average peroxide value of the edible vegetable oil was 1.22 mmol/l, the average acid value was 1.43 mg/g, the expanded uncertainty of peroxide value was 0.016 mmol/l, the expanded uncertainty of acid value was 0.044 mg/g, the confidence factor k = 2, and the repeatability of measurement was the main factor affecting the uncertainty of the test results of peroxide value and acid value.
    27  Comprehensive Evaluation of Factors Affecting Ash Determination of Wheat Flour
    LI Zhen-hua ZHAO Ying WANG Rui-jie SUN Xue-yuan WANG Hong-yao LI Yan-yu
    2020, 28(6):200-203.
    [Abstract](298) [HTML](0) [PDF 447.59 K](568)
    Abstract:
    Based on the national standard GB 5009.4—2016, the relative contribution of each influencing factor to ash content change of wheat flour was studied, including sample weight, carbonization time, ashing time and ashing temperature. All the data were analyzed by Grubbs’test method. Ash content results indicated that the recommended weight for wheat flour is 3 g. Carbonization time and period were very important. The recommend means of ash temperature and ash time for wheat flour samples were 550 ℃ and 4 h, respectively. Means of ash content between dry basis and wet basis varied slightly. Finally, a measurement was proposed for wheat flour ash content based on the new standard of GB5009.4—2016.
    28  Evaluation of the Uncertainty in Measurement of Lead Content in Tea
    QI Feng-juan
    2020, 28(6):204-208.
    [Abstract](190) [HTML](0) [PDF 561.33 K](305)
    Abstract:
    Based on the modern statistical theory, the uncertainty sources of the analytical results of the determination of lead in tea by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were analyzed. The uncertainty sources of the analytical results mainly include the weighing process, the constant volume process, the fitting of the standard curve in the instrument measurement, and the repeatability of the measurement process etc. The uncertainty components that affect the results of lead analysis in tea were evaluated by the methods of A and B, and the expanded uncertainty of 95% confidence probability was determined. The confidence interval of the analysis results was determined as [2.66, 2.86].
    29  Research Progress on the Biopesticide Spinosyns and Their Analogues
    ZHANG Xiao-yao GUO Chao LIU Yan-li ZHANG Xin WANG Chao
    2020, 28(6):209-217.
    [Abstract](324) [HTML](0) [PDF 841.47 K](484)
    Abstract:
    As the environmental protection has been more and more concerned nowadays, biological pesticides have become a research focus by pesticide researches all over the world due to their advantages of easy degradation, low residue, low pollution, high safety and low generation of resistance in diseases and insect pests, and the development of biological pesticides has become a new trend in leading pesticide research and development. As a new type of green biological pesticide, spinosyns and their analogues have a unique action mechanism due to their special chemical structure. They have both the safety of biological pesticides and the rapid effect of chemical pesticides and play an important role in controlling agricultural and forestry pests, stored grain pests, sanitary pests, and livestock parasites. This study mainly compared the physicochemical properties of biopesticide spinosyns and their analogues, summarized the progress in physicochemical mutagenesis, molecular modification, product research and development and application, and resistance research, analyzed the current situation and existing problems of biological pesticides promotion, proposed solutions, and looked forward to their development prospects.
    30  Research Progress on Bio-control Technology of Stored-grain Pests
    REN Jian-hao WU Wei-guo ZONG ping LI Na ZHANG Bing ZHOU Tao
    2020, 28(6):218-222.
    [Abstract](224) [HTML](0) [PDF 499.58 K](589)
    Abstract:
    The long-term use of chemical insecticides to control stored-grain pests has caused problems like pest resistance and environment pollution. The article briefly introduces some common pests and the losses they caused. According to the requirements of green, environmental protection and safety of grain storage, the biological control technology for stored grain pests in the process of grain storage is discussed, and the research progress of the application of biological control technologies such as agents, pheromones, microbial source materials, plants and plant extracts were also introduced. We hope to develop ideas for the prevention of stored-grain pests, reduce or avoid the losses caused by the pests, provide reference for future research on stored-grain pests control technology.
    31  Comparative Study on the Effect of Different Horizontal Ventilation Ways to Cooling and Keeping Water
    XU Jian-shuang WANG Xue-zheng AN Chao-nan BAI Guo-wei PENG Chao-yuan LI Xi -yang CHEN Feng ZHANG jie
    2020, 28(6):223-228.
    [Abstract](281) [HTML](0) [PDF 707.64 K](312)
    Abstract:
    To understand the cooling effect and water loss of different transverse ventilation modes, Cover the grain stack with film and step by step unwinding grain stack film both in the transverse ventilation were used in the two wheat stored warehouses which the wide is 30 m. The temperature and moisture of the grain in the two warehouses before and after ventilation were tested, the uniformity of grain temperature was measured. The cooling effect, unit energy consumption, water loss, temperature and water uniformity were evaluated. The result indicate that: compared with the step by step unwinding grain stack film in the transverse ventilation, although the ventilation time and unit energy consumption of covering the grain stack with film increased by 140 h and 600 kW.h respectively. However, the uniformity of ventilation was better, the cooling effect was slightly better, the cooling range was 0.5 ℃ higher, the grain water loss was small, the average water of the whole barn wass 0.1% smaller. So it provides a basis for the reasonable selection of transverse ventilation.
    32  Research on the Application of Air-conditioning Control Temperature to Store Grain in Hunan
    ZHOU Tao ZHANG Bing LIU Bo CHEN Qu-ling GAN Ping-yang LI Na
    2020, 28(6):229-233.
    [Abstract](207) [HTML](0) [PDF 695.41 K](285)
    Abstract:
    Aiming at the problems that paddy is prone to fever, mildew and so on due to the characteristics of the hot and humid summer climate in Hunan, the air-conditioning control temperature technology was used to carry out the summer experiment of grain storage in the large warehouses. The changes of the paddy’s temperature, moisture, fatty acid value and other quality indicators as well as the energy consumption were analyzed. In order to provide an effective scientific basis for quasi-low temperature grain storage in Hunan Province. The results showed that the best period of using air-conditioning control temperature technology in Hunan was the high temperature period from July to August. The application of this technology can realize the quasi-low temperature storage of large warehouses, reduce the loss of paddy’s moisture, and effectively delay the ascent rate of paddy’s fatty acid value. Restrained the occurrence of insect pests in the grain heap to a certain extent, stabilized the rice in summer, ensured the quality and safety of grain, and has obvious economic benefits.
    33  Research on Standard System Construction of Bulk Grain Container Transportation in China
    WANG Xiao-meng LIU Qing SHI Jian-fang XIE Qi-zhen LOU Zheng ZHAO Yu-qiang SHAO Guang
    2020, 28(6):234-239.
    [Abstract](248) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.67 M](622)
    Abstract:
    Container transportation has become an important part of the new modern grain logistics system in China, which is convenient, efficient and flexible. Based on the analysis of domestic and foreign bulk grain container transportation and standards, this paper discussed the construction of the standard system of bulk grain container transportation, put forward the construction objectives, principles and ideas, designed the framework, and analyzed the various elements, in order to provide reference for solving the existing problems of bulk grain container transportation and lay a foundation for ensuring grain security in China.

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