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Volume 24,Issue 3,2016 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Correlation between rice starch composition and extrusion properties
    岳崇慧 刘明 谭斌 刘艳香 田晓红 汪丽萍 翟小童 吴娜娜 于国萍
    2016, 24(3):1-5.
    [Abstract](735) [HTML](194) [PDF 2.22 M](433)
    The starch compositions and extrusion properties of 11 species of rice were studied. The correlations among total starch content, amylose content, ratio of amylose to amylopectin, and the extrusion properties of rice were discussed. The results showed that poor correlation was found between the total starch content and the extrusion property indicators of rices. The amylose content of rices performed a significantly positive correlation with the water absorption index (r = 0.879),while significantly negative re¬lation to the water solubility index (r = -0.876), a certain correlation with the expansion ratio (r = 0.530), but no significant relation among unit weigh and the hardness of rices. The correlation between the ratio of amylose to amylopectin and the water absorbability was significantly positive (r = 0.848), while the correlation between the ratio of amylose to amylopectin and water solubility was significantly negative (r = -0.846) . The content ratio of amylose to amylopectin showed a certain correlation with the expansion ratio(r =0.512) , but the correlations among this ratio, the water absorbability, unit weigh and hardness were not significant. The correlations among the amylose content, the ratio of amylose to amylopectin and the extrusion properties including the expansion ratio and the water absorption indexs were significant. The amylose content and the ratio of amylose to amylopectin of rice can be used as basis for the selection and combination of raw materials in extrusion processing.
    2  Effect of extrusion processing on the physicochemical properties of tartary buckwheat flour
    王盼 汪丽萍 吴卫国 谭斌
    2016, 24(3):6-12.
    [Abstract](708) [HTML](179) [PDF 1.87 M](728)
    In order to clarify the effect of extrusion processing technology on the physicochemical properties of tartary buckwheat flour, the influence of the different extrusion temperature, material moisture and screw speed to the water absorption index, water solubility index, swelling power, pasting and gel properties of extrusion tartary buckwheat flour was studied. The results showed that: compared to the unextruded tartary buckwheat flour, the extrusion buckwheat flour at 30 °C water bath has a better water absorption and water solubility, whlie the water solubility in water bath at 100 °C increased, the water absorption decreased, swelling power, pasting and gel characteristic values increased significantly. With extrusion temperature increase, the water absorption index, water solubility index and swelling power of the extrusion tartary buckwheat flour changed little, but peak viscosity and attenuation value increased, trough viscosity and setback value decreased, the quality of gels become better; with the moisture content increase, the water absorption, swelling power and the pasting characteristic value increased obviously, water solubility reduced significantly, and quality of the gel formation in low moisture content was good; with the screw speed increase, water solubility increased, but the water absorption, peak viscosity, trough viscosity and attenuation value reduced slightly, swelling power increased first and then decreased, and gel quality of the higher screw speed tartary buckwheat flour is better. Overall, the greatest impact on the properties of extrusion buckwheat flour was the material moisture. Water absorption index and water solubility index were significantly correlated with pasting properties and gel properties (P <0.05). The swelling power and pasting properties were significantly positively correlated(P <0.01), and there was no significant correlation between the swelling power and gel properties.
    3  Influence of superfine grinding on physicochemical properties of adzuki bean flour
    程晶晶 王军 肖付刚
    2016, 24(3):13-16.
    [Abstract](706) [HTML](201) [PDF 1.12 M](723)
    The effect of vibrational superfine grinding on the physicochemical properties of whole adzuki bean flour, obtained from coarse adzuki bean flour, was researched. The results showed that with the prolongation of the superfine grinding, the average particle size of adzuki bean was further reduced, more uniform, looked white and brighter. Compared with coarse flour, the angle of repose and slip angle of micro flour was increased, the bulk density and tap density was decreased. Superfine grinding is an effective technology to improve the physicochemical properties of adzuki bean flour, including uniformity of particles and color, hygroscopicity, swelling degree and solubility.
    4  Research on the effect of quality improver on low protein sorghum noodle
    寇兴凯 杜方岭 宗爱珍 贾敏 张华文 徐同成 李文香
    2016, 24(3):17-22.
