SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF CEREALS, OILS AND FOODS

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Volume 24,Issue 4,2016 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Research progress on technology and equipment for freeze-drying food by microwave
    王玉川 张慜
    2016, 24(4):1-6.
    [Abstract](682) [HTML](144) [PDF 2.32 M](806)
    Abstract:
    Freeze-drying technology used in food drying can maximize the retention of nutrients in food. The foods dried by freeze-drying are mainly exported at present since long drying period, large energy consumption and high cost. Microwave has the characteristics of inner heat source. Microwave freeze-drying technology is developed by the combination of microwave heating technology and traditional freeze-drying technology, which has been widely concerned by foreign scholars and business community since the middle of the last century. But the key technical problem has been restricting its commercial application because of the phenomenon of very obvious uneven and low-pressure gas discharge. In recent years, microwave freeze drying technology and the theory has been continuously improved due to the rapid development of science and technology and the interdisciplinary intersection and mutual penetration, which provide technical and economic support for research of the key technologies, equipment development and commercial application. The research progress of microwave drying technology at home and abroad in high efficiency, energy saving, uniform and equipment is summarized.
    2  Research progress on special color wheat
    张小燕 高遒竹 高向阳
    2016, 24(4):7-11.
    [Abstract](642) [HTML](162) [PDF 1.11 M](672)
    Abstract:
    The special color wheat contains rich protein, amino acid, microelements and minerals which are beneficial to humans. The wheat has better possession quality, and there is a plenty of natural pigments in the kernel, which has high application value and development potential. Research on plant cultivation, characteristics of special color wheat, its development and utilization in food processing and existing problems were summarized. The development of application of special color wheat was prospected to provide a support for processing of the special color wheat.
    3  Discussion about national standards of coarse cereals dried noodles
    谭 斌 翟小童 田晓红
    2016, 24(4):12-14.
    [Abstract](747) [HTML](163) [PDF 1.37 M](739)
    Abstract:
    In recent years, along with the development of Chinese economy, the upgrade of dried noodle industry and the consumption transition are sustainable enhanced. Coarse cereal dried noodles, with health promotion effects, attract considerable attention. However, comparing the rapid growth of dried noodle market, the creation of related national standards is lagged behind. The lack of standards becomes the key problem which limits the development and innovation of Chinese dried noodle industry. Based on the analysis of the status and problems about the national, regional and industry standards of dried noodles in China, and combined the analysis of that in Japan, the difficulties and directions of the standard establishment of Chinese coarse cereal dried noodles were discussed.
    4  Compare of the paste properties of different varieties of brown rice flour
    李莎莎 吴娜娜 李兴峰 谭斌
    2016, 24(4):15-18.
    [Abstract](627) [HTML](151) [PDF 1.29 M](730)
    Abstract:
    Taking five kinds of non-glutinous brown rice flour with quite different amylose contents as raw materials, and hydration characteristics, pasting viscosity and thermal characteristics were determined to compare the differences of their pasting properties to provide a foundation for selecting raw materials to process brown rice products. The results showed that pasting properties of brown rice flour with different amylose contents were quite different. The water absorption index, water solubility, swelling power, viscosity, regenerative value and attenuation value of brown rice flour decreased with the increasing of amylose content, because brown rice flour required more energy to paste. But the pasting time has no significantly difference.
    5  Effect of addition amount of extruded brown rice flour on the properties of noodles
    吴娜娜 杨庭 谭斌 刘明 刘艳香 田晓红 汪丽萍 翟小童
    2016, 24(4):19-22.
    [Abstract](736) [HTML](156) [PDF 1.86 M](511)
    Abstract:
    Two kinds of extruded brown rice flour were mixed with wheat flour at content of 0, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%, respectively, to research the effect of the addition amount of brown rice flour on the cooking quality and texture property of the noodles. The results showed that along with the increasing of the addition amount of brown rice flour, the water absorption of noodle dry matter significantly decreased(P<0.05), cooking loss rate of dry matter increased, cross-breaking strength of dried noodles increased at first and then decreased, and the hardness, chewiness and elasticity of cooked noodles decreased. The noodles, prepared with extruded brown rice flour with the moisture content of 30%, temperature of 80℃, screw speed of 220r/min, had lower cooking loss rate, higher water adsorption, hardness, chewiness and elasticity than that prepared with extruded brown rice flour with moisture content of 25%, temperature of 120℃, screw speed of 220r/min.
