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Volume 24,Issue 6,2016 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Optimization of process of extruded brown rice
    高扬 卢淑雯 任传英 洪滨 李家磊 王崑仑 张莉莉
    2016, 24(6):1-7.
    [Abstract](617) [HTML](156) [PDF 8.12 M](390)
    Based on single-factor experiments, the effect of parameters (rotary speed of screw, moisture content, die temperature, drying temperature) on the texture and the rehydration rate of extruded brown rice was investigated by using the self - developed of twin-screw extruder and response surface methodology. The extruding parameters were optimized by response surface methodology. The optimal processing conditions was that the rotary speed of screw was 350 r·min-1, moisture content 31%, die temperature 75℃ and drying temperature 65℃. Under the condition, the texture comprehensive score and rehydration rate was 75.6 and 82.8%, respectively. The results suggested that the optimized process could improve the mouthfeel and cooking characteristic of brown rice, and their edible quality, which had a potential value of industrial application.
    2  Research on the factors affecting the quality of corn-wheat steamed bread
    邓琦 李再贵
    2016, 24(6):8-12.
    [Abstract](748) [HTML](147) [PDF 1.54 M](722)
    The effects of addition amount of corn powder, the protein content of wheat flour, the particle size of corn powder and edible polysaccharide on corn-wheat steamed bread were studied by orthogonal experiment based on single factor experiments. The factors were researched by texture analysis and sensory evaluation combined with principal component analysis. The formula of corn- wheat steamed bread was optimized. The results showed that the optimal formula was addition amount of corn powder 50%, the protein content of wheat flour 14%, the particle size of corn powder was 80 eyelet.
    3  Research progress on the influence of extrusion processing on the physicochemical properties of starch
    王盼 汪丽萍 田晓红 吴卫国 谭斌
    2016, 24(6):13-17.
    [Abstract](726) [HTML](149) [PDF 1.18 M](802)
    Extrusion processing technology is one of an important modern food processing technology,it has been widely used in grain food processing.Many studies have shown that extrusion processing has brought significant physical and chemical changes in the cereal starch which affects the quality of products. The different parameters in extrusion process could produce different effects on the change of starch.The effects of extrusion processing on the physical and chemical properties of grain starch was reviewed from the aspects of starch composition, molecular structure,particle characteristics,crystallization characteristics,gelatinization properties and hydration characteristics,in order to provide an important basis for the processing of cereal food and the application of starch modification.
    4  Ascertainment of the shelf life of flax kernel paste by constant temperature acceleration experiment
    胡晓军 刘超 许光映 李群 高忠东 王振
    2016, 24(6):18-20.
    [Abstract](594) [HTML](150) [PDF 1.54 M](730)
    In order to predict the shelf life of flax seed kernel paste, taking the flax seed kernel collected form market as raw material, peroxide value and acid value as physicochemical indexes, total number of bacterial colony, coli group and pathogenic bacteria as hygienic indicators, the test was carried out by classical constant temperature accelerated test at temperatures of 36℃ and 46℃. Based on the shelf life test ALST: θ(ST1)=θ(ST2)×Q10(T2-T1), the shelf life of the paste at room temperature (25℃)was calculated. The results showed that the shelf life of the flax seed paste was 317 days with Q10=1.227 under 25℃, packed with boiling-resistant plastic package. The method of rapid determination of the shelf life of the sterilized flax seed paste was established, which has reference value for shortening the development periods of the relevant products.
    5  Enzymatic properties of recombinant rhizopus oryzae lipase and its application in concentration of DHA by hydrolysis of anchovy oil
    朱东奇 李道明 王卫飞 杨博 王永华
    2016, 24(6):21-25.
    [Abstract](706) [HTML](164) [PDF 2.25 M](669)
    Rhizopus oryzae lipase is one of the widely used industrial lipase. The enzymatic properties of recombinant rhizopus oryzae lipase were evaluated and it displayed strong 1,3 regiospecificity in hydrolyzing triglyceride; meanwhile, it showed 37.42% and 8.0% relative activity towards eicosapentaenoic acid(EPA) and docosahexenoic acid(DHA) compared with oleic acid in esterification reaction. Anchovy oil is one of the main sources of natural EPA/DHA and it contains 12.1% DHA. The result of 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum showed that DHA in anchovy oil was preferentially located at sn-2 position of the glyceride. Based on above, recombinant rhizopus oryzae lipase was employed to hydrolyze anchovy oil to concentrate DHA, and the contents of DHA in produced 1,2-diacylglycerol and monoacylglycerol reached to 19.7% and 25.2% accompanying with a recovery yield of 65.6%. The results demonstrated that recombinant rhizopus oryzae lipase was a prospective lipase which could be used in enrichment of DHA by hydrolysis of anchovy oil.