    [Abstract](860) [HTML](181) [PDF 3.88 M](373)
    The effect of improver on quality of low protein sorghum noodles was investigated with mixed flour, sorghum flour, wheat flour, pre-gelatinized starch, wheat starch (4:5:4:7), as raw material. The results showed that the improver ameliorated the quality of low protein sorghum noodle. The single factor and orthogonal test results showed that the compound improver, combined with sodium alginate 1.2%, compound phosphate 0.2%, salt 0.3% and dietary alkali 0.15%, exhibited better improvement effect on the quality of the low protein sorghum noodle than any of the single one. The low protein sorghum noodle with the optimal compound improver can process good quality noodles by traditional technology.
    5  Design and experiment of automatic ultrasonic-control dough curing calender
    杨业栋 闫金成 胡冬泉 金超然 柴松敏
    2016, 24(3):23-25.
    [Abstract](659) [HTML](169) [PDF 3.87 M](648)
    Using ultrasonic sensors measure distance, PLC and frequency converter control the speed of dough and roller, the dough pressed by waved roller, planet roller and smooth roller from which the dough can be cooked and extended while being pressed, folded and rested. The whole process was pressing and extending, folding and resting, again pressing and extending, folding and resting, and pressing and extending, in order to form better gluten network structure to achieve tasting chewiness, smooth, soft and flexible.
    6  Effect of different extraction conditions on the acid value and peroxide value of Xinjiang walnut oil
    曹晓倩 谢新民 张继军 马磊 李静 王成
    2016, 24(3):26-29.
    [Abstract](804) [HTML](172) [PDF 1.12 M](818)
    The effect of different extraction methods for Xinjiang walnut oil on acid value and peroxide value was discussed. The walnut oil was extracted by the methods of Soxhlet extraction organic solvents (petroleum ether), supercritical CO2 extraction and cold pressing. The acid value and peroxide value was determined by volumetric analysis. The oxidative stability of the oil samples extracted by the above three methods was compared. The results showed that the extraction method affected the color, smell and oxidative stability. Soxhlet is simple and low cost, but need desolvation and long time. The precision of supercritical CO2 extraction is reliable, and the oil quality and purity is higher, but the production cost is high. Combined with the practical production, the cold pressing method is more suitable for the extraction of walnut oil.
    7  Quality and trans fatty acids contents of sunflower oils from parts of Shihezi in Xinjiang
    王晓菡 汪学德 王威 杨雅新 王璐 武运
    2016, 24(3):30-35.
    [Abstract](859) [HTML](209) [PDF 1.83 M](736)
    The trans fatty acids content and quality of sunflower oil bought from market was determined and compared with the oil from individual workshop. The results showed that total content of trans fatty acids of 7 samples, out of the total 26 samples, were above 1%, 1 above 2%, and most of them were fully refined oil, which indicated that excessive processing brought the rise of trans fatty acids content. The oil from individual workshop expressed with low degree processing, quality was lower than advanced refined oil with high degree processing. The acid value of 23.1 % samples and peroxide value of 42.3% samples were not in conformity with the national standards. The failure rate of the sample was 76.9%. The inhabitants who often buy oil in bulk need to pay attention to the quality, safety and health of the oil.
    8  Research on extraction of flavones in cole pollen with subcritical water
    高如意 董兴叶 邓辰辰 许明君 徐振秋
    2016, 24(3):36-38.
    [Abstract](621) [HTML](190) [PDF 1.55 M](704)
    Subcritical water treatment was used to extract favonoids from cole pollen. The optimal conditions were ascertained by single factor test and orthogonal test. The results showed that the optimal conditions of subcritical water extraction were as following: the ratio of material to water 1:25 g/mL, the time 20 min, the temperature 120 °C and the pressure 1.2 MPa. Under the conditions, the yield of favonoids could reach up to 4.12% ±0.05%
    9  Effect of additives on cooking quality and sensory quality of whole-wheat flour noodle
    2016, 24(3):39-44.
    [Abstract](789) [HTML](314) [PDF 2.66 M](1328)
    The whole-wheat noodles were prepared with wheat bran, wheat germ and flour, the improvement effect of different food additives (salt, wheat gluten and xanthan) on the quality of whole-wheat noodles was compared. The effect of compound of two or three of the above additives was reviewed. The results showed that each of salt, wheat gluten and xanthan can improve cook quality and sensory score. Among them, the optimum proportion of salt, wheat gluten and xanthan were 1%~2%, 1.5%~2.5% and 0.15%~0.2%, respectively. The quality of whole-wheat noodles mixed with two or three of above additives was significantly better than that with only one additive. Among them, the compound of xanthan and salt had the most obvious effect on reducing the cooking loss rate of noodles. The compound of the three above additives showed the highest sensory score.
