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Volume 25,Issue 2,2017 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Wheat quality in China - status and challenge
    孙辉 欧阳姝虹 段晓亮
    2017, 25(2):1-4.
    [Abstract](780) [HTML](203) [PDF 1.85 M](870)
    Currently, the supply of wheat in China is not able to meet the requirement of food market, which causes a high import demand together with a high storage. The yield in China, physical volume of international trade and the main application of Chinese wheat were reviewed. Meanwhile, the market demand for wheat quality, research on quality measurement technology and the quality status quo of wheat in China were analyzed. Aimed at the challenge in front of wheat industry, a strategy is proposed as developing new quality classification standard to improve wheat quality.
    2  Effects of processing methods on the in vitro digestion characteristics of rice products
    杨新生 翟小童 谭斌 刘艳香 刘明 吴娜娜 肖志刚
    2017, 25(2):5-10.
    [Abstract](846) [HTML](202) [PDF 2.55 M](699)
    In order to evaluate the different effects of processing techniques on the in vitro digestion characteristics of rice products and brown rice products, steaming, boiling and extrusion techniques were used to make rice products, and their digestion characteristics, glucose diffusion and rheological property during digestion were stimulated by an in vitro oral-gastric-intestinal tract model. The results show that the glucose contents of white rice products (WRP) were 35%~50%, higher than those of brown rice products (BRP) which were about 10%~25%. The digestion rate of WRP slowed down after 30 ~45 min, while BRP could last for 90 min. The glycemic index(GI) of cooked BR, BR porridge and BR instant porridge were 76.51,83.78 and 65.49, all less than WR products (81.62,85.61 and 82.94, respectively). The porridge products performed higher glucose diffusion with more rapid rate than other type of products. The glucose diffusion rates of cooked BR and WR were 0.08g/min and 0.17g/min. The glucose diffusion of BR instant porridge stared to increase after 30min digestion, with smaller amount. In conclusion, processing techniques affect the digestion characters of rice products. Extrusion could apparently enhance the viscosity of the digestion systems, decrease the digestion and glucose diffusion rates of brown rice produces.
    3  Research on moisture absorption kinetics of millet extruded products
    赵学伟 魏益民 王章存 张华
    2017, 25(2):11-16.
    [Abstract](712) [HTML](197) [PDF 2.48 M](708)
    Extruded-puffed foods absorb moisture extremely easily from environment to cause losing their unique texture characteristic of crispness. The knowledge of the moisture absorption kinetics can help to select proper package materials and storage conditions. Four kinds shape of millet extruded-puffed foods were allowed to absorb moisture from air with different relative humidity levels at different temperatures, and the processes were simulated. Compared with the Peleg and diffusion models, the Weibull model was more suitable for predicting water absorption behavior of millet extruded-puffed foods. At the same temperature, the initial water-absorbing rate approximately linearly increased with the relative humidity of air. At the same relative humidity, the general water-absorbing rate approximately linearly increased with temperature. The lower the temperature was, the higher the relative humidity and equilibrium moisture were. There were little differences in equilibrium moisture between the four samples, while significant differences in water-absorbing rates especially at lower temperature combined with lower relative humidity. The different external layer with pore structure of each sample were possibly the main reason of the various initial water-absorbing rates
    4  Study on the effect of superfine grinding on physicochemical properties of brown rice flour
    彭国泰 吴娜娜 谭斌 吴卫国
    2017, 25(2):17-21.
    [Abstract](808) [HTML](204) [PDF 3.19 M](730)
    The effect of superfine grinding process on the physicochemical properties of brown rice flour was studied. Taking the samples of brown rice flour treated with different superfine grinding frequencies of 0~40 as raw materials, the damage starch content, particle size distribution, hydration characteristics and gelatinization properties as indexes, the differences of physicochemical properties of these samples were compared. The results showed that with the increase of crushing frequency, damage starch content of brown rice flour increased from 7.84% to 14.58%; particle size of D[4,3] decreased from 171μm to 11μm; the water absorption index and swell power increased, water solubility increased at first and then decreased. The results of RVA showed that peak viscosity, trough viscosity, breakdown value, final viscosity and setback increased, initial gelatinization temperature decreased. The results of scanning electron microscopy showed that the starch granules were crushed to form irregular fractionlet with pits on the surface.
    5  Optimization of enzymatic extraction of protein from broken indica rice
    李玉珍 肖怀秋
    2017, 25(2):22-27.
