SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF CEREALS, OILS AND FOODS

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Volume 25,Issue 1,2017 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Research progress on nutrient and functional component in barley
    陈文若 陈银基 贠婷婷 綦文涛
    2017, 25(1):1-5.
    [Abstract](700) [HTML](192) [PDF 1.20 M](744)
    Abstract:
    Barley, as the world′s fourth major cereals, is mainly used for animal feed and beer brewing. But its nutrition, functional component and healthy effects do not be regarded enough. In the last 10 years, barley production and deep-processing was faced with severe situation. The variety and composition of nutritional and functional substances in barley were described in detail. The characteristics of its effects to the human health were summarized. The review would provide references for the deep-processing and scientific consumption of barley.
    2  Influences of three food ingredients on edible quality of corn instant porridge
    陈 雪 刘 明 刘艳香 汪丽萍 吴娜娜 翟小童 田晓红 于国萍 谭斌
    2017, 25(1):6-10.
    [Abstract](720) [HTML](192) [PDF 3.06 M](482)
    Abstract:
    The effects of the variety and addition of ingredients on edible quality of instant corn porridge were discussed. The edible quality indicators of porridge, including grain density, radial expansion ratio, cooking time and sensory quality, were analyzed. The results indicated that the effect of glutinous rice flour, corn starch and xanthan gum on the product quality (P<0.05) was notable and improved the sensory quality of instant porridge. Glutinous rice flour and corn starch could increase the expansion ratio and shorten the cooking time, while xanthan gum could decrease expansion ratio, lengthen cooking time. Three ingredients play a beneficial role on edible quality of instant porridge.
    3  Optimization of the processing technology of germinated highland barley bread
    沈 娜 黄楠楠 周选围
    2017, 25(1):11-14.
    [Abstract](722) [HTML](207) [PDF 1.76 M](770)
    Abstract:
    Based on the effects of the addition amount of germinated highland barley flour, wheat gluten, yeast and water on the quality of highland barley nutrition bread, the optimal processing formula of the bread was studied by orthogonal test. Table L16 (45) was used to test five factors with four levels. The results showed that the optimal processing formula for the nutrition bread was as following: 40% germinated highland barley flour, 8% wheat gluten, 1% yeast and 65% water. The bread had good color with uniform texture, special aroma and good taste. This study lays a foundation for the further deep processing of germinated highland barley.
    4  Research on the change of wheat quality during imbibition
    姚 远 毕文庆 党保华 张 锐
    2017, 25(1):15-18.
    [Abstract](845) [HTML](280) [PDF 1.45 M](878)
    Abstract:
    Taking 3 kinds of commercial wheat seeds as research materials, respectively preparing seed samples:1 hour before budding (imbibition, the seed coat of embryo bulged and separated from embryo, commonly known as the “bubble”), 1 hour after budding (the seed coat of embryo ruptured), 4 hours after budding and the original seed. The structure of embryo was observed by microscope and the change of protein content, gluten and falling number was detected in order to analyze the changes of wheat quality during imbibition. The result showed that the protein content, gluten content and gluten index of imbibitional wheat didn't change obviously. The falling number of bitional wheat decreased, but were all above 200 seconds and significantly higher than that of budding wheat. Imbibitional wheat did not have bad effect on the edible quality and was different from budding wheat. It doesn’t conform to actual production and may cause quality disputes if identifying imbibitional wheat as one kind of sprouted kernel and belonging to the unsound kernel based on the changes in appearance, such as the seed coat of embryo bulged.
    5  Development of Muslim Kunguomo with potato flour
    韩黎明 童 丹 原霁虹 陈亚兰 马小军
    2017, 25(1):19-23.
