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Volume 28,Issue 3,2020 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Effect of green tea extract EGCG on the improvement of Alzheimer’s and obesity mice
    刘 杨 张万圣 顾仁济 刘 云
    2020, 28(3):1-9.
    [Abstract](391) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.51 M](592)
    The present work reports the positive effect of green tea extract EGCG on the improvement of Alzheimer’s and obesity mice with the administration of 50 mg EGCG/kg mice every day for 30 days, and the mechanism is elucidated from three aspects of mice body, biochemical indexes and tissue immunology. The results showed that the EGCG can improve the cognitive function of Alzheimer’s mice, its function mechanism is probably attributed to enzyme activities of choline acetyltransferase (AchE) and acetylcholine esterase (ChAT), as well as the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum and the accumulate of β-amyloid protein 42 (Aβ42) in the hippocampus. Furthermore, EGCG has a positive effect on the inhibition against obesity desease, it is related to the enzyme activities of lipase and amlyase in serum of obesity mice, which will affect triglycerol metabolism and energy intake. It is worthily noticed that EGCG can protect obesity-induced liver tissue damage. The findings in this work will provide future directions for development of green tea functional foods.
    2  Egg yolk phosphatidylcholine enrichment in unsaturation fatty acids: Extraction and molecular structure
    朱 帅 黄梦玲 樊 俐 杨瑞鹏 张 敏 刘 云
    2020, 28(3):10-17.
    [Abstract](395) [HTML](0) [PDF 7.35 M](544)
    Egg yolk is rich in phosphatidylcholine (PC), which is the keyphospholipid component providing nourishment and protection for our body. We herein optimize the ethanol extraction parameters for PC in egg yolk using response surface methodology. After preliminary purification through thin-layer chromatography, PCfatty acid compositions are identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), and their molecular structure are also elucidated by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscope (MALDI- TOF/MS). Results show that the optimal parameters for PC extraction from egg yolk are: weight/volume ratio of egg yolk to ethanol of 1∶16 (g:mL), ethanol concentration of 93.77%, extraction temperature of 42.98 ℃. Under the optimal conditions, 24.38% of PC yield is obtained, and PC content is approx.61.19% detected by UV-Vis spectroscopy. GC-MS analysis reveals that the main fatty acids of PC are oleic acid (40.66%), palmitic acid (16.35%), linoleic acid (13.06%), stearic acid (7.27%), palmitoleic acid (5.19%) and a small amount ofarachidonic acid (0.48%) and docosahexaenoic acid (0.37%). Nine kinds of PC molecular structures are elucidated from MALDI-TOF/MS profiles, namely, 16:0/18:0-PC, 16:0/18:1Δ9-PC, 18:0/18:1Δ9-PC, 16:0/18:2Δ9,12-PC, 18:0/18:2Δ9,12-PC, 18:1Δ9/18:2Δ9,12-PC, 16:0/20:4Δ5,8,11,14-PC, 18:0/20:4Δ5,8,11,14- PC and 16:0/22:6Δ3,6,9,12,15,18-PC.
    3  State-of-the-art of egg yolk lecithin: molecular structure, extraction strategies, bio-activities and liposome application
    朱 帅 黄梦玲 吴倩倩 杨瑞鹏 张 敏 刘 云
    2020, 28(3):18-25.
    [Abstract](419) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.02 M](1475)
    This review article addresses the state-of-the-art of egg yolk lecithin based on several aspects of molecular structures, extraction methods, functional activities and liposomes applications. Egg yolk lecithin are amphiphilic molecules, which structure is mainly composed of glycerol, phosphate acid and fatty acids through acyl group bond. According to lecithin base group, there are six kinds of lecithin, including phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidic acid (PA), and phosphatidylglycerol (PG). Organosolvent extraction and supercritical CO2 extraction are the common approaches for egg yolk extraction. It has been investigated that egg yolk lecithin has many physiological biological activities, such as anti-oxidation, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, nueroprotection, and cardiocerebral vascular protection. Finally, the clasification of lecithin liposomes and its application are briefly presented in this review article. We are undoubtedly sure that this review will pave the way towards R&D of egg yolk lecithin in future.
