SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF CEREALS, OILS AND FOODS

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Volume 26,Issue 2,2018 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Comparative study on antioxidant activity of brown rice products
    梁润平 翟小童 张文青 谭 斌 刘艳香 田晓红
    2018, 26(2):1-5.
    [Abstract](652) [HTML](179) [PDF 3.07 M](401)
    Abstract:
    3 kinds of brown rice products, cooked brown rice, brown rice noodle and instant brown rice porridge, were prepared to analyze the content of polyphenols in brown rice products and the properties of dietary fiber, and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of brown rice products, with cooked rice as controlgroup. The results showed that the order of content of polyphenols was: brown rice noodles (64.05±0.86mg/100g)> instant brown rice porridge(63.95±2.02mg/100g)> cooked brown rice (50.70±0.02mg/100g)> cooked rice (20.27±0.46) ; The order of flavonoid content was: instant brown rice porridge(736.50±26.05mg/100g)> brown rice noodle (642.27±66.94mg/100g)> cooked brown rice(581.17±21.91mg/100g)> cooked rice (186.81±14.12mg/100g). The difference of the total antioxidant capacity between each of the brown rice products was not significant, each of the total antioxidant capacity was higher than that of cooked rice. The sequence of scavenging DPPH and ABTS+ radical activity was: instant brown rice porridge> brown rice noodle> cooked brown rice>cooked rice(P<0.05). The content of total phenolics and flavonoids were positively correlated with scavenging activity(P<0.01); The content of free total phenolics and flavonoids were significant correlation with total antioxidant activity (r1=0.904,r1=0.824). The adsorption force of dietary fiber of brown rice noodle and instant porridge on fatty acids was about twice as much as cooked rice. The antioxidant activity of dietary fiber of brown rice products was higher than that of cooked rice; the scavenging DPPH radical activity of instant porridge was more than twice as much as brown rice noodle, or more than 4 times as much as cooked rice; the scavenging ABTS+ radical activity of instant porridge and brown rice noodle was 3~4 times as much as cooked rice. Compared with cooked rice, instant brown rice porridge and brown rice noodle had higher content of phenols, which dietary fiber had stronger adsorption force on fat and scavenging ability to free radicals.
    2  Processing technology of highland barley pastry and impacts on β-glucan
    农彦彦 冯才敏 吴子瑜 钟立维
    2018, 26(2):6-10.
    [Abstract](659) [HTML](152) [PDF 2.74 M](410)
    Abstract:
    The optimal formula of highland barley pastry was obtained by single factor test and Box-Behnken experiments, which was: highland barley flour and pea flour(6∶4)100%, sesame powder 20%, peanut 10%, shortening 30%,sugar powder 40% and water 10%. The baking technological parameters were optimized, which were: during baking stage the bottom baking temperature 115℃ for 30min; during color stage surface baking temperature 150℃ for 5min. The effect of the main processing procedure, including moistening, roasting,grinding and baking, on the content of soluble beta-glucan (SBG) of highland barley was analyzed. The results showed that the contents of SBG in barley were not significantly changed after moistening, roasting and baking, while increased 16.0% and 29.5% respectively after beingground by agrinder and a water mill. The highland barley pastry prepared by the optimal formula taste crispy with pure flavor and nutrition.
    3  Research progress of wheat peptides and application
    孙 含 赵晓燕
    2018, 26(2):11-16.
    [Abstract](764) [HTML](182) [PDF 3.42 M](411)
    Abstract:
    The bioactivities of wheat peptides from wheat bran,wheatgerm andgluten were reviewed.The preparation methods of the active peptides were compared.Especially,small molecular weight peptides obtained through hydrolyzing wheat protein with various enzymes were compared.It was found that the compound enzymes were more favorable to improve the yield of wheat peptide.Finally,some problems and the prospect in the research of active peptides were put forward.
    4  Enlightenment from Canada project to the development of pulse industry in China
    李 芳 谭 云
    2018, 26(2):17-20.