    6  Optimization of preparation of lactone tofu with gordon euryale seed
    李妍 孙巧珍 董基
    2016, 24(6):26-29.
    [Abstract](691) [HTML](160) [PDF 1.57 M](708)
    A kind of lactone tofu was prepared by using gordon euryale seed and soybean as main raw materials and adding delta-gluconolactone(GDL) as tofu coagulant. The optimum technology parameters were acquired by single factor and orthogonal experiments, while sensory evaluation and dry base yield of the lactone tofu as indicators. The optimum parameters were the ratio of soybean to water 1∶5g/mL, the ratio of seed to water 1∶15g/mL, the ratio of soybean milk to seed slurry 8∶2mL/mL, additive amount of GDL 0.30%, at 85℃ water bath for 40min till tofu coagulated. The product was acquired by cooling and setting. It was beige white, and had soybean flavor and gordon euryale seed flavor.
    7  Research on determination of cooking loss rate of dried noodles
    田晓红 张敏 沈群 汪丽萍 谭斌 吴娜娜 刘明 刘艳香 翟小童
    2016, 24(6):30-33.
    [Abstract](637) [HTML](153) [PDF 2.41 M](492)
    In order to simplify the procedure of determination of cooking loss rate of dried noodles, and improve the efficiency of determination, a new determination method was established.A certain weight of dried noodles was cooked,and the cooked noodle was evaporated to constant weight in an air oven. The ratio of lost weight and original weight was defined as noodlecooking loss rate. The results exhibited that a positive linear correlation between new method and the method in the industrial standard was y=1.0824x-0.00598,which was statistically significant(F=20.154,P<0.001) , and the coefficient of determination R2=0.9466(P<0.01). New method can be used to determine noodle cooking loss rate instead of that in industrial standard at a certain extent.
    8  Application of enzyme preparations in baking bread
    陈书明 陈玮
    2016, 24(6):34-37.
    [Abstract](640) [HTML](156) [PDF 2.58 M](746)
    The applications of two kinds of enzyme preparation in the dough frozen for 1 day and 3 days were studied. The results indicated that with the extension of the frozen storage time, the fermenting power of dough, the survival rate of yeast, the specific volume of bread and the softness of bread were all in the trend of decline. Compared with the control group, the fermentation property of frozen dough and bread quality was improved obviously by α-amylases and xylanase. Frozen for 1 day, the survival rate of yeast, the specific volume of bread and the softness of bread were the best ones when the amount of α-amylases was 0.4g/kg or the amount of xylanase was 0.8g/kg; the fermenting power was best when the amount of α-amylases was 0.6g/kg or that of xylanase was 0.4g/kg.Frozen for 3 days, the survival rate of yeast, the specific volume of bread and the softness of bread were the best ones when the amount of α-amylases was 0.6g/kg; fermenting power was the best when the amount of α-amylases was 0.8g/kg;the softness of bread was the best when the amount of xylanase was 1.2g/kg; the survival rate of yeast, the specific volume of bread and the fermenting power were the best ones when the amount of xylanase was 0.8g/kg.
    9  Optimization of process of sugar-free cake with Rhiizoma dioscoreae-buckwheat
    2016, 24(6):38-41.
    [Abstract](803) [HTML](187) [PDF 2.21 M](714)
    The formula of a kind of sugar-free cake with Rhiizoma dioscoreae and buckwheat was prepared. The optimal formula and factors were ascertained by single factor experiments and orthogonal experiment,which was mixed flour (buckwheat flour∶wheat flour=4∶6)100g, Rhiizoma dioscoreae pasty 70g, xylitol 40g, baking powder 1.7g, egg 150g, soybean oil 20g, cake oil 3.5g, fresh milk 20g, baked at 180℃ for 20min. In this condition, the sugar-free cake with Rhiizoma dioscoreae and buckwheat was produced withgolden color,and delicious and pure taste.
    10  Microbial components of wheat Qu and its influence on the quality of Jimo rice wine
    李静 谭海刚
    2016, 24(6):42-44.
