SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF CEREALS, OILS AND FOODS

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Volume 24,Issue 5,2016 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Latest development of new resource foods regulation in developed countries and regions and inspiration for China
    肖平辉
    2016, 24(5):1-5.
    [Abstract](708) [HTML](323) [PDF 1.21 M](998)
    Abstract:
    Though the supervision measures to new resource food are different in each country, the ideas are similar, such as risk and safety assessment and list system. The application of new technologies such as nanotechnology, biotechnology, cloning technology, coupled with varied definitions of new resource food among the countries, makes the issue more complex.The relatively stringent regulation of new resource food executed in developed regions and countries like the European Union, Canada and Australia, and development of their supervision systems are summarized, in order to inspire China by the experience.
    2  Effect of the ratio of un-extruded and extruded brown rice flour on the quality of noodles
    吴娜娜 杨 庭 谭 斌 田晓红 刘艳香 刘 明 汪丽萍 翟小童
    2016, 24(5):6-9.
    [Abstract](674) [HTML](192) [PDF 2.04 M](405)
    Abstract:
    Un-extruded and extruded brown rice flour were mixed in different ratios of 0∶10, 3∶7, 4∶6, 5∶5, 6∶4, 7∶3 (w/w), the mixtures of brown rice flour were mixed with wheat flour (1∶1, w/w) to produce noodles, and the effect of ratios of un-extruded and extruded brown rice flour on the quality of the noodles were studied. The results showed that cooking loss of the noodles decreased, and the water absorption of noodles increased at first and then decreased with the increase of addition amount of un-extruded brown rice flour. Furthermore, the water absorption of noodles reached to the maximum when the un-extruded and extruded brown rice flour ratio was 6∶4. The bending distance and maximal shear force of dried noodles decreased significantly when the ratio of UEBR and EBR was more than 5∶5(P<0.05). The maximal shear force of cooked noodles decreased with the increase of addition amount of un-extruded brown rice flour, and the hardness of cooked noodles showed an increasing trend at the ratio of UEBR and EBR as 0∶10~6∶4. Thus, the quality of brown rice noodles was the best at the ratio of UEBR and EBR as 5∶5.
    3  Development of konjak rice wine
    梅 新 王少华 蔡 芳 施建斌 蔡 沙 陈学玲 何建军
    2016, 24(5):10-13.
    [Abstract](635) [HTML](201) [PDF 1.70 M](500)
    Abstract:
    Konjaku rice wine was prepared by using broken rice and konjaku powder based on traditional techniques. The effect of the addition amount of konjaku powder, the addition amount of distillers yeast, fermentation temperature and fermentation time on sensory evaluation was investigated by single factor and orthogonal experiments. The results showed that the optimal manufacture process was addition amount of konjaku powder 4%, addition amount addition amount of distillers yeast 1.0%, fermentation temperature 30℃,and fermentation time 72h. The total sugar content was 325.68mg/mL, pH value3.27, soluble solids content 10.40%, alcoholic strength 5.47%.
    4  Optimization of peach blossom pie formula based on fuzzy sensory evaluation
    雷 颂 欧阳思 屈璐璐 龙姣丽 崔京珍
    2016, 24(5):14-18.
    [Abstract](893) [HTML](183) [PDF 1.15 M](772)
    Abstract:
    The formula of the fillings of peach blossom pie was researched with edible peach blossom, flour, white sugar and red bean as raw materials. The pie quality was evaluated by sensory evaluation combined with fuzzy evaluation. The formula was optimized by orthogonal test. The result showed that the optimal filling formula was edible peach blossom (0.8 g), flour paste (20 g), sugar (30 g), red bean (40 g), peanut (10 g) and sesame (10 g). According the above format and processing, the peach blossom pie had good color with crisp and sweet taste without oily.
    5  Research progress on freeze-thaw stability of starch
    王梦嘉 叶晓汀 吴金鸿 孙子文 黄伊雯 吕志红 陈以国 隋中泉
    2016, 24(5):19-23.
    [Abstract](721) [HTML](212) [PDF 1.14 M](692)
    Abstract:
    The freeze-thaw stability of starch affects directly the quality of frozen starch products. The effects of freezing-thawing cyclic treatment on physicochemical properties and structures of starch, its principal factors and the research progress in the related mechanisms were investigated, which provided some information for the development of frozen starch products in food industry.