    [Abstract](766) [HTML](195) [PDF 1.63 M](790)
    Abstract:
    In order to optimize the formula and technology of the Muslim Kunguomo with whole potato flour,the effect of the additions of whole potato flour, wheat flour, egg, white granulated sugar on the sense quality of the Kunguomo was studied. The optimized formula was: wheat flour 7.0kg,whole potato flour 3.0kg,leavening dough 1.0kg, egg 0.7kg, white sugar 0.6kg,vegetable oil 0.5kg,baking soda 50g. The technological parameters were fermentation for 120min, upper baking temperature 220℃, lower baking temperature 240℃, baking time 40min. The Muslim Kunguomo made with whole potato flour was fragrant, glutinous inside with burned outside,taste sweet. The quality of which was in agreement with the standard of the related food product.
    6  Analysis on fatty acid components and physical-chemical indexes of hempseed oil
    伍先绍 凌 海 胡 蓉
    2017, 25(1):24-28.
    [Abstract](818) [HTML](384) [PDF 1.11 M](1663)
    Abstract:
    The characteristic indexes, physical-chemical indexes, and main food safety indexes of hempseed oil which were produced in Guangxi were determined. The results showed that the refractive indexes (n40) were between 1.4698~1.4702, relative densities (d2020)0.9230~0.9261, iodine values 162.8~168.2g/100g, saponification values 189.9~197.0mg/g. 12 kinds of fatty acid compositions, including myristic acid,palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, heptadecanoic acid, cis-10-Heptadecenoic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidic acid, cis-11-Eicosenoic acid and behenic acid, could be detected in hempseed oil by gas chromatography. The total amount of unsaturated fatty acids accounted for 83.6%~90.4%, and the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids were 71.6%~79.1%. The unsaturated fatty acids were mainly oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, accounting for 9.6%~14.7%, 52.2%~58.2% and 15.2%~23.9% respectively. The total saturated fatty acids accounted for 9.3%~12.0%. The main components of the saturated fatty acids were the palmitic acid and stearic acid. The results of characteristic indexes showed that hempseed oils were rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, and were rich in linoleic acid and linolenic acid simultaneously, which had high nutritional and health value. The results of physical-chemical indexes and food safety indexes showed that the contents of moisture and volatile matter, acid value, benzo(α)pyrene and lead should be monitored and controlled, especially for acid value and benzo(α)pyrene.
    7  Construction of micro-emulsion system of sacha inchi oil
    代文豪 梁钻好 李 璐 华洋林 李莉楠 杜 冰 杨子银 邓彩间
    2017, 25(1):29-32.
    [Abstract](817) [HTML](190) [PDF 1.92 M](762)
    Abstract:
    The construction of sacha inchi oil microemulsion system was researched. Taking the content of vegetable oil in microemulsion system as the evaluation indexes, the type of oil, surfactants, cosurfactants and assisted oil phase were optimized by single factor experiment. And the pseudo-ternary phase diagram was measured according to the optimal formula. The result showed that 2.5g sacha inchi oil was compound with 1.5g olive oil, with 2g isopropyl myristate as assisted oil phase, 2g PEG400 as cosurfactant, 2g hydrogenated castor oil as surfactant, the microemulsion system with content of vegetable oil 39.53% was received. The content of sacha inchi oil in the cosmetic was effectively improved by the microemulsion system.
    8  Application of failure mode and effects analysis in safety management of oils & fats extraction plant
    张学鹏 王宏平
    2017, 25(1):33-36.
    [Abstract](649) [HTML](183) [PDF 2.29 M](675)
    Abstract:
    The application of failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) in safety management of the extraction plant's equipment and facilities is described in detail, including to identify the type of fault that may be caused by a single system or component in some devices, to evaluate and analysis of the possible risk of failure, in order to eliminate the risks or to reduced them to an acceptable level based on the existing technology. FMEA method can gradually reduce or eliminate the hidden trouble of equipment and facilities from the source by less cost.
    9  Effect of wheat blending with Australian and Chinese wheat on flour and noodle quality
    常 柳 陈 瑶 段晓亮 孙 辉
    2017, 25(1):37-43.