    4  Starch-related structure properties of different root crop starch noodle
    邹金浩 李 燕 苏小军 李清明 李文佳
    2020, 28(3):26-30.
    [Abstract](347) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.21 M](698)
    In order to understand the structure properties of root crop starch noodle, three kinds of tapioca starch noodles (SC9, SC205, LMC), three kinds of yam starch noodles (GY2, SFY, MPY) and one kind of sweet potato starch noodle (XSSP) were used to study the structure properties. The results showed that the color, microstructure and crystallinity of starch noodle exhibited significantly differences among different varieties. XSSP starch noodle had the highest white index, while SFY starch noodle had the lowest white index. The special inner structure of starch noodles was composed of some broken starch granules and some gel-like substances from SEM. Yam starch noodles and sweet potato starch noodles showed a clear starch granule structure. Cassava starch noodles had the highest degree of gelatinization. The crystal structure of starch noodle was damaged, and the ratio of ordered structure to disordered structure of different varieties of root crop starch noodle was significantly different.
    5  Effect of three pretreatment methods on the quality of canned Chinese yam
    张锦钰 石 柱 苏小军 李清明 郭红英 唐兰芳 王 锋
    2020, 28(3):31-36.
    [Abstract](316) [HTML](0) [PDF 792.98 K](499)
    In this paper, the effects of three methods for material pretreatment on the quality of canned Chinese yam were analyzed and compared, which included blanching treatment, vacuum osmotic treatment and atmospheric osmotic treatment with fructose syrup as osmotic solution. The results showed that the blanching treatment group was able to inactive polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase, and thus had better color protection, but the structure of Chinese yam in blanching treatment group was seriously damaged and led to an increased conductivity, and its hardness decreased by 34.80%, while the structures of yam in atmospheric osmosis and vacuum osmosis treatment groups were denser due to the osmosis of sugar solution, the sample would not be significantly browned during the processing time before canning, and the damage to the cell membrane was much lower than vacuum osmotic dehydration. The hardness of Chinese yam in atmospheric osmosis at 5 h and in vacuum osmosis at 3 h, 4 h and 5 h were both higher than that of fresh Chinese yam, but ascorbic acid content decreased significantly. Moreover, the structure of Chinese yam in vacuum osmotic treatment group was more complete, and the sensory score of canned yam was higher than those of atmospheric osmotic treatment group with the same osmotic time and blanching treatment group. Vacuum osmotic dehydration is an effective way to solve the problem of canned soup turbidity and improve the quality of canned Chinese yam.
    6  Evaluation of the applicability of an automatic method for aflatoxin purification based on immunomagnetic beads
    李 丽 叶 金 轩志宏 刘洪美 陈梦泽 周明慧 吴 宇 王松雪
    2020, 28(3):37-41.
    [Abstract](282) [HTML](0) [PDF 444.31 K](523)
    The objection was to evaluate the applicability of an automated method for aflatoxins analysis by using Immunoaffinity Magnetic Bead - UPLC. The results showed that the average recovery of the mmunoaffinity Magnetic Bead was above 95%, and the relative standard deviation was less than 3.3%. The results of the quality control samples were within the range of the reference uncertainty. The method was accurate and reliable.T testing (sig. (bilateral) = 0.533) proved that there was no significant difference between two independent purification instruments.62 researchers evaluated two methods of purifications with immunomagnetic beads and immunoaffinity column. T testing has proved that the results of the two methods were no significant difference. However, the dispersion degree of the immunomagnetic bead automated processing method was smaller than that of the immunoaffinity column method. Moreover, the z-value of all the test were less than 2 (| Z | ≤2). Hence, this method can detect cereals and oils. In addition, the method is environmentally friendly, simply, and lower-cost, which greatly improved detection efficiency and level.
