SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF CEREALS, OILS AND FOODS

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Volume 27,Issue 6,2019 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Study on relationship between water management during grain filling stage, drying temperature of paddy, moisture content of brown rice and highly taste of rice in Japan (Translated text)
    松江勇次
    2019, 27(6):1-4.
    [Abstract](549) [HTML](182) [PDF 1.17 M](587)
    Abstract:
    In order to produce good taste rice, it is very important to overcome the influence of cultivation environment. The relationship between the optimum water management during ripening period, drying temperature of paddy, moisture content of brown rice and taste was discussed. The optimum water management was saturate water management, which can effectively inhibit the rise of paddy soil temperature, maintain root activity, enhance ripening rate of rice, therefore to increase the rice yield and promote mouthfeel. Different air temperature was needed during drying according to the moisture content of fresh paddy. For the moisture content as 22%, 25% and 30%, the corresponding optimum temperature were 55, 48 and 35℃, respectively. The proper moisture of brown rice was 14% ~ 15%, to obtain optimal mouthfeel.
    2  Study on relationship between water management during grain filling stage, drying temperature of paddy, moisture content of brown rice and lighly taste of rice in Japan (Japanese text)
    松江勇次
    2019, 27(6):5-9.
    [Abstract](276) [HTML](176) [PDF 1.28 M](458)
    Abstract:
    In order to produce good taste rice, it is very important to overcome the influence of cultivation environment. The relationship between the optimum water management during ripening period, drying temperature of paddy, moisture content of brown rice and taste was discussed. The optimum water management was saturate water management, which can effectively inhibit the rise of paddy soil temperature, maintain root activity, enhance ripening rate of rice, therefore to increase the rice yield and promote mouthfeel. Different air temperature was needed during drying according to the moisture content of fresh paddy. For the moisture contentas 22%, 25% and 30%, the corresponding optimum temperature were 55, 48 and 35℃, respectively. The proper moisture of brown rice was 14%~15%, to obtain optimal mouthfeel.
    3  Study on cultivation techniques of good taste rice in cold region of Hokkaido in Japan (Translated text)
    丹野 久
    2019, 27(6):10-17.
    [Abstract](396) [HTML](181) [PDF 880.14 K](506)
    Abstract:
    In the northernmost Japan, Hokkaido, where with cold climate and changeable environment, to product good taste rice, the cultivation techniques for reducing amylose content and protein content were developed. Although amylose content is affected by cultivated rice varieties largely, early planting and seedling with large leaf stage are used in order to increase temperature during grain filling period by hastening heading date, since during mature period, the amylose content decreases along with the increase of temperature. About protein content, referring to the standard rate of nitrogen fertilizer application, analyzing the climate in 20 cultivation areas and in each 5 soil types, the standard grain yield is figured out based on previous grain yield and the target value of protein content is decided as below 7.0%. Amount of available nitrogen in soil, magnitude of air drying effect on ammonification, amount and duration of organic matter application are used to adjust that application rate. No top dressing, application of soil dressing in peat land and application of silicate fertilizer are needed. In order to increase initial growth, transplant ahead of time, close planting, shallow seedling, side dressing, and irrigating in the night or early morning to keep lower water temperature, wind break net and so on are used. The depth of water in the field can be increased during irrigation from panicle forming stage to booting stage in order to prevent occurrence of male sterility by cool weather. During grain filling period draining residual water at the proper time and after that retaining proper soil water are needed. Using rice straw after harvesting, compost is the best for high grain yield and low protein content and plowing-in is better in autumn than that in spring.
    4  Study on cultivation techniques of good taste rice in cold region of Hokkaido in Japan (Japanese text)
    丹野 久
    2019, 27(6):18-26.
    [Abstract](328) [HTML](161) [PDF 915.96 K](527)
    Abstract:
    In the northernmost Japan, Hokkaido, where with cold climate and changeable environment, to product good taste rice, the cultivation techniques for reducing amylose content and protein content were developed. Although amylose content is affected by cultivated rice varieties largely, early planting and seedling with large leaf stage are used in order to increase temperature during grain filling period by hastening heading date, since during mature period, the amylose content decreases along with the increase of temperature. About protein content, referring to the standard rate of nitrogen fertilizer application, analyzing the climate in 20 cultivation areas and in each 5 soil types, the standard grain yieldis figured out based on previous grain yield and the target value of protein content is decided as below 7.0%. Amount of available nitrogen in soil, magnitude of air drying effect on ammonification, amount and duration of organic matter application are used to adjust that application rate. No top dressing, application of soil dressing in peat land and application of silicate fertilizer are needed. In order to increase initial growth, transplant ahead of time, close planting, shallow seedling, side dressing, and irrigating in the night or early morning to keep lower water temperature, wind break net and so on are used. The depth of water in the field can be increased during irrigation from panicle forming stage to booting stage in order to prevent occurrence of male sterility by cool weather. During grain filling period draining residual water at the proper time and after that retaining proper soil water are needed. Using rice straw after harvesting, compost is the best for high grain yield and low protein content and plowing-in is better in autumn than that in spring.