    [Abstract](734) [HTML](206) [PDF 1.13 M](784)
    Abstract:
    The effect of wheat blending on flour and noodle quality was studied with 3 kinds of Australian wheat and 2 kinds of Chinese wheat blended in different proportions. The results showed that the flour extraction of Australian wheat was higher than that of the tested Chinese wheat under the condition of the same ash content. Wheat blending changed some quality characters, for example,gluten strength, dough rheological properties. Australian wheat A1 Premium White) could improve the noodle quality of Chinese wheat significantly. Australian wheat A2(Prime Hard) could improve the noodle uality of the Chinese inferior wheat significantly, while the noodle quality made of the two kinds of Chinese wheat was not improved ignificantly by Australian wheat A3(Hard). The best combination was C3A1 (50∶50). Quality characteristics were closely related to the quality of raw wheat after wheat blending.
    10  Analysis of relativity between wheat flour quality indicators and bread sensory quality
    张强涛 丁卫星 王圣宝 贾祥祥 张 涛 韩耀光 田红玉 曹 阳
    2017, 25(1):44-47.
    [Abstract](874) [HTML](300) [PDF 1.23 M](1081)
    Abstract:
    11 different varieties of wheat flour were selected to determine the quality characteristics, and to evaluate the quality of toast bread made by laboratory method. According to the correlation analysis and regression analysis between wheat flour quality characteristics and score of toast, the wet-gluten, stability time, degree of softening, extension area, extensibility, the maximum resistance to extension have a remarkable effect on the total score of toast bread. The regression equation between these quality indicators and toast total score is: total score of toast bread=-248.26+6.389×wet-gluten+0.755×stability time+1.243×degree of softening-0.283×extension area +0.236×extensibility+0.078×maximum resistance to extension. The coefficient between the total score of bread and the predicted by equation is 0.9624, which has very significant positive orrelation.
    11  Determination of 11 kinds of organophosphorus pesticides residue in highland barley by GC-MS
    杜 艳 马 萍 张建玲
    2017, 25(1):48-50.
    [Abstract](693) [HTML](186) [PDF 1.27 M](721)
    Abstract:
    To realize the situation of pesticide residues in highland barley, 11 kinds of common organophosphorus pesticides were determined simultaneously bygas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Sample preparation methods were optimized and thegC-MS analysis conditions were confirmed. The results showed that the samples were soaked in water, distilled with acetonitrile (1∶2), extracted by extraction kit containing sodium chloride and anhydrous sodium sulfate. The organic phase was recovered, and the concentrated solution was purified by purification kit QuEChERS and measured bygC-MS. 11 kinds of organophosphorus pesticides, in the range of 0.1~1.0mg/mL, showed agood linear relationship, correlation coefficient of methamidophos ≥0.99, of the other 10 compounds≥0.999, the average recoveries of standard addition was 79.25%~122.98%, and the relative standard deviation was 0.54%~5.84%.The method is simple, rapid, with less solvent and high sensitivity, and the results are accurate and reliable, which is suitable for the simultaneous determination of organophosphorus pesticides, and provides technical support for detection and control of organophosphorus pesticides in highland barley.
    12  Determination of aluminum content in flour products by spectrophotometry and ICP-MS
    孙 宁
    2017, 25(1):51-53.
    [Abstract](740) [HTML](199) [PDF 1.36 M](781)
    Abstract:
    Aluminum is a kind of metal elements with low toxicity, which can enter into human body with food. Excessive intake will lead to illness. The food additives containing aluminum were frequently detected in foods. At present, spectrophotometry is recommended as a method for detection of aluminum content in flour products in the national standard. The aluminum content in flour products was determined by spectrophotometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) respectively, to compare their detection limit, accuracy and recovery rate. The results showed that the two methods had relativity with high accuracy and recovery rate, without significant difference in statistics. But the detection by spectrophotometry had the demerit of complex operation and more reagent consumption compared with ICP-MS, which had many advantages such as less amount of reagent consumption, lower detection limit, withgood stability and high efficiency,which was worth popularizing and applying in determination of aluminum content in flour products.
    13  Comparative study on the rapid quantitative detection of mycotoxins ingrain
    李小明 银尧明 罗 颖 王 霞 张 华
    2017, 25(1):54-57.