    7  Rapid determination of cadmium in grain by citric acid extraction
    伍燕湘 周明慧 张洁琼 田 巍 陈 曦 王松雪
    2020, 28(3):42-48.
    [Abstract](352) [HTML](0) [PDF 641.74 K](673)
    A new pretreatment method for the determination of cadmium in grain was developed: citric acid extraction method. The basic parameters affecting the citric acid extraction were optimized, and the best pretreatment conditions were obtained. The accuracy of the method was investigated by using certified reference materials and reference materials. The citric acid was fixed in 10 mL centrifuge tube, which provided technical support for the application of this method. After optimization, only citric acid and water are needed to determinate the cadmium in grains. The detected results of certified reference materials and reference materials were all within the assigned values. The RSD of 7 independent tests was less than 5%. The method has good precision and accuracy. The detection limit and quantitative limit of the method are 0.039 ng/mL and 0.129 ng/mL, respectively which can meet the requirements of cadmium detection in grains. The whole pretreatment process can complete in 15 minutes, which is safe, green, simple and easy to operate.
    8  Uncertainty evaluation of fatty acids in peanut oil based on Monte Carlo method
    朱 琳 周明慧 张 冰 王松山 李 丽 王松雪 郭宝元 张 东
    2020, 28(3):49-53.
    [Abstract](301) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.08 M](527)
    The uncertainty of GC method in the determination of fatty acids in peanut oil was evaluated based on Monte Carlo method (MCM). The results show thatthe uncertainty of C16:0 is 10.78%±0.23%, C18:0 is 3.52%±0.08%, C18:1n9c is 45.75%±0.58%, C18:2n6c is 32.10%±0.52%, C22:0 is2.84±0.07%. The MCM method avoids the complicated measurement deduction such as partial derivative of measurement model and the process of type A and type B evaluation when used to evaluate the measurement uncertainty. The uncertainty of measurement of 21 fatty acid components in peanut oil can be easily and quickly calculated by MCM software.This method provides technical support for improving the evaluation ability of laboratory uncertainty.
    9  Analysis of risk factors and influencing factors of corn quality and safety in suburbs of Beijing
    崔 华 陆安祥 谢 刚 李 森 吴 宇 王松雪
    2020, 28(3):54-60.
    [Abstract](295) [HTML](0) [PDF 3.96 M](464)
    Taking the corn plantation area of 10 farmers in the suburbs of Beijing as the research object, soil samples from the planting period, flower spike samples from the flowering period, corn samples from the harvest period and different storage periods were taken to detect the mycoflora, microbial contamination and the mycotoxins. The results show that during the whole post-harvest natural drying period of corn, the risk of mold formation is highest in the early storage period (within one month after harvest). Among them, Fusarium has always been the dominant flora, and the toxins produced by it mainly include deoxynivalenol (DON), Zearalenone (ZEN), and fumonisin (FB1, FB2), the detection rates were 100%, 95%, and 93%, respectively, and the over-standard rates of DON and ZEN during the storage period were greater than 40%, and other toxins such as AFBs, OTA, ST, T-2, and HT-2 were not detected. In addition, the high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the relationship between fungal diversity and agronomic factors in soil and spike samples, and it was found that factors such as planting methods, irrigation conditions, and last season's straw treatment methods could affect corn. The type and quantity of plant-contaminated fungi resulted in differences in the levels of corn kernel mycotoxins.
    10  The overview and recommendations of China's wheat processing research in 2018-2019
    2020, 28(3):61-68.
    [Abstract](304) [HTML](0) [PDF 478.01 K](675)
    In order to comprehensively understand the current status of wheat processing research in China, the study on wheat and wheat flour quality, wheat flour product processing, and wheat deep processing in recent two years were reviewed in this paper. The research achievements on wheat quality, processing technology, quality control, high-quality steamed bread and noodles processing were summarized and specific suggestions for further future development of wheat processing were put forward, with a view to wheat production, processing, scientific research, and policy formulation for reference. This review will hopefully provide reference for wheat production, processing, scientific research and policy formulation.