    10  Study on the changes of nutritional components in maize contaminated by aflatoxin producing fungi
    欧静堃 李慧 蔡军 石嵩
    2016, 24(3):45-48.
    [Abstract](715) [HTML](193) [PDF 1.12 M](665)
    To explore the changes of the major nutrient contents in maize which was contaminated by Aspergillus sp. , the fungi pollution analog system was used to treat two varieties of maize, Xianyu 335 and Jiyuan NO. 1, for 7 days with aflatoxin producing fungal spore suspension. The results showed that the contents of protein and total amino acid of both varietied of maize were decreased. The changes of fat and sugar were related to maize variety. The content of fat in Xianyu 335 did not change, while total sugar content increased by 38.5%. The content of fat in Jiyuan NO. 1 decreased by 32.2% compared with control group, and the total sugar content decreased by 44.8 %. The contents of VA in both varieties of maize were reduced after being treated by the contaminated suspension, while the contents of VE and VB2 increased respectively; the change of content of VB1 was related to maize variety. Fungi changed major nutrient in maize in different degree which was related to maize variety. The contaminated maize should be evaluated for nutrient contents and safety, and graded before being used.
    11  Effects of ohmic heating on the activity of lipoxygenase in soymilk
    韩健飞 单长松 王少刚 宋占华 吴澎 李法德
    2016, 24(3):49-54.
    [Abstract](744) [HTML](173) [PDF 2.06 M](641)
    To investigate the effects of power voltage, frequency and holding warm time on the activity of lipoxygenase in soymilk, ohmic heating and conventional heating (oil bath heating) for the soymilk were employed. The results showed that by ohmic heating the lipoxygenase activity of soymilk increased with the increasing of voltage; the higher power frequency had a significant effect on the passivation of lipoxygenase; but a little effect on lipoxygenase activity when power frequency exceeded 500 Hz; extending holding warm time and the electric field accelerated the passivation of lipoxygenase. This investigation could have positive instructive effects on the design and production of ohmic heating equipment.
    12  Polysaccharides contents and antioxidant activity of Sanicula astrantiifolia Wolff
    杨涛 刘婷婷 杨芬 王芳 刘品华
    2016, 24(3):55-58.
    [Abstract](826) [HTML](183) [PDF 1.13 M](652)
    The polysaccharides contents and antioxidant activity of Sanicula astrantiifolia Wolff were detected. The results showed that: the polysaccharides contents in aboveground and underground part of Sanicula astrantiifolia Wolff were 2.155 and 2. 329 g/100 g respectively; when the polysaccharides concentrations were more than 100.8 µg/mL, the reducing ability of polysaccharides was higher than rutin; the inhibition ability to the superoxide anion free radical ( O2ˉ· ) gradually increased with the increasing of mass concentration; when the polysaccharides concentrations were more than 13.44 µg/mL, the inhibition rate was higher than rutin; The scavenging capacity of DPPH radical was higher than rutin when the polysaccharides concentrations were more than 42.00 µg/mL; the scavenging ability to hydroxyl radical (·OH) was significantly higher than rutin, and when the mass concentration was 8.06 µg/mL, the ability reached 95.40%; the polysaccharides of Sanicula astrantiifolia Wolff have good antioxidant activity.
    13  Comparison of determinations of cadmium content in rice by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry and rapid detection of heavy metals
    罗凤莲 杨纯 林亲录 欧阳建勋 周文化
    2016, 24(3):59-61.
    [Abstract](763) [HTML](167) [PDF 1.26 M](742)
    Cadmium content in rice sample was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and rapid detection of heavy metals method. The results showed that the cadmium content in rice were 0. 2878 mg/kg and 0. 2886 mg/kg, while relative error were 3. 55% and 3. 28%, relative standard deviation were 10.71% and 0. 48% respectively. There were no significant differences between the results of the two methods(P >0. 05), but the precision of rapid detection of heavy metals method was better than that of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, and can be used in rapid screening and accurate quantitative determination at the same time, which will have a good application prospect in detection of heavy metals in grain.