    6  Research progress on extraction methods of arabinoxylans
    王伟旭 汪丽萍 于 雷 谭 斌
    2016, 24(5):24-28.
    [Abstract](610) [HTML](220) [PDF 1.16 M](864)
    Abstract:
    Arabinoxylans(AX) are one of the most important groups of hemicelluloses in the endosperm and outer layers of cereal grains, which can be used as a thickening agent, emulsifying agent, stabilizer or adhesive, etc in food processing and has beneficial effects on human health. Extraction methods for AX in grains were extensively studied in the recent years, which were solvent extraction, enzyme extraction and mechanical assisted extraction and other extraction methods. Because most AX and other components of the cell wall are closely connected in the form of covalent or non covalent bonds, the different extraction methods had different effects on the yield of AX. The advantages and disadvantages of different methods of extraction and purification of AX in grain were summarized to provide guidance for the development and utilization of the AX.
    7  Research on extraction of flavone from red kidney bean and the antioxidation
    黎 英 刘春艳 李子月 曾珍清 郑兰香
    2016, 24(5):29-34.
    [Abstract](764) [HTML](185) [PDF 2.80 M](682)
    Abstract:
    Using crude flavonoids extracted from red kidney beans as the raw materials, the adsorption and desorption efficiencies of flavonoids with six different macroporous resins were compared,and XDA-1 resin was selected as the most efficient adsorbent as it had good adsorption and desorption capacity for flavonoids from red kidney beans. The antioxidation effect of flavonoids extract from red kidney beans on edible oils and fats (lard and peanut oil) was investigated. The results showed that the optimal separation condition was: sample liquid concentration 1.5 mg/mL, adsorption flow rate 2 BV/h, sample pH value 6, sample volume 3BV, elution speed 2 BV/h, and ethanol volume fraction 60%, elution volume 3BV. Under the optimal separation condition the flavonoids yield and purity were 73.86% and 22.65%, respectively. The flavonoids extract can effectively defer the lipid oxidation, and moreover its antioxidant effect on lard was better than that on peanut oil.
    8  Research on hydrolysis of soybean isoflavone glycosides catalyzed with complex organic acid
    于丽颖 罗亚楠 郑凤梅
    2016, 24(5):35-37.
    [Abstract](633) [HTML](183) [PDF 1.13 M](684)
    Abstract:
    The parameters of hydrolysis of soybean isoflavone glycosides catalyzed with complex organic acid were researched by single-factor experiment and orthogonal experiment with hydrolysis rate as the evaluation index. The results showed that the optimal hydrolysis parameters was reaction temperature 135℃, reaction time 160 min, ratio of composite acid (malic acid∶citric acid) 4∶3, hydrolysis rate can reach to above 97.0%. The hydrolysates can be used in health food as raw material without been separated. The hydrolysis process is green environmental protection with application value.
    9  Determination of oryzanol in rice bran oil by high performance liquid chromatography
    朱 琳 薛雅琳 张 东 柴 杰 安 骏 刘俊含
    2016, 24(5):38-43.
    [Abstract](759) [HTML](189) [PDF 4.61 M](729)
    Abstract:
    An analytical method based on solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography was established for the determination of six oryzanol compositions and total oryzanol content in rice bran oil. The samples were purified by diol-silica gel series SPE column. The standard sample (γ-Oryzanol) was used for quantification. The chromatographic column was Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C18(250mm×4.6mm,5μm)and the mobile phase was acetonitrile with 1% acetic acid∶isopropanol =95∶5. The wavelength of UV was 321 nm.The average recoveries of six compositions and total content were in the range of 95.6%~105.7% and 97.8%~100.2% with relative standard deviations of 0.1%~4.6% and 0.7%~3.4%.The method was suitable for determination of oryzanol composition and content in rice bran oil, which provided technical support for further research of oryzanol.
    10  Influence factors of the degradation of aflatoxin B1 in peanut by plasma
    刘 真 王世清 肖军霞 姜文利 任翠荣
    2016, 24(5):44-48.