    11  Preliminary study on the effect of milling technology on the key components of rice bran
    杨剀舟 魏 征 范运乾 栾 霞 李晓宁 段章群 薛雅琳
    2020, 28(3):69-77.
    [Abstract](337) [HTML](0) [PDF 5.10 M](640)
    To improve the utilization level of rice bran, it is very important to study the accurate separation of key components in rice bran. In this paper, the influence of grinding wheel type, grinding speed and grinding time on the contents of key components in rice bran, such as wax, crude fat and crude protein, was studied, and was characterized and modeled by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), multiple regression analysis and correlation analysis. The results showed that the key components in brown rice were distributed alternately from the outside to the inside, which were wax ester layer, fiber layer, fat-protein layer and starch layer. The highest content of the key components in rice bran and its milling technology combination were of wax 0.67% (860 rpm, 1.0 min), crude fat 18.37% (1 060 rpm, 1.0 min), crude protein 18.59% (960 rpm, 2.0 min), crude fiber 16.85% (760 rpm, 0.5 min) and starch 41.12% (1 060 rpm, 2.5 min), respectively; Grinding wheel type had a very significant impact on wax content and crude fiber content (P<0.01), milling time has a very significant impact on rice bran yield and starch content (P<0.01), except for crude protein content, milling speed has a significant impact (P<0.05); Crude fiber had the highest significant correlation with other variables as a whole, correlation coefficient scores were of 0.84 (wax), 0.83 (crude fat), 0.73 (crude protein), –0.69 (starch) and –0.42 (rice bran yield), respectively. The accurate separation of key components of rice bran can be realized by the combination of fine milling and coarse milling.
    12  Research progress on quality improvement of instant rice
    罗霜霜 康建平 张星灿 杨 健 刘 建
    2020, 28(3):78-84.
    [Abstract](380) [HTML](0) [PDF 417.70 K](789)
    The research advances on the factors affecting the edible quality and nutritional structure of instant rice, including rice types, rice ratio, production process, food additives, heating packs, activators of taste quality and the nutritional structure, were reviewed in this paper. The problems regarding the poor taste and developmentment of instant rice were analyzed and their solutions were suggested. Morerover, the development and trend of instant rice were prospected.
    13  Drying kinetics and model fitting of Lechang taro during hot-air drying process
    华军利 梁锦霞 朱定和 何宇豪 李欣如 陈佩芸
    2020, 28(3):85-90.
    [Abstract](297) [HTML](0) [PDF 546.09 K](471)
    The drying and drying rate curves of Lechang taro were studied under different hot air temperatures (50, 60, 70, 80, 90 ℃), different hot air rate (1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 m/s) and different slice thickness (2, 3, 4, 5 mm). The relationship between water ratio and drying time in the drying process was fitted by the empirical models such as : Logarithmic, Twoterm, Modified page, Henderson and Pabis, WeibullⅠ. The fitting results were judged by the coefficient of determination, residual Sum of squares and reduced Chi-square. The results showed that the moisture ratio (MR) decreasing with drying time and the water ratio changes gradually. The hot-air drying of Lechang taro was mainly in slow-down drying stage. When the hot air temperature was 70 ℃, the drying rate was the fastest and the drying time was the shortest. The drying rate was faster when the hot air rate was 2.0 m/s, which was beneficial to saving energy and reducing consumption. When the slice thickness was 3 mm, the drying rate was faster and the drying time was shorter. WeibullⅠ model could describe the hot-air drying process of taro very well. The coefficients of determination were more than 0.997 91. The residual Sums of squares were less than 0.002 88. The reduced Chi-squares were less than 1.69×10–4.
    14  Extraction of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis by ultrasonic combined grinding and wall breaking
    孟 昂 王 萌 赵晓燕 朱运平 张晓伟 刘红开 朱海涛
    2020, 28(3):91-97.