    14  Rapid determination of cadmium content in grain by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry
    2016, 24(3):62-64.
    [Abstract](783) [HTML](174) [PDF 1.11 M](711)
    The effect of rapid determination of cadmium content in grain by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry was discussed, which was compared with that by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The result showed that the detection limit was 0. 026 mg/kg and limit of quantitation was 0.061 mg/kg; all of the accuracy, repeatability and stability of the instrument conformed to the requirements; there were no significant differences between measurement stations. The method is simple, convenient, with high sensitivity and without environmental pollution, and is suitable for grain depots to store grain with cadmium content over standard and non over standard separately when loading grain in order to prevent secondary pollution, which is of great significance to ensure food quality and safety.
    15  Separation and identification of insecticidal constituents of Litsea cubeba
    张红建 郑联合 赵阔 高红日 罗山 陈艳 王涛
    2016, 24(3):65-68.
    [Abstract](707) [HTML](190) [PDF 1.50 M](690)
    The primary ethanol extracts of Litsea cubeba were separated and purified by liquid - liquid extraction method. The biological activity of the extraction compositions against Tribolium castaneum was studied and the effective insecticidal compositions were determined. The results showed that the repellent rate of chloroform extracts at 1.57mg/cm2 against Tribolium castaneum was 81.26% and the contact-killing corrected mortality at 50mg/mL was 75.98%. The chloroform extracts contented 20 kinds of organic compounds by GC-MS and 7-hydroxy-3, 7-dimethyl-Octanal was 21.15%, 2, 6-Diisopro-pylaniline was 16.41%, Chlorobutanol was 10.54%. The bioactivators possessed repelling and contact-killing may be 7-hydroxy -3, 7- dimethyl-Octanal , 2, 6-Diisopropylaniline.
    16  Investigatin and analysis on mycotoxins contamination of maize in Shandong province
    王燕 董燕婕 岳晖 李增梅 陈业兵 王玉涛 邓立刚 赵善仓
    2016, 24(3):69-73.
    [Abstract](746) [HTML](184) [PDF 1.86 M](693)
    The liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry was used to detect the contamination level of aflatoxin (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2), fumonisin (FB1, FB2, FB3), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) on the maize samples harvested during 2013~2014 in Shandong province, 520 batches. The results showed that the detection rates of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 were 18.08%, 7.88% and 0.77%, the average contents were 7.62 µg/kg,0.60 µg/kg and 0.05µg/kg; the detection rates of FB1, FB2, FB3 were 92.50%, 88.08% and 83.85%, the average contents were 1798. 69 µg/kg, 531.83µg/kg and 197.71 µg/kg; the detection rate of DON was 26.35%, the average content was 240.44 µg/kg; the detection rate of ZEN was 14.62%, the average content was 74.90 µg/kg. While none of maize samples were contaminated by aflatoxin G2. In addition, the results indicated that FBs contamination in maize was one of the most severe problem, and the over standard rate was 33.46%, and the other severe problem was the composite contamination by multiple mycotoxins.
    17  Effect of moisture, temperature and fungi growth on the quality of stored soybeans
    唐芳 程树峰 欧阳毅 张海洋 祁智慧
    2016, 24(3):74-78.
    [Abstract](713) [HTML](153) [PDF 1.53 M](776)
    The effect of moisture content, temperature and fungal growth on quality of soybean was researched. The soybeans with moisture content of 11.2%, 11.8%, 12.7%, 13.9% and 14.7% were stored at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 ℃ respectively for 180 days. Fungal growth, the changes of germination rate and fatty acid value were determined. The results showed that during storage fungal growth was affected by the moisture contents and temperature, and the moisture content was the main factor to determine whether fungal growth or not, while the temperature affects the speed of the fungal growth. When soybeans were stored with the moisture content below 11.8%, which was the critical moisture content of fungal growth, the seed germination rate and fatty acid value was mainly affected by temperature; when soybeans were stored below 20 ℃, the seeds maintain relatively high germination rate; when stored above 30 ℃, the increase of the fatty acid value was intensified; when stored above the critical moisture content, seed germination rate and fatty acid value were affected by the synergy between fungal growth and temperature. High moisture content and fast fungal growth will lead to the deterioration of soybean quality in a certain extent, even stored in low temperature.