    [Abstract](629) [HTML](186) [PDF 3.00 M](659)
    To improve protein extraction efficiency from broken indica rice, the technology of extraction of broken indica rice protein extracted by neutral proteinase enzymatic extraction was optimized by central composite design and response surface analysis based on the results of Min-Run Res IV factorial design and steep accent experiment. The second-order polynomial nonlinear regression equation and mathematical model were established. The accuracy of the model was validated. The effects of enzyme loading amount X1, enzymolysis time X2, solid-liquid ratio X3 on rice protein extraction rate were analyzed with protein extraction rate and protein purity as the appraisal indexes. The optimum conditions were, enzyme loading amount 0.98%, solid-liquid ratio 1∶10.20, enzymolysis time 74.4min, pH 7.0 and 50℃. The confirmation experiments were carried out under the optimum conditions, the PER was 89.82%±1.06%(n=3), which was well agreement with the predicted value (91.23%). The deviation between the measured and predicted condition was -1.55%. The rice protein purity was 81.02%.
    6  Effect of peanut components on the degradation of aflatoxin B1 treated by atmospheric pressure plasma
    任翠荣 肖军霞 王世清 姜文利 张岩 刘真
    2017, 25(2):28-33.
    [Abstract](828) [HTML](197) [PDF 2.70 M](380)
    The effect of peanut moisture, protein, fatty acid, resveratrol and vitamin E on the degradation of AFB1 treated by atmospheric pressure plasma was explored. The results showed that the degradation rate of AFB1 reached to 62.5% in pure acetonitrile system by plasma of 170V for 100s. Then after adding 6% water , 25% peanut protein, 4mg/100g resveratrol, 40mg/100g vitamin E, fatty acid(oleic acid, linoleic acid and palmitic acid) and multicomponent mixtures, the degradation rate of AFB1 were 72.25%, 51.6%, 60.12%,52.63%,58.3% and 51.08%, respectively. Compared with the pure acetonitrile system, the degradation rate of AFB1 increased by 9.75% after adding water, while the degradation rates of AFB1 decreased after adding other components. Therefore peanut components have effect on the degradation rate of AFB1, and have a guiding role in practical application.
    7  Analysis of the characteristics and primary nutrients in purple-kernel walnut from Guizhou
    文弢 耿阳阳 王港 杨小红 胡译文 何佳丽
    2017, 25(2):34-38.
    [Abstract](766) [HTML](206) [PDF 1.29 M](451)
    Purple-kernel walnut is one of the endemic breeds in southwest China. In order to select high-quality varieties, the fruit characteristics, main nutritional component and fatty acids composition of 11 kinds of purple-kernel walnuts were determined. The results showed that: WR03 met the requirements of first-grade walnut; 22 kinds of fatty acids, including acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, octanoic acid, pelargonate, capric acid, laurel acid, myristic acid, pentadecanoate, 7,10-hexadecadienoate, (Z)-7-hexadecenoic acid, palmitoleate, palmitate, heptadecanoate, 8,11-octadecadienoate, linoleate, oleate, stearate, nonadecanoate, 11-eicosenoate, eicosanoate, behenate, were detected. Oleic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid were the main ingredients in purple-kernel walnut. The qualities of the purple-kernel walnuts selected this time were ordinary without high quality single plant.
    8  Influence of storage moisture content and temperature on growth of fungi and quality of stored paddy
    张海洋 欧阳毅 祁智慧 唐芳
    2017, 25(2):39-43.
    [Abstract](673) [HTML](188) [PDF 1.58 M](839)
    The influence of moisture content and temperature on the growth of fungi during paddy storage and the main quality of the paddy was studied. The paddy with moisture content of 12.1%,13.1%,14.0%,15.1% and 16.0% were stored for 180 days at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 ℃, respectively in order to detect the growth of fungi, change of germination rate and fatty acidity. The results indicated that the moisture content was the determinant of fungal growth. Moisture content 13.1% was below the critical for fungal growth which will not grow under the moisture even if the temperature was suitable;14.0% was above the critical and above the critical value, the higher the moisture content, the more suitable for fungal spores germination, and the higher the temperature, the faster the fungal growth; the fungal growth had a larger influence on fatty acidity than the moisture and the temperature. Under the condition of the moisture content of paddy was below 13.1%, there was no growth of fungi and the fatty acidity value rose slowly. On the other hand, when the moisture content of paddy was above 14.0% and once the fungi grew, the fatty acidity value would rise rapidly. Germination rate was affected by the temperature more than fungal growth and moisture. When the paddy stored in high temperature for half a year, no matter fungal grew or not, the germination rate will almost reduce to zero. Low temperature storage can not only inhibit the growth of fungi, but also keep the seed germination rate.