    [Abstract](671) [HTML](144) [PDF 1.66 M](670)
    The compositions of microbiologic population in two kinds of distiller's yeast of Jimo rice wine were researched. The results showed that the main microbe categories in the two distiller's yeast were all bacteria, mycete and microzyme, but the compositions of microbiologic population were significantly different. The ratio of bacteria, mycete and microzyme was 3∶6∶4 in the distiller's yeast A, while it was 60∶15∶1 in distiller's yeast B. Both of the two kinds of distiller's yeast were used for the brewing of Jimo rice wine, the replacement order of the microbiologic population during brewing with distiller's yeast A was mycete-microzyme-bacteria, alcoholic strength 11%(v/v),solid content 9.0 Brix,sensory evaluation 75 points; the replacement order of the microbiologic population during brewing with distiller's yeast B was bacteria-mycete-microzyme, alcoholic strength 6%(v/v),solid content1 6.0 Brix, sensory evaluation 66 points.The different compositions of microbiologic population leads to the different quality of rice wine.
    11  Research on purification of total flavonoids extracted from polygonatum by macroporous resin
    宁波 于丽颖 王晓林 谭乃迪
    2016, 24(6):45-49.
    [Abstract](710) [HTML](163) [PDF 1.43 M](703)
    Taking polygonatum extraction as raw material, the adsorption rate and desorption rate of total flavonoids as the indexes, the type of macroporous resin was screened out by dynamic adsorption - desorption method. The process condition of absorbing the total flavonoids of polygonatum by D-101 resin was established by single factor experiments and orthogonal experiment; the main factors, concentration and dosage of eluent, was discussed. The optimal adsorption process condition was: the amount of macroporous resin 55g, the concentration of upstream solution 40.54μg/mL, pH 6, and adsorption velocity 0.5BV/h. During the process of desorption solution, the concentration of ethanol was 60% and the dosage of ethanol was 100mL. After being purified by D-101 macroporous resin, the purity of total flavonoids was increased from 0.36%to 2.05%. This purification method is cheap, safety, simple and has a high application value.
    12  Identification method of maize qualitygrades based on machine vision
    周鸿达 张玉荣 王伟宇 陈赛赛
    2016, 24(6):50-56.
    [Abstract](755) [HTML](181) [PDF 2.71 M](636)
    Volume weight is the main index of maize qualitygrades according to national standard. In order to discriminate the maizegrades accurately by machine vision, thegrain image of four differentgrades of maize were adopted by the method of image processing with the industrial camera, the kernels and their background were processed, divided by the average filter, Otsu and morphological operation, the characteristic parameters were selected. The number of optimal main factors was determined by principal component analysis (PCA). The 8-21-4 three layers BP neural network model was established for the identification of maizegrades based on volume weight. Results showed that the overall recognition rate was over 90% based on the image of complete kernel and the kernel transverse section by BP neural network. So the model had high feasibility for detecting maizegrades.
    13  Analysis of supervision on transgenic imported maize at Zhoushan port
    周圆 张明哲 单长林 陈宇 李孝军 王筱筱 杨赛军
    2016, 24(6):57-62.
    [Abstract](581) [HTML](155) [PDF 1.35 M](650)
    The safety of transgenic agricultural products has been highly concerned by the state and the community. The development of transgenic maize was reviewed; the management and relevant laws and regulations for transgenic agricultural products in some countries were analyzed. The inspection of transgenic maize in recent years at Zhoushan port was summarized. The problems and risks supervision on transgenic products were discussed. The specific recommendations were proposed in order to facilitate the supervision of imported transgenic maize for inspection and quarantine departments.
    14  Determination of total mercury in paddy and products by mercury analyzer
    曾云军 周斌 陈俊旭 汪泽生
    2016, 24(6):63-66.
    [Abstract](663) [HTML](150) [PDF 1.17 M](633)
    Determination method for total mercury in paddy and products directly by mercury analyzer was established. Meanwhile, the total mercury content in 20 portions of paddy sample had been investigated by the method. The results indicated that agood linearity was observed within a range from 0~400ng,theminimum detection limit was 0.1μg/kg, theminimum quantitative limit was 1μg/kg, the relative standard deviation (RSD) was less than 2.0%. The results of determining national reference material, Liaoning rice (GBW10043) and Hunan rice(GBW10045), were all in the scope of standard values. Compared with national method, the result has no remarkable difference. The total mercury in both paddy and products were all below the national standard limit. The mercury were main concentrated in rice, secondly in the rice bran, while nearly none in rice husk.
    15  Determination of nonylphenol in vegetable oil bygas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
    吴维吉 李旭 刘佳 李凤旭 王晋威 李荃
    2016, 24(6):67-70.