    [Abstract](744) [HTML](171) [PDF 1.80 M](743)
    Abstract:
    The effect of the processing time, power, and moisture content, particle size, variety of peanut on the degradation of aflatoxin B1(AFB1)was explored by treating AFB1 with low temperature radio frequency plasma and analyzing the degradation rate by HPLC. The results showed that within the same processing time the higher the plasma processing power, the higher the degradation rate of AFB1, which could reach up to 73.45% when the power was 400W; within the same processing power, the longer the processing time, the higher the degradation rate of AFB1, which could reach up to 79.26% in 8min; under the same conditions, the higher the moisture content in the peanut, the higher the degradation rate of AFB1, which could reach up to 50% when the moisture content was 40%; the smaller the peanut particle, the higher the degradation rate of AFB1, which could reach up to about 60% in peanut powder; the higher the oil content in peanut, the lower the degradation rate of AFB1 , which was only 45% when peanut oil content was 45%. The results show that the external condition has noticeable influence on the degradation of AFB1 by plasma technic, which has a guiding role for practical application.
    11  Research on the processing characteristics of mixture of mung bean flour and wheat flour and the quality of the dried noodles
    汪周俊 黄 亮 李爱科 林亲录 陆 晖 韩 飞
    2016, 24(5):49-53.
    [Abstract](650) [HTML](181) [PDF 1.14 M](681)
    Abstract:
    The objectives of this paper were to study the processing characteristics of mung bean-wheat flour and the quality of the dried noodles made by mung bean-wheat flour with different mung bean flour portions. The results are as follows: within increasing the addition of mung bean powder, the portion of wet gluten was dropping,and the stabilization time was dropping so that the forming of the gluten network structure of dough was insufficient and the ability to mix was decreased; the peak viscosity, low viscosity, attenuation time, final viscosity, setback, and peak time constantly decreased while the pasting temperature continuously increased leading the quality of processing characteristics of the mixed powder tended to be worse; the cooking time and loss increased, water absorption rate increased at first and then decreased and reached the maximum value when the added amount was 30%; hardness, elasticity, gum viscosity, chewing ability and recovery gradually increased, and the ratio of fracture distance increased at first and then decreased and reached the maximum value when the added amount was 30%; and in the amount of more than 50%, it was impossible to make the mung bean dried noodles.
    12  Fresh-keeping technology of sweet glutinous rice He
    孙国勇 左映平 侯红瑞
    2016, 24(5):54-56.
    [Abstract](796) [HTML](180) [PDF 1.27 M](392)
    Abstract:
    The sweet glutinous rice He(a kind of cake) was prepared with glutinous rice flour, rice flour and brown sugar. The process was formation with moulds, steam, cooling, vacuum packaging, and sterilizing. The effect of cooking time, cooling time , sterilization temperature and time on the fresh-keeping and sensory quality of the cake was analyzed. The optimal process was: cooking time 1.5 h, cooling time 20 min, sterilization temperature 121 ℃ and sterilization time 15 min. The total number of colonies was 1 300 cfu/g in vacuum packaging cold storage(5~8 ℃)for 120 days, the number of coliforms less than 3 MPN/g. The total number of colonies was 1 200 cfu/g in vacuum packed frozen storage (less than -12 ℃) for 180 days, the number of coliforms less than 3 MPN/g. Pathogenic bacteria were not detected. The taste and flavor of glutinous rice He is still excellent after being stored. So glutinous rice He can be stored in a vacuum packaging at 5~8 ℃ for 120 days, at -12 ℃ for 180 days.
    13  Quick determination of Cd in rice based on X-ray fluorescence spectrometry
    许艳霞 倪小英 陈志军 邓志坚 梅 广 洪 玲 杨 静
    2016, 24(5):62-64.
    [Abstract](792) [HTML](172) [PDF 1.31 M](432)
    Abstract:
    The content of Cd in rice was determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. The influence of detection time, sample quality and granularity of sample on the detection results was studied. The results showed that the detection results were not affected by the sample quality and granularity, while the stability of the detection results was affected by detection time.The content of Cd in rice sample can be detected accurately directly by XRF spectrometer with the detection time of 720s, and the result was accordance with AAS.
    14  Rapid determination of rice conventional chemical index by near infrared spectroscopy
    杨学文
    2016, 24(5):65-69.
    [Abstract](620) [HTML](170) [PDF 2.31 M](653)
    Abstract:
    150 near infrared spectrum of rice which obtained from southern China were collected. Combined with partial least square (PLS) regression method, the quantitative analysis models of rice moisture, protein, amylose, and gel consistency were established and verified by 30 predication sets. The coefficient of determination (R2) and the root-mean-square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) of the moisture, amylose, protein and gel consistency models were 0.9903 and 0.3728%,0.5603 and 1.4569%,0.9132 and 0.3054%, and 0.6780 and 5.0315%, respectively; standard error of prediction (RMSEP) were 0.3825%, 1.4650%, 0.5100% and 5.0521%, respectively. The results indicated that near-infrared analysis method can meet the demand of rapid determination.