    6  Research on rheological properties of coarse cereals-wheat mixed flour and quality and in vitro digestion of the steamed bread
    柴松敏 杨业栋
    2016, 24(4):23-26.
    [Abstract](661) [HTML](157) [PDF 1.89 M](729)
    Abstract:
    The farinograph indexes and RVA pasting properties of coarse cereals-wheat mixed flour with different proportion were analyzed. The quality evaluation and in vitro digestion of the steamed bread prepared from the mixed flour was researched. Results showed that after adding 20% coarse cereals flour, the effect on dough rheological properties was not obvious, the steamed bread can get a good score, and its in vitro digestion rate and the final digestibility can be reduced. 
    7  Effect of highland barley flour on the quality of quick-frozen noodles
    丁捷 唐艳 黄益前 段丽丽 彭毅秦 何江红 肖猛 杨开俊 秦文
    2016, 24(4):27-32.
    [Abstract](761) [HTML](160) [PDF 2.50 M](762)
    Abstract:
    The effect of different ratio of highland barley flour to wheat core flour on frozen noodle quality was discussed with wheat core flour as control group. The results showed that along with the increase of the proportion of highland barley flour, the wet gluten content of mixed flour decreased gradually, while formation time and water absorption increased gradually; a good correlation was found between addition amount of highland barley flour and frozen noodle quality, the amount was significant positive correlation with formation time and water absorption, dry matter loss-rate and chewiness(P<0.01), significant negative correlation with the wet gluten content (P<0.01), with the freeze-thaw stability and TPA flexibility(P<0.05); When the mixing proportion was in the range of 1∶5~1∶7, the cooking quality and freeze-thaw stability of the quick-frozen noodles were significantly improved, with weakened hardness, increased flexibility and sense value. The noodles with the optimal ratio of highland barley flour to wheat flour of 1∶6 got the optimal quality.
    8  Study on the relationship between degree of substitution and physicochemical properties of OSA-starch
    王玲 郑温时 陈永富 陆财源 韩小瑜 王永江
    2016, 24(4):33-37.
    [Abstract](705) [HTML](165) [PDF 2.33 M](728)
    Abstract:
    It has great significance to study the relationship between degree of substitution (DS) and physicochemical properties for improving the OSA-starch's performance. A series of OSA-starch samples with different DS were prepared from waxy corn starch and OSA, the preparation conditions were discussed, and the change of characteristic absorption peak with DS was determined by infrared rays. The effect of DS on the OSA-starch's emulsifying property encapsulating property was investigated. The results showed that the emulsifying capacity and emulsion stability increased firstly and then decreased with the increasing of DS, while the encapsulating rate increased all the time, but both of them lower than that of the imported product. The structure of the home-made and imported products was further analyzed by using XRD and DSC technology, the results showed that the internal structure of starch is one of the important factors which may affect the OSA-starch's emulsion and encapsulating properties.
    9  Changes of benzo(a)pyrene content in camellia oleifera seed oil during different processes
    袁毅
    2016, 24(4):38-41.
    [Abstract](718) [HTML](158) [PDF 2.89 M](639)
    Abstract:
    To control the increase of benzo(a)pyrene(BaP) content in the process of producing camellia oleifera seed oil and make the oil quality in line with national edible safety standards, the BaP content was tracked and detected in every process of the production of camellia oleifera seed oil. The key processes and the control method were analysed. The results showed that the mildewed camellia oleifera seed and improper control of press process were the factors of increasing the concentration of BaP. A good way to reduce the content of BaP in camellia oleifera seed oil is to optimize the adsorption of BaP.
    10  Structural design and application of Venturi tube in cottonseed oil preprocessing
    黄 群 刘昭明 程谦伟 覃日珍 孟陆丽 黄翠姬
    2016, 24(4):42-46.