    9  Study on resin purification process and stability of water-soluble pigments from chrysanthemum
    胡洁芳 洪艳平 刘玉珍 曾璟 万琴 胡远诚 张敏
    2017, 25(2):44-50.
    [Abstract](522) [HTML](189) [PDF 2.54 M](357)
    The pigment extracted from chrysanthemum by hot water method was selected as the investigate object,and purified by DM-28 macroporous resin. Static-dynamic purification conditions of the water-soluble pigments of chrysanthemum were optimized. The stability of the pigment was analyzed. The results showed that the optimal static adsorption-desorption conditions were as follow: adsorption equilibrium time was 3 h, the concentration of sample was the fluid diluted 12 times from the original (namely A390=0.361), sample pH was 2.5, adsorption temperature was 30℃, with pH 3.0, 50% ethanol as eluent for desorption. The optimal dynamic adsorption conditions were: sample concentration was A390=0.361, the sample flow rate was 2.0mL/min, eluted with the flow rate of 1.0mL/min, 80% ethanol. The color value of the purified pigment was 22.5, which was 3.65 times of the former. DM-28 macroporous resin show better comprehensive adsorption property. The pigment was of relatively better stability, could be used as a kind of natural food additive in the food industry.
    10  Determination of 3 kinds of characteristic markers in DHA soft capsules and its quality assessment
    杜双有 宋慧颖 方静 沈文忠 李福高
    2017, 25(2):51-55.
    [Abstract](578) [HTML](223) [PDF 1.47 M](720)
    A method was established for the simultaneous determination of 3 kinds of characteristic markers in DHA soft capsules from different sources. The other physicochemical indexes were comprehensive assessed. The method was: after methyl esterification and derivatization, the methyl esters of DHA, EPA and linoleic acid in different DHA soft capsules were detected by external standard method, and then the contents of the corresponding fatty acid were obtained by conversion. The product characteristics, acid value, peroxide value and arsenic of 4 samples from different companies were in line with relevant national standards. The results of verification test for the determination of DHA methyl ester, EPA methyl ester and linoleic acid methyl ester were as follows: the precisions were 1.39%, 1.43%, 0.5%; the linear ranges were 0.3~2.4mg/mL, 0.2~2.4mg/mL, 0.1~1.6mg/mL; the correlation coefficients were 1.000, 0.9999 and 1.000, which showed good linear relationship; the average recovery ranges were 96.9%~101.4%, 97.5%~100.3%, 95.4%~99.6% ,respectively, which showed that the method had high accuracy; the concentrations of the limit of quantitation (LOQ) were 0.08, 0.04, 0.03mg/mL, respectively. The stability data (RSD) within 24h were 3.19%, 3.65%, 3.02%, which indicated that the sample had good stability.The evaluation results of DHA soft capsule showed that the 3# had high acid value and slow disintegration, the 2# had low content of DHA and linoleic acid, and the 0# had the highest content of linoleic acid among the samples. Compared with other physicochemical indicators, the difference among 4 brand products on the 3 kinds of characteristic markers were larger and the markers were suitable to reflect the key quality.
    11  Detection of volatile components in three edible vegetable oils by solid phase micro-extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
    于丛丛 王玥 金俊 刘一军 金青哲
    2017, 25(2):56-61.
    [Abstract](636) [HTML](187) [PDF 1.85 M](768)
    The aromatic substances illegally added in edible vegetable oil were detected by headspace solid-phase microextraction - gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (HS-SPME-GC-MS). Different brand of peanut oil, sunflower oil, sesame oil and their essences were separated and identified by HS-SPME-GC-MS, the spectra were obtained. The result showed that the main volatile substances in peanut oil, sunflower oil and sesame oil were aldehydes and pyrazine, which account for about 70% of total volatile matter, respectively; that in their essences were esters and phenols, which account for about 60%,70% and 75%, respectively. The result showed that since the fingerprints of GC/MS chroamtograms of vegetable oil were of great differences from those of corresponding essences, HS-SPME-GC-MS can be an effective analytical method to detect the illegal addition.
    12  Determination of acid value of peanut oil by near-infrared spectrometry combined with interval partial least squares
    周小华 张玫 相秉仁
    2017, 25(2):62-64.