    5  Monitoring rice fertilization by remote sensing technology- application of unmanned aerial vehicle in improving rice taste quality
    周 涛 张玉屏 杨颖清 张军辉
    2019, 27(6):27-30.
    [Abstract](426) [HTML](173) [PDF 2.89 M](607)
    Abstract:
    Indica rice Zhongzheyou 1 and indica hybrid rice cultivar Yongyou 538 were used as materials. Through non-destructive monitoring by rice leaf nitrogen analyzer CCN6001 and the acquisition of NDVI value by unmanned aerial vehicle, precise application of ear fertilizer was realized according to nitrogen content of rice leaf. The improvement of rice taste quality provides new technology for rice quality improvement and efficiency enhancement, and provides a new method for development of intelligent agriculture.
    6  Quality analysis of main japonica rice varieties in China
    段晓亮 洪 宇 常 柳 商 博 邢晓婷 孙 辉
    2019, 27(6):31-34.
    [Abstract](421) [HTML](240) [PDF 231.48 K](740)
    Abstract:
    In order to assess taste quality of main japonica rice varieties in China, and illustrate exact proportion of varieties meetingthe requirements of the standard China Good Grain and Oil — Paddy, 333 samples of japonica rice varieties were collected and their indexes including taste quality, protein content and chalkiness were detected and analyzed. The results revealed that for tastevalue the proportion of the varieties which met the requirements of the standard China Good Grain and Oil was about 42%, which equals to about 37% calculated by promotion area; for chalkiness the proportion was about 90.5%. The average content of crude protein was 8.8%, in which the proportion of samples with the value lower than 8% was 22.1%. It provides a theoretical support for further optimizing standards and effectively promoting action plans in grain and oil in future by getting exactly the general situation of japonica ricequality in China.
    7  Comparative analysis of rice quality standards at home and abroad and development suggestions
    徐广超 谢 天
    2019, 27(6):35-39.
    [Abstract](491) [HTML](193) [PDF 187.50 K](818)
    Abstract:
    In order to promote exchanging and mutually learning on rice standardization at home and abroad, classification, scope of application, quality indicators of rice quality standard were compared and analyzed to find out the similarities and differences between various standards. Combining with actual situation in China, relevant suggestions for rice standardization work in the future were put forward.
    8  Research progress of nutrient content, flour properties, cooking and sensory quality of rice with different milling degree
    吴娜娜 马占倩 谭 斌 姜 平 翟小童 乔聪聪 田晓红 刘艳香
    2019, 27(6):40-45.
    [Abstract](686) [HTML](216) [PDF 211.21 K](662)
    Abstract:
    Rice is the largest staple food species in China, which is closely related to national health. For a long time, it is common to over-process rice which caused serious nutrition loss since pursuit of taste and appearance quality. Because rice bran is rich in nutrients, the milling degree of rice has a significant impact on the nutritional value of rice. Milling process and milling degree will also affect flour properties, and cooking and sensory quality of cooked rice. The effects of milling degree on nutrient content, flour properties, cooking and sensory quality of rice were summerized in order to provide references for the proper processing and milling of rice.
    9  Study on application of detection technology of appropriate processing of rice
    石翠霞 高 岩 张 越 路雪蕊
    2019, 27(6):46-49.
    [Abstract](404) [HTML](185) [PDF 1.42 M](806)
    Abstract:
    In order to meet the requirements of the final quality control and real-time monitoring of rice milling degree during process, a detection technology which was objective and accurate and easy operation was studied by combination of the detection methods of whiteness and residual bran degree of rice. The results showed that the sensitivity of whiteness and residual bran degree could meet the requirements of production process. There was a significant negative linear relationship between whiteness and residual bran degree. In the actual production process, a model could be set between them and with the bran degree used as the final quality control index and the whiteness for real-time monitoring of rice processing.
    10  Effect of extrusion technology on rehydration efficiency of instant brown rice porridge and process optimization
    刘 明 朱运恒 孟 宁 岳崇慧 刘艳香 昝学梅 谭 斌
    2019, 27(6):50-56.