    [Abstract](568) [HTML](182) [PDF 2.77 M](364)
    Abstract:
    Pulse is a kind of healthy food resource with high nutrition value. Canada owns a wide variety of pulses and act as the world's largest exporters. To make full use of international science and technology resources and improve national health, CCOA and Pulse Canada, as the coordinator, smoothly organized the international project to promote pulse application in Chinese foods. The project achieved the results in developing nutritional and healthy products, such as noodle, biscuit and steam bread. This would boost the development of pulse industry in China. With the increasing of demand of nutritional food by consumers pulse willgain more and more attention fromgovernment, researchers as well as companies. We should strengthen research on basis and application, stimulate scientific and technological innovation and industry-university-research institute cooperation, and carry out popular science activities and consumer education to facilitate the sustainable development of pulse industry.
    5  Study on simultaneously extracting squalene, tocopherols and phytosterols from soybean oil deodorizer distillate
    代志凯 李祥清 马金萍 陈月英 陈子杰 许新徳
    2018, 26(2):21-24.
    [Abstract](617) [HTML](175) [PDF 2.76 M](367)
    Abstract:
    Squalene, tocopherols and phytosterols were simultaneously extracted from soybean oil deodorizer distillate (SODD) by esterification - high vacuum distillation. The effects of esterification conditions (the amounts of methanol, catalyst concentrated sulfuric acid,and reaction time) on esterification rate, the content of squalene and tocopherols were investigated. The optimum esterification conditions were as follows: concentrated sulfuric acid 0.5%, molar ration of methanol to oil 10∶1, temperature 70℃ and time 120min, the esterification rate of SODD could reach 98.2%, tocopherol and squalene retention rates were 97.7% and 97.5% respectively. The esterification solution was crystallized and filtered to obtain crude phytosterols. The filtrate was further treated by high vacuum distillation to extract fatty acid methyl ester, squalene and tocopherol. The squalene, tocopherols and phytosterols were enriched to 12.2%, 28.6% and about 60% respectively. The proposed method could be used for simultaneous extraction of crude phytosterols, tocopherols, and squalene from SODD, which provided reference for the further purification and enrichment of squalene, tocopherols and phytosterols.
    6  Comprehensive utilization and intensive processing of walnut processing by products
    郭蔓莉 吴 澎 赵路苹 张 慧 丁秀臻 李向阳
    2018, 26(2):25-29.
    [Abstract](625) [HTML](191) [PDF 2.97 M](393)
    Abstract:
    China abounds with walnut,and a large amounts of by products are produced during walnut processing. The extraction of nutritional components from walnut processing by-products and deep processing were reviewed in order to provide theoretical basis and technical support for the further development of deep processing of series products and effective utilization of walnut processing by-products.
    7  Research progress of extraction and microencapsulation of turtle oil
    赵淑静 包建强
    2018, 26(2):30-33.
    [Abstract](581) [HTML](362) [PDF 2.88 M](350)
    Abstract:
    Soft shelled turtle oil is rich in DHA, EPA and many other physiological active substances, and hasgood health care function, and its products have attracted more and more attention. The nutritional efficacy of turtle oil, currently used extraction methods and microencapsulation method were mainly expounded. The recycle of by-product from turtle was prospected, in order to provide reference for the reasonable exploitation and utilization of turtle oil.
    8  Comparative analysis of nutritional and functional components in different kinds of millet
    郑楠楠 綦文涛 王春玲 贠婷婷 幺 杨 任贵兴
    2018, 26(2):34-39.
    [Abstract](667) [HTML](174) [PDF 3.39 M](529)
    Abstract:
    The nutritional and functional ingredients of ten varieties of representative millet were researched. The contents of starch, protein, fat, and the functional active, such as polyphenols, flavonoids and oligosaccharide, were detected. The results showed that the differences of the contents of nutritional and functional ingredients were not the same among the varieties, and the differences of functional ingredients were bigger than those of nutritional ingredients. The variation coefficient of total starch was 5% which meant the contents of total starch was relatively stable. The variation coefficient of crude fat was 17.55%,and the differences among varieties were significant(P<0.05). The variation coefficient of crude protein was 7%, and the differences among varieties were also significant (P<0.05). The total flavonoids had the highest variation coefficient of 51%,and the amplitude of variation ranged from 0.55 to 2.01mg/g. The variation coefficient of total polyphenol was 25%, and the amplitude of variation ranged from 0.65 to 1.41mg/g. The differences of oligosaccharide were also relatively large.The data would be important references for the research and development of millet food and health care products as well as selection and breeding of fine varieties of millet.