    [Abstract](726) [HTML](158) [PDF 2.14 M](639)
    A method based ongas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was developed for the determination of nonylphenol (NP) in vegetable oil. The oil sample was extracted by ocean eddies with acetonitrile as solvent and purified by dispersive solid phase extraction. The results showed agood linear relationship when the content of nonylphenol was in the range of 0.02~1mg/L, correlation coefficient was 0.9992, The recovery rate on 0.02mg/kg ,0.06mg/kg and 0.2mg/kg were in the rage of 82.3%~94.7%. The limit of detection was 0.02mg/kg.
    16  Evaluation of uncertainty in determination of arsenic content in food additives by atomic fluorescence spectrometry
    梁震 陈旻实 刘伟 王巍 武敏建 赖佳佳
    2016, 24(6):71-75.
    [Abstract](690) [HTML](143) [PDF 1.83 M](367)
    According to the national compulsory food safety standards National food safety standard -Determination of arsenic in food additives (GB 5009.76-2014), which was just fully implemented, the mathematical model for determination of arsenic content in food additives was introduced by investigating from the standard solution with the baking powder as a representative sample. The components of uncertainty in the detection process were classified and quantified, and were evaluated systematically. The combined uncertainty and the expanded uncertainty at 95% confidence intervals were obtained. Finally, the evaluation of uncertainty for determination of arsenic content in food additives by double channel hydridegeneration atomic fluorescence spectrometer was established. The experimental determination result was arsenic content 1.73±0.24mg/kg. The major uncertainty sources were the preparation of standard intermediate liquid and calibration working solution, curve fitting process and repeatability test.
    17  Preliminary study on screen of detoxified strain of zearalenone and mechanism of detoxification
    张倩 熊犍 赵晨 汪洋 张晓琳
    2016, 24(6):76-81.
    [Abstract](880) [HTML](153) [PDF 3.34 M](702)
    The study was aimed to screen the strain for efficiently detoxifying zearalenone(ZEN). Two strains named Fu2-3 and Fu41-3 withgood performance in scavenging ZEN were screened out by 96-well plate high throughput screening among 135 soil samples collected from different areas where were highly infected bygibberellic disease. The strains were preliminarily identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus tequilensis based on 16S rRNAgene sequencing. The preliminary study on their detoxification mechanism showed that they were able to adsorb ZEN, but the main detoxification was bio-degradation. The result of BLYES assay indicated that the detoxification system of strain Fu41-3 still contained considerable estrogen toxicity,while strain Fu2-3 did not, by which ZEN would be transformed into metabolite with extremely low estrogenic toxicity. The two strains were isolated through screening, which provides theoretical evidence for bio-detoxification of ZEN.
    18  Enzymatic synthesis of rosin acid starch ester in micro-solvent system
    巫佳 林日辉 贺俊斌 何超红 兰玉荣
    2016, 24(6):82-86.
    [Abstract](770) [HTML](158) [PDF 3.30 M](638)
    The synthesis of rosin acid starch ester catalyzed by lipase under the micro-solvent system was studied by using the materials of rosin and cassava starch and tertiary amyl alcohol as the solvent. The effect of the factors, including rosin-starch ratio, reaction time, reaction temperature and dosage of lipase, on the degree of substitution (Ds) of rosin acid starch ester were mainly analyzed. The optimal condition was rosin-starch ratio 4∶1, reaction temperature 55℃, reaction time 10h,dosage of lipase 4%. The structure of the product was analyzed by FT-IR, XRD and SEM. The results showed that a C=O stretching vibration absorption peak at 1725cm-1 was observed, which indicated the rosin and starch was formed into rosin acid starch ester, with keeping the original crystal morphology and structure of starch. And the lipophilicity of rosin acid starch ester was investigated. Compared with the cassava starch, the oil-absorption capacity of rosin acid starch ester for olive oil was increased by 166.67% in octane. The reaction of micro-solvent system largely reduced the cost and increased the quantity of products.
    19  Optimization of extraction of pomegranate peel polyphenols and research on the bacteriostatic activity
    许汝 王珊珊 谷舞 李泰雅
    2016, 24(6):87-92.