    [Abstract](697) [HTML](186) [PDF 1.46 M](695)
    Quantitative analysis model of acid value of peanut oil was performed using near-infrared spectrometry combined with different interval partial least squares (iPLS). Acid value of peanut oil were determined by acid-base titration while NIR spectra data were recorded; three improved partial least squares (PLS) methods, including interval partial least squares (iPLS), backward interval partial least-squares (BiPLS) and moving window partial least-squares (mwPLS), were used to find the most informative ranges; PLS regression models of acid value were built based on the optimal ranges.The results showed that the model by mw PLS method had the best predictive ability, the RMSECV and RMSEP were 0.24776 and 0.1315, and the calibration and prediction coefficient were 0.9932 and 0.9969. Rapidly and accurately determination of acid value of peanut oil can be achieved by NIR combined with mwPLS.
    13  Determination of aldicarb and its metabolites residues in peanut oil by graphene oxide DSPE combined with LC-MS/MS
    倪永付 朱涛 卢经 高洁 李修平
    2017, 25(2):65-68.
    [Abstract](727) [HTML](183) [PDF 1.89 M](842)
    A method was established to determine three pesticides residues,aldicard and its metabolites aldicarb-sulfone and aldicarb-sulfoxide, in peanut oil by graphene oxide dispersive solid phase extraction (DSPE) combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrum (LC-MS/MS). The sample was extracted by acetonitrile and purified by graphene oxide with DSPE and then separated by LC with Poroshell 120 EC-C18,3.0×100mm,2.7μm column. The analysis was carried out in the multi-reaction monitoring mode and external standard method was used for quantification. The results showed that the calibration curve of the three pesticides showed a good linear relationship in the range of 5~150μg/L with the correlation coefficient r=0.991~0.999, the detection limit of the method was 0.6~1.8μg/kg, and the average recovery was 62%~103% at different level. The method is simple, fast, cheap, can meet the requirements of the determination of aldicard and its metabolites residues in peanut oil.
    14  Determination of benzo [a] pyrene and benzo [e] pyrene in food by extraction with dimethyl sulfoxide and purification with refrigerated centrifugation
    邓丽娟 洪霞 钱滢文 高志莹 何海宁 刘琦 周鑫魁
    2017, 25(2):69-73.
    [Abstract](663) [HTML](181) [PDF 1.66 M](682)
    Benzo [a] pyrene and benzo [e] pyrene in food was extracted and purified by refrigerated centrifugation with dimethyl sulfoxide as solvent and analyzed by HPLC-fluorescence detection method. This method can replace the traditional solid-phase extraction column purification method, which is faster, more efficient and accurate in the detection of benzo [a] pyrene and benzo [e] pyrene content. Both target object showed a good linear relationship within range of 0.5~1000ng/mL, when addition was 1~100ng/g, the recovery rate was 89.0%~91.3%, and the relative standard deviation was 1.19%~1.29%; the detection limit was 0.01ng/mL, vegetable fat detection limit was 0.05ng/g, meat and animal fat detection limit was 0.02 ng/g. This method is faster and more convenient in the detection of benzo [a] pyrene and benzo [e] pyrene in animal, vegetable fat and meat products, which is suitable for batch detection.
    15  Study on extraction process of polysaccharide from Mesona chinensis by ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic method
    吉惠杰 杨艳俊 沈启慧 于丽颖 张跃伟 李长健
    2017, 25(2):74-77.
    [Abstract](712) [HTML](193) [PDF 1.72 M](797)
    Taking Mesona chinensis as raw material, the polysaccharides was extracted by ultrasonic assisted enzymatic method. The effects of single factors, including the variety and the concentration of signal enzyme, the concentration of complex enzymes and the ratio, enzymolysis time, enzymolysis temperature and pH on the extraction efficiency of polysaccharides were investigated, and orthogonal experiments was used to optimize the extraction process. Results showed that the optimum conditions were as follows: concentration of complex enzyme (cellulose∶pectinase=1∶1) 5%, enzymolysis temperature 50℃, enzymolysis time 2h and pH of 7. Under these conditions, the extraction efficiency of polysaccharides reached 6.60%.
    16  Optimization of extraction process of Schisandra pigment and its stability
    王珊珊 谷舞 许汝 李泰雅 王缤晨
    2017, 25(2):78-84.