    [Abstract](659) [HTML](157) [PDF 2.55 M](717)
    Abstract:
    Based on the computational fluid dynamics software FLUENT, using the standard k-ε model, with the cottonseed oil as medium, the numerical simulations of the cavitation flow fields in Venturi tubes were established. The cavitation number and the distribution of gas-holdup of the cavitation region in the Venturi tubes were computed. The effect of the structure of Venturi tubes on cavitation was researched. The results showed that the structure of Venturi tubes had an obvious effect on the cavitation, the cavitation effect enhanced along with the increase of inlet angle and decrease of the laryngeal length, and the diameter of laryngeal and outlet angle had the best value on the cavitation effect, which provided a support for optimizing the design of the structure of Venturi tubes applied in oils. At the same time, it was found by the verification experiment of the hydrodynamic cavitation of cottonseed oil that the hydrodynamic cavitation had a significant effect on the removing of gossypol, and the removal rate increased along with the increase of inlet angle of the Venturi tube, which indicated that the stronger the cavitation effect was, the higher the removal rate was. The results obtained by the experiments were similar to those by numerical simulation.
    11  Optimization of formula of steamed bread for diabetic nephropathy patients
    王洁 徐同成 刘丽娜 杜方岭 邱斌 宗爱珍 李玮
    2016, 24(4):47-51.
    [Abstract](720) [HTML](150) [PDF 1.33 M](715)
    Abstract:
    The formula of steamed bread with low sugar and low protein for diabetic nephropathy patients was researched by single factor and orthogonal experiments. The results showed that the optimal formula was the addition amount of resistant potato starch 50%, of pregelatinized starch 8%, of amylose 10% and of wheat starch 5%. The steamed bread under this formula, whose protein content can reduced to 3%, is classified to food with moderate blood glucose index.
    12  Comparison of determination methods of tocopherols and tocotrienols in vegetable oils
    潘开林 季 敏 牛跃庭 胡明明 OOI Cheng Keat
    2016, 24(4):52-55.
    [Abstract](586) [HTML](157) [PDF 2.36 M](717)
    Abstract:
    Two methods in AOCS were compared to determine tocopherols and tocotrienols in vegetable oils. The results showed that the high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) was more sensitive than high performance liquid chromatography- ultraviolet (HPLC-UV), which has better recovery rate and accuracy, lower detection limits and higher resistance to interference of impurity. The results of determining tocopherols and tocotrienols in 12 kinds of vegetable oils by HPLC-FLD were all in the reference range of the literatures.
    13  Research on the quality change of brown rice during the storage
    赵 旭 高树成 林子木
    2016, 24(4):56-58.
    [Abstract](653) [HTML](129) [PDF 2.18 M](660)
    Abstract:
    The effect of storage time on the quality of 5 varieties of Liaoning brown rice was researched via investigating the changes of moisture content, fatty acid value, conductivity, germination rate and tasting score of the samples which was stored by farmers for 1 year. The results showed that during the storage period the change tendency of the indexes of the samples was basically the same with each other; fatty acid value and conductivity increased gradually;germination rate showed a downward trend; the tasting scores increased first and then decreased; the moisture contents were influenced with fluctuation by the environmental temperature and humidity.
    14  Optimization of extract process conditions for flavonoids in the peel of Henan tiegun yam
    赵立庭 赵 华 刘 阳 田 梁
    2016, 24(4):59-63.
    [Abstract](721) [HTML](139) [PDF 3.25 M](708)
    Abstract:
    In order to confirm the best extract process conditions, the effect of the factors and the interactions among them on the extraction of flavonoids in the peel of Henan tiegun yam was researched by response surface method. The factors were extraction time, solid-liquid ratio, sieving mesh number and ethanol volume concentration. The optimal factors confirmed by software Minitab 16 were adjusted to ethanol volume fraction 79%, solid-liquid ratio 0.023g/mL, extraction time 75 min and sieving mesh number 120 mesh. The average yield was 0.3382mg/g determined by verification test, close to the predicted value. The test data was stable, which indicated that the regression model could predict the yield rate of flavonoids in the peel of Henan tiegun yam.
    15  Determination of cadmium, lead and inorganic arsenic in rice by X-ray fluorescence spectrometer
    骆 倩 张谷平 赵美凤 宁 晖 房 芳 杜文凯 高梦莎
    2016, 24(4):64-70.