    9  Effect of xinyanggreen tea infusion on the baking quality ofgreen tea bread
    邵 颖 刘坤峰 魏宗烽 廉苗苗 杨春丽 邢淑婕
    2018, 26(2):40-44.
    [Abstract](761) [HTML](181) [PDF 3.96 M](403)
    Abstract:
    The tea infusion of Xinyang low-grade spring tea was used to prepared bread. The effect of the ratio of tea to water and water temperature on the specific volume and sensory quality of the bread was studied, and the process was also optimized. The results showed that the ratio of tea to water and water temperature had a significant effect on the specific volume and sensory quality of the tea bread. The optimal process was: the ratio of tea to water was 3∶100g/mL, water temperature 50℃. The specific volume of the tea bread was 5.54mL/g, sensory score 97.8, moisture content 31.2% and the acidity 1.47°T.The microbial indicators accord with national standards. The tea bread not only has the health function ofgreen tea, but also has agood baking quality.
    10  Effects of different physicochemical factors on properties of sodium alginategel
    刘海燕 张 健 李 贞 赵 婷 薛 瀚 李群飞 姜进举
    2018, 26(2):45-48.
    [Abstract](680) [HTML](184) [PDF 2.36 M](384)
    Abstract:
    The effects of differentgel time and aqueous solution with different pH (pH 2~11) on thegel properties of sodium alginate were studied. The results showed that thegel time of alginategel had agreat effect on thegel strength. With the increase ofgel time, thegel strength of sodium alginategradually increased, and tended to be stable and tastedgood after 2h. When the pH of sodium alginate aqueous solution was 6~8, the viscosity and pH of sodium alginategel solution was relatively stable, and the sodium alginategel products had biggel strength,good taste and flexible, and a little water exudation with high sensory evaluation easy to be accepted. Comprehensive analysis showed that the aqueous solution with pH value 6~8, the prepared sodium alginategel had good taste, a littlegel water exudation andgood quality.
    11  Determination of crude protein content ingrain and oil seeds by dumas combustion method
    汪 红 魏亮亮 李 通 王铁良 许 超 刘冰杰 郭 洁
    2018, 26(2):49-53.
    [Abstract](684) [HTML](166) [PDF 2.77 M](336)
    Abstract:
    To improve the efficiency of the determination of the crude protein ingrain and oil seeds, and reduce pollution of the ecological environment caused by reagent consumption, taking wheat, corn, sesame, and peanut as samples, the optimal condition by Dumas combustion method was determined after optimizing the testing parameters, such as sample volume, oxygen flux and oxygen factor. The optimal testing condition was: the temperature of combustion tube 990℃, the temperature of reduction tube 650℃,sample volume 100~180mg, oxygen flux 300mL/min and oxygen factor 1.3~1.6mL/mg. The recovery experiment showed that when EDTA was 80mg, the recovery ratios of the four samples were 99.21%, 100.54%, 99.49% and 99.10% respectively. Compared with Kjeldahl determination, there was no significant difference between the results of the two methods. Dumas combustion method is accurate and reliable attested by both addition test and contrast test, which can replace Kjeldahl determination for the determination of crude protein content ingrain and oil seeds.
    12  Investigation of background value of titanium dioxide in wheat flour
    王佳雅 尚艳娥 呙 琴 张 艳 许 诺
    2018, 26(2):54-57.