    [Abstract](280) [HTML](0) [PDF 6.35 M](462)
    Based on the determination of wall breaking method and dissolving reagent, ultrasonic-assisted extraction was used in this study to explore the effect of extracting astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis under different conditions, and further optimize the test results by response surface methodology. The results showed that under the conditions of ultrasonic time of 18 mins, ultrasonic temperature of 39 ℃, liquid-material ratio of 9∶50 (mL/mg), and ultrasonic power of 200 W, ultrasonic treatment was carried out under the condition of oscillating ultrasound. Finally, the treatment was carried out under the condition of water bath oscillation at 40 ℃ for 20 mins, the astaxanthin extraction rate can be 85.1% using Liquid nitrogen grinding broken wall treatment with ethyl acetate-ethanol (v/v: 1∶2) as the extraction solvent.
    15  Effect of addtive amount of whole wheat flour on volatile components of dry noodles
    汪丽萍 刘艳香 谭 斌 沈汪洋 田晓红 刘 明 高 琨
    2020, 28(3):98-104.
    [Abstract](291) [HTML](0) [PDF 496.72 K](536)
    Volatile compounds from one kind of refined white noodle and three kinds of dry noodles added with different contents of whole wheat flour (50%, 75% and 100%) were extracted by headspace solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) and identified by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS). A total of 85 volatile compounds were identified in the four dry noodles, including 17 aldehyde, 34 hydrocarbon, 16 alcohol, 7 ketone, 1 furan, 7 ester, 2 amine, 1 acid. The four kinds of noodles contain hydrocarbons, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, esters and amines. 44, 53, 53 and 50 volatile components were detected in refined white noodles and three kinds of whole wheat noodles, respectively. Compared with refined white noodles, the volatile components in whole wheat noodles were significantly increased. Among the volatile components, aldehydes are the most important substances with relative contents of more than 25%. The content of hexanal in aldehydes was significantly higher than that of other aldehydes. The increase of the amount of added whole wheat flour has little effect on the composition of various volatile components, but has great effect on the relative contents of each volatile component.
    16  Research and development progress of grape seed related products
    张丽明 马雅鸽 张 希 赵声兰 陈朝银 梁仲雄
    2020, 28(3):105-111.
    [Abstract](305) [HTML](0) [PDF 575.18 K](473)
    The current research progress of variety, dosage and functions of the general food, health food and cosmetics produced from grape seeds were reviewed in this paper. Common foods include national standard grape seed oil and grape seed extract food additives, grape seed powder, and grape seed tableting candy. There are more than 370 health foods produced from grape seed oil or grape seed extract, in the main dosage forms include capsules, tablets, or al liquids and powders. The main functions include anti-oxidation, remove chloasma, enhance immunity, lowering blood lipid, and so on. Grape seed powder, grape seed extract and grape seed oil are all cosmetic raw materials approved for the record of national standards, and more than 4,900 non-special cosmetics have been registered, almost covering all cosmetic categories. There also have been studies on drugs from grape seed, but there are no relevant drug approvals. The price of grape seed and grape seed powder on line is comparable with that of rice and flour, the oil is 5~10 times of the raw grape seed, and the extract is more than 30 times of the raw material. The price of related capsules and tablets further doubles, and the sales volume is far higher than that of unpacked capsules or pressed tablets. Obviously, the grape seed deep processing product has larger development space, profit space and broad market prospect.
    17  Research advances in the application of recognition elements in the detection of mycotoxins in grains
    韩逸陶 李可敬 罗 菲 黎 睿 李春花 谢 刚
    2020, 28(3):112-117.