    15  Discussion about the grain shape of indica rice in our country
    王江蓉 周剑宇 沈 娜 黄 卫 李滑滑
    2016, 24(5):70-72.
    [Abstract](691) [HTML](185) [PDF 1.12 M](706)
    Abstract:
    Taking southern six provinces indica rice as samples, the classification indexes of indica rice kernel shape and determinant is discussed. According to the existing data, the kernel length is recommended as the basis of classification. The result is that the kernel length≥6.0 mm is called as long kernel grain, 5.6 mm~5.9 mm as medium kernel and less than 5.6 mm as short kernel.
    16  Research on rapid screening method for deoxynivalenol (DON) in wheat
    欧阳毅 唐 芳 张海洋 祁智慧 程树峰
    2016, 24(5):73-76.
    [Abstract](676) [HTML](177) [PDF 1.81 M](743)
    Abstract:
    A new deoxynivalenol (DON) detection method which based on the morphological characteristic of fusarium that produces DON in wheat was preliminary set up. Fusarium conidiophores were the detected target of this method. The spores in the samples were oscillated in water, filtered with 100 mesh filter cloth and the spores in the filtrate were microscopic tested using a microscope. The whole process takes three minutes. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the wheat positive samples test (n=6) with different infection levels was 7.1% ~21.6%. 72 wheat samples collected from main wheat producing areas in China were inspected by this method, and the HPLC method was used as the control. The results showed 〖JP3〗that fusarium conidiophores were nearly not found in 46 samples, account for 63.9 % of the total samples, in which DON concentration range were 0~792.4 μg/kg which did not exceed the limitation of national standard 1000μg/kg. The fusarium conidiophores were detected in 26 samples, in which DON were not exceed the limitation in 6 samples, and the growth of fusarium was positively related to the yield of DON. The small batch of wheat can be quickly screened out by this method whether exceeding the DON limitation standard.
    17  Research on determination of the difference between actual and theoretical content of triacylglycerols with ECN42 in olive oil
    张 冰 张 蕊
    2016, 24(5):77-82.
    [Abstract](679) [HTML](189) [PDF 3.34 M](647)
    Abstract:
    The method of calculating theoretical content of triacylglycerols with ECN42 in olive oil was introduced, which distinguished adulteration of olive oil by determination of the absolute difference between actual and theoretical content of triacylglycerols with ECN42(△ECN42).The HPLC condition to quantify ECN42, and the reproducibility of the method was researched. The results showed that using differential refractometer as the detector, column temperature 38℃, mobile phase acetone/acetonitrile(50∶50,V/V),flow rate 1.5 mL/min, under the condition, it showed a good chromatographic separation effect with good repeatability, and RSD less than 1% and SR between 0.02 and 0.11. It provided basis for instituting national standard.
    18  Study on the scavenging DPPH free radical activity of melanin in crude product of Chinese sweet gum leaves
    谢宇奇 莫春凤 奚文权
    2016, 24(5):83-86.
    [Abstract](728) [HTML](176) [PDF 2.11 M](749)
    Abstract:
    The ability of melanin in Chinese sweet gum leaves for scavenging DPPH free radical activity was discussed in order to utilize the resource of Chinese sweet gum leaves. The melanin was extracted by immersion extraction; the crude product of melanin in the leaves was purified with AB-8 macroporous resin. The antioxidant ability of the melanin in the leaves, ascorbic acid (Vc), pyrogallic acid, tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) and 2,6 Di tert-butyl and other substances was evaluated. The results showed that IC50 value of the melanin crude product prepared by the method was 3.41, the order of scavenging DPPH free radical ability of unit mass of antioxidant was pyrogallic acid>TBHQ>ascorbic acid>Chinese sweet gum leaves melanin crude product>BHT. Chinese sweet gum leaves melanin has a certain ability of scavenging DPPH free radical activity, which, as a natural pigment, has broad application prospect in the field of food, medicine, cosmetics and so on.
    19  Stability of lead-resistant lactic acid bacteria JT1 in subculture
    朱 凤 都启晶 满兆红 王玉燕 赵宏坤
    2016, 24(5):87-91.