    [Abstract](711) [HTML](162) [PDF 5.02 M](637)
    Abstract:
    The contents of cadmium, lead and total arsenic in rice were determined by three types of X-ray fluorescence spectrometer and were compared with determination of cadmium by national standard GB/T 5009.15-2003, determination of lead by national standard GB/T 5009.12-2003 and determination of inorganic arsenic by national standard GB/T 5009.11-2003. The results of 67 samples showed that three regression equations were Y=0.8495X+0.0621,Y=0.6197X+0.0493 and Y=0.872X+0.0064, with correlation coefficient 0.9711,0.8509 and 0.9729, respectively, which showed a very significant correlation. The qualitative judgment correct rate reached 65.7%~91.0%. For the testing result which was in the range of 0.16mg/kg~0.24mg/kg, the qualitative judgment correct rate was 38.1%~81.0%, out of the range the qualitative judgment correct rate was 78.3%~95.7%. The quantitative judgment coincidence rate reached19.4%~44.8%. For testing result which was lower than or equal to 0.2mg/kg (≤0.2mg/kg),its coincidence rate was 17.6%~37.3%, otherwise, the coincidence rate was 25.0%~68.8%.
    16  Determination of 53 kinds of pesticide residue in rice by gas chromatograph-electron capture detector
    聂 鲲
    2016, 24(4):71-75.
    [Abstract](698) [HTML](149) [PDF 1.66 M](731)
    Abstract:
    A rapid detection method was established for the determination of 53 kinds of three varieties of pesticide residue, organochlorine, organophosphorus and pyrethroid, in rice by gas chromatography- electron capture detector(GC-ECD). The sample was extracted by acetonitrile and purified by N- propyl Ethylenediamine and C18. The 53 pesticides showed a good linear relationship in the concentration range of 0.001~0.1μg/mL. The recovery rates were 85.2%~97.8%, the relative standard deviations were 0.9%~4.1%, the detection limits were 0.001~0.006 mg/kg.The method is high sensitivity, accurate and reliable, which can meet the requirements for determination of pesticide residues in rice.
    17  Statistic analysis of variation of the quality of nonglutinous rice planted in Guangdong
    刘光亚 曾彩虹 朱启思 朱丽琼 关则恳 邓常继 谢宇霞 吴秋婷
    2016, 24(4):76-79.
    [Abstract](725) [HTML](149) [PDF 1.10 M](674)
    Abstract:
    The quality of Guangdong long-grain nonglutinous rice harvested in 2008~2014 was statistically analyzed. The results showed that:the average of milled rice rate,head rice rate,chalky rice rate,chalkiness and amylose showed a tendency of decreasing year by year; ratio of length to width and gel consistency showed a tendency of increasing.
    18  A method for improving the quality of rapeseed image segmentationbased on the gradient improvement of Hough transform
    杨冬平
    2016, 24(4):80-82.
    [Abstract](733) [HTML](168) [PDF 1.51 M](765)
    Abstract:
    A method for improving the quality of rapeseed image segmentation based on the gradient improvement of Hough transform is proposed. At first, the original image is converted to gray image, then the center of rapeseed is found by the improved Hough transform, the connecting line of the center of the two adjacent rapeseed is found, and the tangent that perpendicular to the connecting line of the center is considered to be the boundary between the two rapeseed to separate it. Compared the segmenting effects of the same image, the result by above method is superior to those by some common image segmentation methods.
    19  Determination of difference of boron content in soybean and its product yuba by ICP-AES
    杨大鹏 刘晶
    2016, 24(4):83-85.
    [Abstract](711) [HTML](152) [PDF 1.10 M](676)
    Abstract:
    The boron content in three different kinds of bean and their products yubas were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) to research the migration of boron during the process of yubas and the relationship of boron content between different beans and yubas. The results showed that the boron contents were detected in all of the three kinds of beans, and the content was between 18~24 mg/kg. The boron contents in yubas were different because of the beans, but the mobilitys of boron were independent of the species of bean, were all between 60%~67%.
    20  Sensory evaluation of chickpea fermented by immobilized bacillus natto
    金 爽 谭金燕 白秀云 吕 晨 夏欣欣 付玉杰
    2016, 24(4):86-89.