    [Abstract](857) [HTML](200) [PDF 1.09 M](737)
    Abstract:
    The aflatoxin B1 and deoxynivalenol in corn was quantitatively detected by portable mycotoxin rapid quantitative detector, the result was compared with that by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed that the detection limit of aflatoxin B1 was 1.75μg/kg by rapid quantitative detection card. The accuracy had no significant difference between the two methods; weight measurement range of the coefficient of variation between 7%~11.2%, the average coefficient of variation was 8.7%; no significant difference among the quantitative detectors. The detection limit was 0.078 mg/kg by deoxynivalenol rapid quantitative detection card; no significant difference among the quantitative detectors. The portable quantitative detector has the advantages of simple, fast, low cost, can realize site operation and upload real-time data and recording monitoring site location, which is worth promotion, particularly being used in the health survey, research, screening and other field.
    14  Application of near infrared spectroscopy technology in food industry
    孙玉侠
    2017, 25(1):58-60.
    [Abstract](644) [HTML](187) [PDF 1.09 M](739)
    Abstract:
    Near infrared spectroscopy is a nondestructive, rapid and efficient detection technology. The application of near infrared spectroscopy in food industry in recent years was introduced. In the aspects ofgrain picking, the quality and safety control during storage and process, food nutrients and detection models of storage indexes and health security, the near infrared spectroscopy in food safety online detection have the feasibility, which can provide support for real-time online detection of the “food security” project in our country.
    15  Development of coagulative yogurt with pea protein
    李 颖 刘洪竹 李国强 迟明梅
    2017, 25(1):61-63.
    [Abstract](809) [HTML](196) [PDF 1.60 M](774)
    Abstract:
    A new type of coagulative yogurt was developed, using fresh milk as raw material and adding pea protein powder. The optimum fermentation conditions were determined by signal factor and orthogonal experiments. The results showed that the optimal parameters were: the addition amount of pea protein powder 6%, fermentation time 3.5h, inoculum size of leaven 4%, fermentation temperature 40℃, and addition amount of sucrose 6%. Under these conditions, the yogurt hasgood quality and the highest sensory evaluation score, with acidity 79~90°T, delicate tissue, a little whey separated and delicious flavor of pea protein powder and yogurt.
    16  Optimization of hot water extraction process of schisandrae chinensis polysaccharide and its in vitro antioxidation property study
    王珊珊 李泰雅 谷 舞 许 汝
    2017, 25(1):64-69.
    [Abstract](710) [HTML](181) [PDF 3.19 M](707)
    Abstract:
    The hot water extraction of schisandrae chinensis polysaccharide under different conditions was studied. The crude polysaccharide was eproteinized by sevage method. The scavenging ability of schisandrae chinensis polysaccharide against hydroxyl free radical was researched. The effect of different extraction temperature, solid-liquid ratio and extraction time on extraction yield was researched by single factor and response surface analysis. The results showed that the maximum extraction yield was 16.13% with solid-liquid ratio of 1∶30 under 85 ℃ for 3h. The crude polysaccharide solution was treated by sevage method repeatedly for 5 times, the clearance rate against protein could reach 92.58%, while keeping the polysaccharide in the maximum limit. The result of antioxidant performances showed that as the concentration of fructus schisandrae chinensis polysaccharide was 10mg/mL and the processing time was 1h, the clearance rate against hydroxyl free radical was 96.61%, which was much better than that of Vc.
    17  Preliminary study on production of feeding cottonseed meal by bagging solid-state fermentation
    韩 伟 刘 倩 李晓敏 张晓琳
    2017, 25(1):70-73.
    [Abstract](628) [HTML](222) [PDF 2.19 M](692)
    Abstract:
    The change of virulence factors, nutritional components and microbes in cottonseed meal was researched in the bagging solid-state fermentation system with probiotics and proteinase as main participants. The results showed that compared to the unfermented cottonseed meal, the freegossypol decreased by 30.3%, the acid soluble protein increased by 77.8%, and the crude protein was not different significantly in 72 h. In 60 d detection, pH decreased to 5.5 or so, the content of bacillus subtilis was more than 1.0×107cfu/g and mould content was less than 1.0×104cfu/g. Therefore, the application of bag fermentation for producing cottonseed protein, not only improves the nutrition, but also is conducive to the preservation of wet feed.