    [Abstract](314) [HTML](0) [PDF 398.53 K](499)
    Mycotoxin contamination is one of the key elements arousing grain safety problems and challenges, which are thus the increasingly focus- and hot-spot research area at global level. Hence, the development of fast-time, high-accuracy, low-cost, and simple-operation detection methods for monitoring mycotoxin is critical to the guarantee of grains afety and quality. During the whole process of biosensor, specificity and selectivity of recognition elements is prerequisite for the excellent analytical performance. This paper summarized the forms of major recognition elements reported in previous publications in the last few years, and reviewed the application of biosensors based on recognition elements in monitoring mycotoxins, and the main problems existing in this researching stage were also proposed, which could provide novel ideas and new sights into the development of related studies.
    18  Research on new technology for detection of rice milling degree
    高 岩 石翠霞 张 越 于素平 梶山剛志郎 内田和也
    2020, 28(3):118-121.
    [Abstract](244) [HTML](0) [PDF 486.56 K](474)
    Rice processing precision is an important index to evaluate rice quality. In this paper, a new technology for the detection of rice processing precision was studied. The rice samples were dyed by eosin y-methylene blue method, and then placed in the rice processing accuracy tester to determine the degree of leather retention, and then determine the rice processing accuracy level. Through the statistical analysis of the validation results among different laboratories, it was showed that the method has good repeatability, reproducibility, stability in line with the requirements of national standards, and meets the needs of quantitative detection of rice processing accuracy. The repeatability limit R and reproducibility limit r were calculated according to the inter laboratory validation data, and the method was standardized to guide the practical application.
    19  Probiotic fermentation enzymatic hydrolysis processand product preparation of shell eggs hydrolysate
    孙 郡
    2020, 28(3):122-128.
    [Abstract](305) [HTML](0) [PDF 9.73 M](477)
    Based on traditional processing methods, replacing rice vinegar with lactic acid, and then optimizing the hydrolysis process. The maximum degree of hydrolysis of the egg solution obtained by the optimal solution can reach 24.184%. On this basis, protease is used for enzymatic hydrolysis and various probiotics. When the bacteria were fermented, the maximum peptide content of the obtained sample could reach 1.526 mg/mL, which has obvious advantages over the traditional vinegar egg liquid and fermented egg liquid. It has been determined that the free amino acids in egg liquid after multiple hydrolysis are complete, and the content of inorganic elements such as calcium, iron, and zinc is high, and has good antioxidant capacity. The shell egg hydrolysis fermentation broth is sprayed and powdered, and seasoned and mixed to obtain a functional food with high calcium content, low cholesterol, rich in small molecule peptides, and good flavor.
    20  Development of buckwheat hypoglycemic yogurt
    黄 瑞 刘敦华
    2020, 28(3):129-134.
    [Abstract](298) [HTML](0) [PDF 566.14 K](439)
    Buckwheat is rich in protein, vitamins, minerals and many other nutrients, especially has higher content of bioflavonoids, chiral inositol, high activity protein and other hypoglycemic factors than other food crops. The purpose of this experiment is to develop health food with hypoglycemic effect for diabetic population so that yogurt and buckwheat can get a better combination. Bulgarian lactobacillus and Streptococcus thermophilus were mixed at 1∶1 as production strains. Single factor test and orthogonal test were used to optimize the yogurt fermentation conditions. The results showed that the optimum technological conditions of fermented yogurt with Tartary buckwheat milk was 30% of tartary buckwheat pulp, 8% of xylitol and 3% of production strains with a 4 hours’ fermentation. The compounding ratio of stabilizer was 0.15% of CMC, 0.10% of carrageenanand 0.05% of xanthan. At the same time, the hypoglycemic factor including 6.55 μg/mL of chiral inositol was, 0.526 mg/mL of flavonoidsand 0.12 g/mL of buckwheat protein was added in the post-ripening process.
    21  Study on the quality changes of high quality japonica paddy under different temperature storage conditions in northeast China
    田 琳 张海洋 祁智慧 王鹏杰 唐 芳
    2020, 28(3):135-139.