    [Abstract](754) [HTML](165) [PDF 2.19 M](373)
    Abstract:
    GB 2760—2014 provides that titanium dioxide should not be used in wheat flour and its products. Therefore, it is critical to judge whether adding titanium dioxide or not into wheat flour and its products by the background value of titanium dioxide. The content of titanium dioxide in wheat flourground in laboratory, wheat flour and its products bought from market were determined by diantipyrylmethane colorimetry ingB 5009.246—2016 and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) ingB 5009.268—2016 in order to provide scientific principles for the background value of titanium dioxide in wheat flour, which had high practical reference value. The results showed that: all of the 60 portions of wheat flourground in laboratory had titanium dioxide with average value as 2.98mg/kg, the amplitude range of 1.42mg/kg~5.42mg/kg, normal distribution, the confidence interval was 2.74mg/kg~3.20mg/kg while confidence probability was 95%. According to the principle of statistics the 20 portions of wheat flour and its products bought from market were tested by ICP-MS method. It is feasible to use 6mg/kg as the detection limit of titanium dioxide, which can reduce the occurrence of misjudgment.
    13  Study and application of rapid detection method of amylose
    李小明
    2018, 26(2):58-62.
    [Abstract](772) [HTML](152) [PDF 2.31 M](436)
    Abstract:
    The pretreatment conditions for the determination of amylose in national standard method was improved by ultrasonic degreasing and constant temperature drying. The content of amylose in rice was detected by amylose detector and verified by the national standard method. The rapid detection method for amylose was established based on colorimetric method. The optimum condition of ultrasonic degreasing was determined by the experiment: water temperature 50℃, and the time 50min; the optimum condition of constant temperature drying: temperature 105℃, drying time 80min.T test showed that there was no significant difference between the results of the two detection methods. This method overcame the human error to agreat extent, shortened the experiment time and improved the accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility of the experiment.
    14  Study on the embedding and stability of zearalenone degrading enzyme ZLHY6
    王浩宇 孙 晶 常晓娇 刘虎军 孙长坡
    2018, 26(2):63-67.
    [Abstract](611) [HTML](184) [PDF 2.96 M](386)
    Abstract:
    The embedding technology of zearalenone degrading enzyme ZLHY6 was studied. The effects of temperature and pH on the embedding enzyme ZLHY6 were investigated and the relative enzyme activity was used to evaluate the stability of enzyme activity of ZLHY6. The results showed that the optimal reaction temperature was 35℃, and the enzyme retained substantial activity after the enzyme incubation at 50℃ for 4h. The optimum pH was 8.0, and 80% enzyme activity was retained after being at pH 5.0 for 2h. In addition,the results of in vitro simulation test of porcinegastrointestinal fluid showed that 61% enzyme activity of the embedding enzyme was retained after being digested bygastric fluid for 4h and intestinal fluid for 2.5h. The tolerance of zearalenone degrading enzyme ZLHY6 against temperature, pH and simulative gastrointestinal fluid was improved after being embedded.
    15  Test of combined ventilation withhorizontal and vertical systems in warehouse
    马文斌 和国文 金勇文 马春云 陈高云 魏 雷 曹 阳
    2018, 26(2):68-71.
    [Abstract](629) [HTML](170) [PDF 2.37 M](373)
    Abstract:
    A combined ventilation system,horizontal aeration combined with vertical aeration, was tested in the rice warehouse with capacity of 1750 tons, which was installed thehorizontal and vertical aeration system. The preliminary study results showed that after ventilation in winter, the moisture of the newharvest rice decreased from 14.0% to 13.5% on average, moisture reduced 0.5%; the averagegrain temperature decreased from 28℃ to 4℃, temperature reduced 24℃. To reducegrain moisture and temperature by combined ventilation withhorizontal and vertical systems in winter is feasible,high efficiency, whichhas agood prospect of application.
    16  Design of the key parameters of automaticgrain stirrer
    靳航嘉 李永祥 王明旭
    2018, 26(2):75-78.
    [Abstract](553) [HTML](172) [PDF 2.03 M](368)
    Abstract:
    Based on the working principle, structure and material movement and mechanics and mathematical analysis of the turning machine, the mathematical model of the key parameters of turninggrain machine is established. The relationship between the optimum speed, pitch, spiral angle and travel speed of ricegrain, wheat, corn and other food materials and the corresponding numerical table under the different yield isgiven. The design of the turning machinehas a certain reference and practical value.

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