    18  Study on preventing condensation in low temperature heat pipe forgrain storage by natural cold source
    刘金光 熊旭波 王世清 张 岩 姜文利
    2017, 25(1):74-79.
    [Abstract](789) [HTML](169) [PDF 2.71 M](714)
    Abstract:
    In order to solve the condensation problems between thegrain around the heat pipe ingrain warehouse with heat pipe by natural cold source,an electromagnetic valve was added in the heat pipegroup to control operation of the refrigerant in the heat pipe according to the temperature difference between the external environment and thegrain layer around the heat pipe. The micro measuring device of temperature and humidity in warehouse was designed and manufactured. The change of the air relative humidity and dew point temperature difference in porosity of grain bulk was studied; the relationship between temperature control of electromagnetic valve and condensation was discovered.The results showed that in the range of 5℃~20℃, the higher thegrain moisture content, the higher the dew point temperature of the air in the barn, the smaller the dew point temperature difference. In natural cold source low temperature heat pipegroup, the calculation formula for the temperature control of the electromagnetic valve was:y=-0.2149x3+7.439x2-86.384x+343.43(the y was the temperature control of the electromagnetic valve; x was the moisture content of wheat). This research provides the theoretical foundation and technical support for the practical application of heat pipe technology in largegrainwarehouses.
    19  Study on transverse ventilation system in 27 meters wide warehouse for paddy
    马春云 曹 阳
    2017, 25(1):80-84.
    [Abstract](810) [HTML](195) [PDF 2.63 M](710)
    Abstract:
    In order to research the feasibility of the application of transverse ventilation in 27 meters wide paddy warehouse, the fluid characteristic parameters were measured by a set of transverse ventilation system installed in the paddy warehouse and some static pressure tubes in the paddy heap. The calculating formula of unit profile resistance and facilities resistance was acquired. The result indicated that transverse ventilation was ofgood uniformity, in the applicable range of unit ventilation quantity the total systemic resistance was within 1 400 Pa, which indicated that the scheme of transverse ventilation was feasible to 27 meters wide paddy warehouse, which laid a foundation for improving the design and application of transverse ventilation system technology.
    20  Application of phase change energy storage materials in vertical silos for controlling temperature in paddy storage
    高树成 李 佳 赵学工
    2017, 25(1):85-87.
    [Abstract](800) [HTML](211) [PDF 3.25 M](679)
    Abstract:
    The storage of paddy under quasi-low temperature with phase change energy storage material was tested to solve the problem ofgrain damage caused by high temperature inside silos in summer and theget- hot-grain surface. Three different kinds of silo, which weregeneral silo No.29, heat-insulation-treated silo No.30 and silo No.31 made of phase change energy storage material, were chosen for contrast experiment. The temperatures inside of the silos and on thegrain surface were measured with the change of outside temperatures. The results showed that for silo No.31 both the temperatures inside of the silo and on thegrain surface were the lowest, further more they hardly changed with the outside temperature. The silo can control the temperatures both inside of the silo and on the surface of grain effectively, thereforegrain storage by quasi-low temperature is realized.
    21  Analysis of potential hazard and precaution ongrain pile collapse
    张 涛 李 娜 杨振和 苏振华 高玉树 徐永安 曹 阳
    2017, 25(1):88-91.
    [Abstract](774) [HTML](190) [PDF 1.09 M](739)
    Abstract:
    Sincegrain pile collapse accidents occurred now and then ingrain storage depots, in order to enhance the cognition on the characteristics of the collapse accident and the ponderance of the harm among thegrain warehouse personnel and improve the working safety coefficient of the staff, the hidden trouble was analyzed, the cause of the accident was explored, the pre-alarm and prevention and emergency disposal methods were provided.

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