    [Abstract](322) [HTML](0) [PDF 444.31 K](421)
    In this study, super paddy with moisture content of 14.6% in Yushu area of Jilin province was took as the research object. The paddy was stored under the conditions of 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 ℃, respectively, and the changes of various quality indexes were detected by sampling regularly. The results showed that the various indicators of seed quality, storage quality, processing quality and appearance quality were greatly affected by the storage temperature. The higher the temperature, the worse quality of paddy. During short-term storage, the storage temperature should be controlled at 25 ℃ or lower to ensure that the storage quality, processing quality and appearance quality of the rice can meet relevant standards. The fatty acid value of high quality japonica paddy with 14.6% moisture content showed a binary nonlinear relationship with storage temperature and storage time, and the change could be predicted by the model FAV=EXP (2.218+0.025 T+0.003 T). On the basis of the changes of various quality indexes and the cost saving factor of grain storage, 25 ℃ quasi-low temperature is suggested as an economical and practical storage temperature, at which 14.6% high quality japonica paddy can be safely stored for 6 months and maintain good quality.
    22  Study on stored-grain pest control by spraying Pirimiphos-Methyl combined with low temperature condition without fumigation
    李 斌 刘 焱 杨红彪 蔡志中 张水彪 李 涛 邓 军
    2020, 28(3):140-143.
    [Abstract](312) [HTML](0) [PDF 471.43 K](535)
    55% pirimiphos-methyl EC mixed ultrapure water by proportion of 1∶2, was sprayed to the surface and the upper space of grain in large warehouse by Ultra-low-volume sprayer. Our study was performed twice at the end of April 2019 and the end of July 2019 respectively. Stored-grain pest protection layer was formed on the surface of grain bulk to continuously prevent the grain from suffering pest infringement. At the same time, the temperature controlled by air conditioner of warehouse was lower than 25 ℃. In this way, we can maximize the effect of pirimiphos-methyl protective layer on insect pests. By using pirimiphos-methyl will significantly reduce the amount of aluminium phosphide used in large warehouse and the intensity of labor. Because of the low toxicity, residue, cost and environmental friendly of pirimiphos-methyl, we concentrate on replacing aluminium phosphide with pirimiphos-methyl to achieve the goal of warehouse fumigation-free all year round.
    23  Study on quality changes of high-moisture rice during over-summer storage
    李 佳 曹 毅 赵 旭
    2020, 28(3):144-147.
    [Abstract](342) [HTML](0) [PDF 447.96 K](491)
    Aiming at the situation that high-moisture rice is prone to quality deterioration during the summer storage period, a real warehouse test of high-moisture rice quality change was carried out to track and measure the moisture, fatty acid value and rice hardness during the summer using air-conditioning and temperature-controlled grain storage technology. The change of texture quality index showed that during high temperature weather, the quality changes of high-moisture rice included basically unchanged water remaining; increased fatty acid value, rice hardness, gluing and chewing properties; decreased elasticity and viscosity; basically unchanged cohesion. It can be seen that the high-moisture rice grains can safely survive the summer with the using of low-temperature grain storage technology, and can achieve the purpose of the quality maintaining and safety ensuring of stored grain.
    24  Analysis of paddy storage conditions and technology
    李 娜 周红丽 周 涛 任建豪 宗 平
    2020, 28(3):148-153.
    [Abstract](336) [HTML](0) [PDF 409.60 K](855)
    The quality changes of paddy during storage are greatly affected by external conditions. The external factors include temperature, moisture, air proportion, pests and microorganisms, etc., especially under the condition of high temperature of stored grain and high moisture of rice, mold of rice grows faster, which leads to the reduction of rice quality. This paper introduced the effects of storage conditions on paddy quality and the harmfulness of pests and harmful microorganisms to paddy storage. The research on existing paddy storage and new grain storage technologies were further discussed. The development of new technologies such as grain storage, the use of CO2 to detect rice mold, and the development of natural antifungal agents has provided more effective technical guarantees for the safe storage of paddy in our country. However, some new technologies have higher requirements on grain silos and it is difficult to realize nationwide popularization.

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