    [Abstract](470) [HTML](194) [PDF 605.27 K](622)
    Abstract:
    In order to meet the demand for brown rice food and improve the rough taste of brown rice and maintain its good nutritional quality, the composite powder of Heilongjiang round brown rice and Jiangxi early nonglutinous brown rice was used as raw material to produce instant brown rice porridge by extrusion puffing technology. Single factor experiments were used to investigate the relationship between processing parameters and the rehydration rate, rehydration time and solid content of instant brown rice porridge. The optimal processing technology was obtained by response surface analysis. The results showed that the optimum process conditions were extrusion temperature of 100 ℃, moisture content of 29.22%, and screw speed of 185 r/min, which had no significant difference with the expected values. The process was stable and feasible, which provided technical guidance for the producers of instant brown rice porridge, and a theoretical basis for the development and utilization of brown rice.
    11  Study on quality improvement of fresh and wet rice noodle
    刘 建 康建平 张星灿 杨 健 白菊红 华苗苗 钟雪婷 吴 淼
    2019, 27(6):57-61.
    [Abstract](560) [HTML](180) [PDF 325.59 K](818)
    Abstract:
    Fresh and wet rice noodles are the traditional staple food of rice products in south China, which contain high moisture, therefore it is difficult to ensure the quality during processing. The effects of different addition quantities of the four quality improvers on the quality of fresh and wet rice noodles were compared with potato modified starch, sodium pyrophosphate, lecithin and sodium alginate as quality improvers, and the cooking loss rate and sensory evaluation of fresh and wet rice noodles as indicators. On this basis, orthogonal tests were designed, and it was found that when adding 5% modified potato starch (dry matter mass fraction, the same below), 0.4% sodium pyrophosphate, 0.4% lecithin and 0.3% sodium alginate, the cooking loss rate of fresh and wet rice noodles was 1.3% and the sensory score was 91.4, which reached the best under the same conditions. Then, the fresh wet rice noodles were prepared with the optimal adding amount of quality improvers selected by single factor experiments, and the noodles with the optimal adding amount of compound quality improvers selected by orthogonal experiment, with the broken rate, cooking loss rate, transmittance and gelatinization degree as the indexes, and the fresh wet rice noodles without quality improvers as control group. Under the same conditions, for the fresh and wet rice noodles with the optimal addition amount of compound quality improver, the broken rate reduced to 1.7%, cooking loss rate reduced to 1.3%, transmittance increased to 0.836, gelatinization degree increased to 92.1%, and the quality improvement effect was the best in the comparative experiment.
    12  Current situation and problems of processing and utilization of whole-wheat food in China
    张 琳 张超凡
    2019, 27(6):62-66.
    [Abstract](433) [HTML](196) [PDF 213.94 K](701)
    Abstract:
    At present, China's whole-wheat food industry is still in its early stage of development. The homogeneity of wholemeal food varieties on the market is serious. It is not consistent with people’s consumption habit of flour products with baked whole-wheat food as staple food. Consumers are not entirely able to buy high-quality, alternative whole-wheat foods since the problems such as poor storage stability, high content of biological active substances and antinutritional factors, which make processing more difficult; and edible quality and food safety needs to be improved, so as the relevant standards, which influence the development of whole-wheat food industry in China. The present situation and existing problems of whole-wheat food processing in China are discussed to provide reference for the improvement and development of whole-wheat food industry in China.
    13  Optimization of extraction of elaiosome from high oleic peanut by enzyme extraction and component analysis
    张丽霞 孙 强 魏松丽 姜 军 孙晓静 姜艳敏
    2019, 27(6):67-74.
    [Abstract](490) [HTML](220) [PDF 3.04 M](506)
    Abstract:
    On the basis of single factor experiments, the process conditions of enzyme extraction of high oleic peanut elaiosome were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) and the components of the elaiosome were analyzed. The results showed that the optimal process conditions were as follows: pH 5.5, liquid-solid ratio 6∶1 (mL/g), enzyme dosage 440 U/g, enzymolysis time 90 min, enzymolysis temperature 60 ℃. Under the optimal conditions, the yield of high oleic peanut elaiosome reached 49.30%, which was consistent with the predicted value. For high oleic peanut elaiosome, the crude fat content was (60.14±3.75)%, and the crude protein content was (8.06±0.63)%. The composition of fatty acid of high oleic peanut elaiosome was not significantly different (p>0.05) with the raw peanuts. The characteristic intrinsic proteins in high oleic peanuts elaiosome were oleosin and steroleosin and the total contents of these two proteins were nearly 80%.
    14  Study on revision of safety quality standard of camellia oleifera seed oil
    薛雅琳 潘俊升 段章群 张 东
    2019, 27(6):75-80.