    [Abstract](680) [HTML](194) [PDF 2.32 M](415)
    Abstract:
    The stability of the continuous subculture of lead-resistant lactic acid bacteria JT1 in the optimized medium (M1) and MRS medium added with konjac flour (M2) was researched in the aspects of the phenotypic characteristics and probiotic characteristics. The results showed that the form of lead-resistant lactic acid bacteria JT1 did not changed in both M1 and M2 after the 1000 generations. The modality of colonies was opaque white protuberance with smooth surface and consistent with the original isolated colony. Continuous culture didn't change the total biomass in culture cycle and the living bacteria number at the end of the culture cycle. The tolerance of JT1 kept stable in artificial gastric juice(pH 2.5), artificial intestinal juice(pH 8.0) and 0.3% bile salts.In particular, the specific function of adsorption of Pb2+ was nearly not affected during the passage, and the adsorption rate was basically stable at around 60%. These results provide the reliable basis for the stainable production of lead-resistant lactic acid bacteria JT1.
    20  Effect of application of inert dust on the surface of grain bulk by transverse ventilation
    汪中明 张振军 陈渠玲 毛青秀 石天玉 赵会义 曹 阳
    2016, 24(5):92-94.
    [Abstract](793) [HTML](193) [PDF 1.28 M](768)
    Abstract:
    To solve the problem of the inert dust repellent application on the grain bulk surface in grain store houses with transverse ventilation, the characteristics of pervasion and distribution of inert dust aerosol, in the diagonal airflow before the film was covered, were analyzed by collecting samples of the powder from different points on grain surface and previously embedding insect cages in the heap of grain. The results showed that there was no significant statistical difference among the amount of settlement powder collected from different parts of the surface of the grain heap, which indicated that diagonal airflow did not affect inert dust evenly distributed on the grain bulk surface, and can be used to protect the part tend to occur pest in the grain bulk after being covered with film. A good protective effect against pest was achieved that mortality rate of Cryptolestes turcicus reached 100%, mortality rate of Sitophilus zeamais was 95% and the density of Sitophilus zeamais in warehouse decreased 85%.
    21  Research on the bidirectional application of the inert dust in brick silo
    陈加忠 杨 超 郑 颂 黄美香 张振军
    2016, 24(5):95-97.
    [Abstract](725) [HTML](176) [PDF 1.25 M](726)
    Abstract:
    Brick silo was tested with bidirectional spraying application of inert dust into the grain bulk. Dust sampling method was used to determine the distribution of inert dust. The direct effect of inert dust aerosol on pests was checked by embedded insect cages. The pests control effect in the silo was evaluated by integrated pest monitoring method. The results showed that the inert dust distributed into the grain bulk by bidirectional application. The silo maintained no insects for 10 months, so that PH3 fumigation was not needed any more that year.
    22  Application of big data to forecast of grain situation in grain depot
    胡荣辉 甄 彤 陶文浩 陈军涛
    2016, 24(5):98-101.
    [Abstract](776) [HTML](182) [PDF 2.39 M](680)
    Abstract:
    According to the aggregating incremental effect in many industries by big data, the actualities that big data is lacked in the field of grain situation forecast in our country are analyzed.The big data of grain situation in grain depot is collected by establishment of cloud service platform shared among grain storage companies with the help of scalable EM probability clustering algorithm for massive data sets based on partial constraint information. Some opinions about grain storage security are proposed for providing better theory technical support to grain situation forecast in the futurity, and pointing out that the application of big data will become an important means and ways to improve food safety coefficient, so as to realize the goal of cost reduction and benefit increasing, at the same time looking forward to the future development trend.
    23  Research and application of controlled atmosphere storage with N2
    王 力 陈赛赛 胡育铭
    2016, 24(5):102-105.
    [Abstract](815) [HTML](192) [PDF 1.13 M](829)
    Abstract:
    The controlled atmosphere storage with N2 is an economy and efficient technology for storing grain, so it has been increasingly concerned in various fields such as grain storage. The system and technology of the controlled atmosphere storage with N2 and the application in grain safe storage is introduced, including the applications of this technology to pest control, restraining microorganism, delaying the deterioration of grain quality and other aspects. The problems and countermeasures of the controlled atmosphere storage with N2 for constructing the digital grain depot are also analyzed, which would provide reference for broader application of this technology in the construction of digital grain depot.

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