    [Abstract](646) [HTML](186) [PDF 2.97 M](770)
    The extraction technology of Schisandra pigment was optimized by response surface method on the basis of single factor experiment with anthocyanin from Schisandra pigment extract as index and ethanol concentration, extraction time, solid-liquid ratio and extraction temperature as factors. The pigment stability was studied with chroma as index.The results showed that: with the ethanol of concentration of 55% as the extracting solution, the solid-liquid ratio 1∶20g/mL, extracted for 80min at 80℃, the amount of pigment extracted from the fruit can reach the maximum of 11.89 mg/L. The pigment stability experiments showed that light stability was good; sucrose and ascorbic acid were of stable and hyperchromic effect; the pigment was oxygenated easily by hydrogen peroxide, and was stable in acidic, neutral and alkalescent conditions; the pigment changed color under alkali conditions; Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ had little effect on the stability of the pigment, Al3+ had damaging effect on the stability of the pigment, and Fe3+ and Cu2+ had protective effect on the stability of the pigment.
    17  Effect of inert dust on Cryptolestes ferrugineus
    韩志强 郭超 劳传忠 韩冰冰 郑妙
    2017, 25(2):85-88.
    [Abstract](685) [HTML](203) [PDF 1.51 M](766)
    Survival time of Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) was analyzed by mixing food-grade inert dust with paddy on the surface of grain in horizontal warehouse to verify the effect of prevention and control. The survival time of C.ferrugineus was 0.8d in pure food-grade inert dust, 0.9d after mixing 150mg/kg food-grade inert dust with paddy; while 13.3d without paddy and 18.6d in paddy. The results showed that the effect of food-grade inert dust on C.ferrugineusis was obvious, and the application of food-grade inert dust in horizontal warehouse could reduce the amount of C.ferrugineus, but the technology needed to be further studied.
    18  Development of cheyletus eruditus (schrank) at different levels of temperature and relative humidity of grain
    贺培欢 伍祎 郑丹 张涛 李燕羽 江亚杰 曹阳
    2017, 25(2):89-95.
    [Abstract](642) [HTML](195) [PDF 2.53 M](675)
    Cheyletus eruditus (Schrank) has broad application prospects of controlling the stored grain insect pests (SGIP). Developmental duration, developmental threshold temperatur and effective accumulated temperature of C.eruditus were researched at 16, 20, 24 and 28℃ and relative humidity of 57%, 75% and 93% in laboratory. The results showed that it had five stages, including egg, larvae, protonymph, deutonymph and female adult. Development durations of all stages were all negatively correlated with temperature, and their shortest developmental duration of different stages was 3.4,4.4,4.1,3.9, 15 days, respectively. At 28℃, relative humidity 75%, the whole developmental duration was the shortest of 30.8 days, and at 16℃, relative humidity 75%, the development lasted 118.6 days, which was the longest in this study. At relative humidity 75%, almost all the stages of C. eruditus had the shortest developmental duration. There was significant logistics regression between developmental duration and temperature. Based on the direct optimum method, the developmental threshold temperatures of a generation and total developmental duration were 10.39℃ and 11.64℃ respectively, and the effective accumulated temperatures were 367.09 and 543.72 day-degrees. All these results provided a basis for rearing C.eruditus on large scale in factory and the application.
    19  Process parameters test and data analysis of electric heat-storage air heater for grain drying
    刘国辉 王赫 任丽辉 赵学工
    2017, 25(2):96-98.
    [Abstract](721) [HTML](183) [PDF 2.61 M](655)
    The electric heat-storage air heater as a new drying heat source for grain dryer was proved by comprehensive evaluation and data analysis of the production process parameters. The fluctuate of hot air temperature range ≤±3℃ and thermal conversion rate ≥95% without pollutant emission reached the accurate control level of output temperature and heat quantity, and solved the problems of high energy consumption, low thermal efficiency and serious pollutant emission. The allocating power of electric storage heaters for grain drying under the normal condition was determined by selection of process parameters.
    20  Simulation experiment of anti-floating of underground grain silos in sandy soil
    张会军 刘海燕 张庆章
    2017, 25(2):99-104.
    [Abstract](833) [HTML](222) [PDF 2.89 M](669)
    At present, the complete system info about anti-floating design of the underground mass structure has not yet been formed, designers of underground circular grain silo often calculate it without considering the effect of the soil which is good for the silo anti-floating. Based on this, through theoretical analysis, considering the various factors which are good for anti-floating design, such as the wall friction with the soil function, cohesive force between silo bottom and soil, negative pressure possibly existing and so on, adopting the method of indoor simulation experiment, what can be got is that comprehensive reduction factor in dense sand soil can be adjusted to 0.40~0.45, using mathematical analysis for buoyancy reduction factor can be adjusted to 0.94, considering the favorable effect to warehouse of soil body, safety factor, which is based on anti-floating calculation structure on the basis of the principle of Archimedes, safety factor can be adjusted to 0.52, if not, it can be adjusted to 0.99.

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