    [Abstract](378) [HTML](188) [PDF 453.91 K](589)
    Abstract:
    More than 140 camellia oleifera seeds and oil samples were collected from the main producing areas of camellia oleifera by investigating the resources of camellia oleifera in China. The quality of camellia oleifera seeds and the fatty acid composition and quality index of camellia oleifera seed oil were studied and analyzed. The national standard GB/T 11765—2018 “camellia oleifera seed oil” was revised by collecting and analyzing the data. The main technical contents of the standard is introduced in detail in order to help readers understand the intention of revising the various indicators easily.
    15  Study on the relationship between quality indexes of rheological properties of wheat flour
    巴瑞新 于素平 冯丽英 石翠霞 路雪蕊
    2019, 27(6):81-85.
    [Abstract](381) [HTML](199) [PDF 332.09 K](594)
    Abstract:
    56 representative wheat flour samples were detected by Farinograph, Extensograph, Alveograph and Glutograph-E respectively, and the relationship between rheological properties such as farinogram properties, tensile properties, alveogram characteristics and glutomatic properties of wheat flour dough were studied. The results showed that there were significant or extremely significant correlations among some indexes of these rheological properties, and some indicators had their own specificity. In order to improve the efficiency of research and detection, the appropriate indicators should be selected to evaluate the quality of wheat and flour according to the purpose of detection and the end-use of food.
    16  Edible oil packaging finished product warehouse design input conditions and theoretical calculation model of storage capacity
    邵家威 祁国栋 张桂香 付建鑫 张炳文
    2019, 27(6):86-92.
    [Abstract](403) [HTML](205) [PDF 334.16 K](491)
    Abstract:
    Sesame is an important food which is homology of medicine and food and has a high nutritional value. Recently studies showed that the active components in sesame had a lot of functional value. The nutrient components of sesame and the functional value of sesame lignan substances such as sesamin and sesamol researched by modern life sciences were reviewed. The development in future on sesame is prospected to provide support for further research and development of sesame.
    17  Study on the changes of three main components in ganoderma lucidum spores by acid leaching and high pressure method
    吕思敏 何小冰 张丽婷 丁鸿燕 戚 怡 吴 铁
    2019, 27(6):93-97.
    [Abstract](524) [HTML](184) [PDF 265.90 K](599)
    Abstract:
    The effects of acid leaching high pressure method on the content of ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides, ganoderma lucidum total triterpenoids and ergosterol in unbroken ganoderma lucidum spores were compared with those of unbroken and broken ganoderma lucidum spores without being treated by acid leaching and high pressure. The content of ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides in ganoderma lucidum spores was determined by UV-visible spectrophotometry with anhydrous glucose as reference substance; the content of ganoderma lucidum total triterpenoids in ganoderma lucidum spores was determined by UV-visible spectrophotometry with oleanolic acid as reference substance; the content of ergosterol of Ganoderma lucidum spores was determined by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography with ergosterol as a reference substance, and the contents of the three components were compared according to the results. The results showed that for unbroken ganoderma lucidum spores treated by acid-leaching and high-pressure, its content of ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides was significantly higher than that of both unbroken and broken ganoderma lucidum spores without being treated by acid leaching and high-pressure, and the content of ganoderma lucidum total triterpenoids and ergosterol was significantly higher than that of unbroken ganoderma lucidum spores without being treated by acid leaching and high-pressure. The acid leaching high pressure method can be used as a new method for breaking the wall of ganoderma lucidum spores. The content of ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide, ganoderma lucidum total triterpenoids and ergosterol obtained by this method is significantly higher than that of the control group.
    18  Application and prospect of nondestructive testing technology in rice quality detection
    孟 宁 刘 明 刘艳香 昝学梅 孙 莹 张培茵 谭 斌
    2019, 27(6):98-101.
    [Abstract](433) [HTML](196) [PDF 191.64 K](538)
    Abstract:
    As the main grain crop in the world, the quality of rice has become the focus of people's concern with the continuous improvement of living standard. In order to ensure the quality of rice, it is necessary to find or develop more rapid and non-destructive detection methods. Nondestructive testing of rice is the key technology to establish an effective monitoring system for rice quality and safety. The present situation and application of rice quality nondestructive testing technology in China in recent years are reviewed. The research progress and existing problems of nondestructive testing technology of rice quality are elaborated in the aspects of the applications of near infrared spectrum technology, electronic nose technology and computer vision detection technology in rice milling quality, appearance quality, nutritional quality, cooking quality and taste quality. The development of the rice quality detection technology is prospected.