    [Abstract](581) [HTML](162) [PDF 2.81 M](635)
    In order to explore the best extraction technology of pomegranate peel polyphenols by ethanol under different conditions, the influences of ethanol concentration, solid-liquid ratio, extraction time and extraction temperature on the extraction yield were researched by the single factor experiments and response surface analysis. The results showed that: the extraction yield of pomegranate peel polyphenols was 14.09% under the condition of taking 60% ethanol solution as extractant, with solid-liquid ratio 1∶25g/mL, at 30℃ extracting for 60min. The results of bacteriostatic experiment showed that theminimum bacteriostasis concentration of pomegranate peel polyphenols against staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli, was 3 mg/mL,while the diameters of the inhibition zones were 9.36mm and 8.64mm respectively.
    20  Analysis of natural convection andheat transfer ingrain bulk during sealed storage
    尉尧方 王远成 潘钰 魏雷 石天玉 尹君
    2016, 24(6):93-98.
    [Abstract](734) [HTML](161) [PDF 2.30 M](704)
    Based on the theory ofheat and mass transfer in porous medium the mathematical model of natural convection and coupledheat moisture transfer ingrain bulk was established. Theheat transfer and natural convection processes and their influence factors were studied by the method of approximate analysis and numerical simulation. The results showed that the temperature was mainly affected by theheat transfer in cereals of small kernel, such as wheat, while for cereals of larger kernel, such as corn, natural convection was the main effect. The theoretical analysis and numerical simulation proved that the effect of low moisture migration ingrain bin on the temperature change ofgrain was very small, which could be neglected. In silos, the effect of natural convection was significant, which enabled the temperature in silo more uniformity.
    21  Research on inert dust transverse circulation technology in warehouse
    沈邦灶 汪中明 王飞 王会杰 董震 宋文胜 郭飚 邵伟 何锋 张振军 曹阳
    2016, 24(6):99-102.
    [Abstract](730) [HTML](142) [PDF 1.92 M](697)
    In order to optimize the application technology of inert dust with transverse ventilation system, we compare the mortality rates of insects pre-buried ingrain stack in different parts of the warehouse with 18m span, and judge the uniformity of distribution of inert dust and the effect of pests control after applying the inert dust by transverse circulation technology. The results show that the transverse circulation can make the inert dust aerosol run through thegrain stack, and the distribution of the particles in thegrain is relatively uniform; the corrected mortality rates of Sitophilus zeamais, Rhizopertha dominica, Tribolium castaneum(Herbst)and Cryptolestes pusillus (Oliver) are 27%,37.8%,4.6% and 54.2% respectively 15 days later.
    22  Analysis of present situation and development trend ofgrain drying technology in Liaoning province
    高树成 王赫 赵学工
    2016, 24(6):103-105.
    [Abstract](554) [HTML](153) [PDF 1.15 M](826)
    The current situation ofgrain drying technology and equipment in Liaoning province was analyzed, including drying technology, structure of drier,heat source, detection and control. The problems and disadvantages existing in the drying industry were summarized. The development trend ofgrain drying technology was analyzed. The suggestions, including energy-saving and emission-reduction technology, intelligent control technology and upgrade and update of theheat source, were put forward, whichhas an importantguiding significance for expediting the development of thegrain circulation industry.
    23  Design and manufacture of a new kind of cleaninggrain scraper
    马利平 赵艳平 李绍鹏 樊自芳
    2016, 24(6):106-108.
    [Abstract](730) [HTML](153) [PDF 2.30 M](658)
    A kind of cleaninggrain scraper was designed and manufactured by comparing with severalgrain scrapers on the market and depending on many years' practical work experience. The scraper could remove most of the impurities in bulkgrain by vibration sieve during scraping, which simplified the loading procedure and raised the efficiency.
    24  Empirical study on the factors of food waste in college canteen in Hubei province
    樊琦 刘梦芸 李霜
    2016, 24(6):109-113.
    [Abstract](608) [HTML](137) [PDF 1.85 M](697)
    At present, the problem of food waste in college canteens is very prominent, and leads to a tremendous waste of natural resources. As active maker and an important driving force for socialgood behavior, college student community is paid more attention by the society for their food waste behavior. Taking colleges inhubei province as the objects, the factors of food waste in college canteen are empirical analyzed by questionnaire. The results show that the correlation between college students income, average lunch expenditure and food waste is significantly positive; food waste around male college students is more than that around the female students on average; tableware is reasonable or not and food quality is andgood or bad are also important factors; buffet dining way cause significantly less waste than conventional window way; the students from the strong sense of food saving family waste less than those from the weak one on average; the canteen environment alsohas a direct impact on the quantities of the food waste, and better environment cause less food waste on average. On this basis, some precautions and policy recommendations on student's canteen food waste are put forward.

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