    [Abstract](662) [HTML](171) [PDF 1.10 M](683)
    Abstract:
    Using the chickpeas as the raw material, the optimal processing technology of chickpeas fermented by immobilized bacillus natto (natto-chickpea) was studied by the orthogonal experiments combined with sensory evaluation. The sensory evaluation of natto-chickpea was compared to that of soybean fermented by immobilized bacillus natto (natto-soybean). The results showed that the optimal fermentation conditions for natto-chickpea were: fermentation time 36 h, fermentation temperature 38℃, inoculum concentration 0.6g/g and ratio of solid to liquid 1:10g/mL. According to the result of the sensory evaluation, the natto-chickpea had higher sensory scores than natto-soybean in texture and odor. It provided a new way for the development and utilization of the chikckpea.
    21  Probiotics fermentation process of millet pulp
    张桂芳 郭希娟 张东杰 张爱武 王 颖
    2016, 24(4):90-93.
    [Abstract](723) [HTML](145) [PDF 1.91 M](816)
    Abstract:
    The effects of sugar amount, inoculum concentration, temperature and time on fermentation were investigated by single-factor experiments and optimized by orthogonal experiment with specially domesticated probiotics.The results showed that the optimal process parameters was that sugar added amount 8%, inoculum concentration 2.5%, fermentation temperature 38℃ and time 9h. Under the optimal conditions, the sensory evaluation and the total polyphenol content of the fermented millet pulp was 97.6 and 0.287μg/mL, respectively.
    22  Research on safety storage of high quality indica rice
    邓树华 袁 毅 吴树会 陈志军 陈 甜 张 军
    2016, 24(4):94-98.
    [Abstract](794) [HTML](159) [PDF 2.27 M](417)
    Abstract:
    The main quality indexes of stored indica rice and the variation of the indexes, situation of the pests during summer were analyzed by comparing storage conditions, which were at 16℃,20℃,25℃ and atmospheric temperature. The key indicators being suitable for rice storage were discussed. The results showed that the optimal storage conditions for high quality indica rice were at 16℃ with relative humidity 65%. Under 20℃ and 25℃, pest control technology was needed, since under normal atmospheric temperature, the rice was not safe. The key indicators for stored indica rice were color and smell and taste value.
    23  Research on variation of chalkiness of japonica rice after storage
    丁 秋 贾 然 费明怡 赵会义 曹 阳
    2016, 24(4):99-101.
    [Abstract](740) [HTML](150) [PDF 1.35 M](797)
    Abstract:
    The effects of different storage conditions on milled rice chalkiness were compared. The sample Japonica rice Liao Xing was stored at 5 different temperature levels, 10℃, 15℃, 20℃, 25℃ and room temperature, respectively. The results showed that in all of the tests the chalky rice rate and chalkiness degree were all in the trend of increase after 6 months. As the storage temperature increased, the value of chalky rice rate and chalkiness degree increased faster, while the increasing extent less at lower temperature. At 25℃,chalky rice rate changed obviously from 6.1% to 22.6%,chalkiness degree from 2.2% to 5.7%. The results indicated that chalky rice rate and chalkiness degree were significant correlation with storage time.
    24  Pheromones and its application in detection of stored-grain pests
    左祥莉 张玉荣 符 杰 岳纲冬
    2016, 24(4):102-107.
    [Abstract](820) [HTML](142) [PDF 1.14 M](827)
    Abstract:
    In the process of grain storage, the accurate detection of pest species and density is the necessary basis in integrated pest management program. However, the traditional detection methods have some disadvantages, such as heavy workload and lagging of detecting results, so it is necessary to find a new detection method. Research shows that, insect pheromone has many characteristics, such as security, green, trace and high efficiency, which can be used to detect and control pests. The structure identification, artificial synthesis and collecting methods of insect pheromone were outlined. The application of pheromone in monitoring trap detection and pheromone components analysis were mainly analyzed. Also, the problems occurred in using the aforementioned detection methods were discussed in order to provide certain references in the development of detection technique.
    25  Development of a new grain collector of grain delivery machine
    马利平 赵艳平 李绍鹏 樊自芳
    2016, 24(4):108-110.
    [Abstract](690) [HTML](155) [PDF 1.76 M](699)
    Abstract:
    In view of grain collector of grain delivery machine at present has the problems, such as cannot gather the grain in the warehouse completely, cleaning the warehouse by labor will cause dust pollution, with cumbersome process and costing too much time and labor force, a new type of grain collector of grain delivery machine was developed. The device can gather the grain completely, operate easily, cleaning efficiently and save time and labor force, which improved the work efficiency obviously.

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