    19  Uncertainty evaluation of the determination of benzo (α) pyrene in edible oils
    李 雪 张 玉 王君虹 白丽萍 朱作艺 刘 军 朱申龙 沈国新 王 伟
    2019, 27(6):102-108.
    [Abstract](509) [HTML](199) [PDF 966.96 K](861)
    Abstract:
    Benzo (α) pyrene in soybean oil was determined by molecular imprinting column purification combined with high performance liquid chromatography (MIC-HPLC). The whole process was analyzed to evaluate the uncertainty of the analytical results. Meanwhile, the uncertainty components were quantified and synthesized by a metrological model of uncertainty. Furthermore, the extended uncertainty of the measurement results was calculated. The results showed that the main factors which affected the uncertainty were the calibration curve, recovery, sample weighting and working solution preparation. When the content of benzo (α) pyrene in soybean oil was 8.735 μg/kg, at 95% confidence interval, the expanded uncertainty was 0.794 μg/kg (k=2). The uncertainty of benzo (α) pyrene in edible oil determined by MIC-HPLC can be reduced by strictly control the processes of the curve fitting, recovery, sample weighting and working solution preparation.
    20  Influence of Ahasverus advena (Waltl) on aflatoxin B1 content in maize
    赵欣欣 王殿轩 肖惠惠 刘鑫宇 刘浩星 孙奂一 都立辉
    2019, 27(6):109-113.
    [Abstract](474) [HTML](204) [PDF 223.07 K](688)
    Abstract:
    It is significant to understand the influence of insects among stored grain on the content of mycotoxin in the storage condition of non-mouldy and non-toxic. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contents in the maize were detected after being infected by larvae and imagos of Ahasverus advena(Waltl) in different time. The results indicated that AFB1 content and mold quantity decreased significantly in the maize infected by the larvae and imagos of A. advena. Imagos were more effective in decreasing AFB1 content than larvae. The lower the broken kernels rate was, the more effective in decreasing AFB1 content. AFB1 content in maize decreased significantly with the insect densities increasing and time going.
    21  Storage test of drying granary by natural ventilation for farmer’s ration paddy
    赵 旭 林 琳 高树成 赵学工
    2019, 27(6):114-117.
    [Abstract](426) [HTML](195) [PDF 632.99 K](626)
    Abstract:
    In view of the actual situation of paddy storage loss of farmers, combined with the characteristics of ecological grain storage in northeast area, a color steel plate combined with double-deck dry granary for farmers ration paddy was developed, and the test of the granary was carried out. The results showed that the granary had stable mechanical property, the function of mildewproof, ratproof, moistureproof and natural air drying was remarkable, which could ensure the quality of paddy very well and successfully reduce the loss of the grain for farmers, it provided technical support for farmers to store grain scientifically.
    22  Investigation on insects in stored grain in Inner mongolia autonomous region
    崔 淼 伍 祎 曹 阳 董 震 陈 鑫 姜俊伊 李 娜 汪中明
    2019, 27(6):118-123.
    [Abstract](404) [HTML](201) [PDF 306.48 K](520)
    Abstract:
    In order to investgate occurrence species and the distribution characteristics of stored-grain insect in Inner mongolia autonomous region, 6 cities and 1 league were selected in total 69 sampling point, including 20 food processing factory, 20 grain depots and 29 farmers. The investigation result shows that there are 6 orders, 25 families, 49 species in this investigation, in which coleoptera is the most abundant species with 38 species in total. The main occurrence species are Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus), Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens). The natural enemies of stored grain pests were few, and 4 species were investigated. What is more, one quarantine insect species: Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) is found in some grain depot. The pest mainly occurred in factories, but the species are more abundant in gain depots. In the three types of sampling point, the main occurrence species are consistant.
    23  Investigation on insects in stored grain in Inner mongolia autonomous region
    孙辉 河野元信
    2019, 27(6):c-1-c-1.
    [Abstract](176) [HTML](193) [PDF 281.99 K](316)
    Abstract:
    In order to investgate occurrence species and the distribution characteristics of stored-grain insect in Inner mongolia autonomous region, 6 cities and 1 league were selected in total 69 sampling point, including 20 food processing factory, 20 grain depots and 29 farmers. The investigation result shows that there are 6 orders, 25 families, 49 species in this investigation, in which coleoptera is the most abundant species with 38 species in total. The main occurrence species are Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus), Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens). The natural enemies of stored grain pests were few, and 4 species were investigated. What is more, one quarantine insect species: Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) is found in some grain depot. The pest mainly occurred in factories, but the species are more abundant in gain depots. In the three types of sampling point, the main occurrence species are consistant.

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