    18  Effect of bran xylanase enzyme treatment conditions on the quality of whole wheat flour dried noodles
    刘姣 汪丽萍 吴卫国 谭斌
    2016, 24(3):79-85.
    [Abstract](691) [HTML](181) [PDF 4.03 M](636)
    In order to improve the quality of whole wheat noodles, the influences rule of enzyme hydrolysis of bran (moisture content,the temperature,the time and the enzyme dosage) on the cooking, structure and nutrition quality of whole wheat noodles was studied by xylanase enzyme hydrolysis technology for pretreatment of the bran components of whole wheat. The result indicates that whole wheat noodle's cooking increasing weight rate reduces slightly, and the loss rate of dry matter increase slightly, and the texture characteristics changes little, and the nutrition quality improved significantly after enzyme treatment. Each process conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis have effect on the quality of the noodles, the order of the influence factor is: the temperature > the time > moisture content > the enzyme dosage.
    19  Screening and identification of degradation zearalenone Bacillus
    葛婵婵 熊犍 赵晨 申琳 张晓琳
    2016, 24(3):86-91.
    [Abstract](744) [HTML](163) [PDF 3.28 M](661)
    Two Bacillus strains 373-2 and 411-1 showing good performance in zearalenone elimination, were screened from 400 strains of Bacillus. Zearalenone (15 μg/mL) could be eliminated completely after co-culture with the screened strains for 8 and 6 hours, respectively. Strain 373-2 and 411-1 were identified as a new species of Bacillus and Bacillus subtilis based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The mechanism of zearalenone elimination was also preliminarily investigated, and the result demonstrated that the main activity of zearalenone scavenging was due to the extracellular enzyme.
    20  Research progress on α-galactosidase immobilization
    解婉莹 董墨思 李苏红
    2016, 24(3):92-97.
    [Abstract](761) [HTML](179) [PDF 1.58 M](787)
    α-galactosides catalyzes the hydrolysis of α-galactosidic linkage, it is advantageous to decompose α-galactosides (an antinutritional factor) in soybean foods and feeds for improving soybean's nutrition composition and promoting assimilation. As an important part of the immobilization, the selection of the carrier material and the immobilization method directly affect the activity and stability of the immobilized enzyme. Recent research progress of the immobilization method and carrier materials for the immobilized α-galactosides were reviewed in order to provide reference for further research on activity and stability of the immobilized α-galactosides.
    21  Research progress on removing acrylamide from foods
    闫巧娟 黄林华 张斌 江正强
    2016, 24(3):98-100.
    [Abstract](704) [HTML](173) [PDF 1.11 M](756)
    Acrylamide as a chemical material was found in heat-treated starch foods in 2002, which was potential carcinogen and great threat to human health and food safety. The research progress in removing acrylamide in foods was reviewed, especially the biological enzyme method. It is helpful to the future research in application of L-asparaginases in food industry.
    22  Experiment research on the effects of intermittent drying of wheat in the granary by heat pump and fluidized bed
    刘恩海 刘寅 范中阳 王喜芳 李帅 方保江
    2016, 24(3):101-103.
    [Abstract](738) [HTML](184) [PDF 2.57 M](664)
    Taking the wheat,Yumai 9023, as a research object, the effects of both drying methods, drying with heat pump and fluidized bed designed by ourselves and drying by thin layer hot-air method, were comparatively tested at 50 ℃. Based on intermittent drying mechanism of heat pump fluidized bed, combined with the effect of continuous drying method on the quality of the wheat, the intermittent drying experiment was designed. The test showed that the drying rate of the heat pump and fluidized bed was higher than that by thin layer hot-air and larger decline in water content with the same initial moisture content. Compared with continuous drying the greater the intermittent number η, the higher the system energy use and the thermal efficiency, the better quality of the dried wheat. The optimal effect by intermittent drying was when η =2/3. The results provide reference for design of drying equipment and improvement of grain storage process, which has an important significance for improving the grain, seeds and other granular material storage effect and prolong its storage period.
    23  Effect of disinsection by fumigation with sulfuryl fluoride on granary loaded with stacks of bagged flour
    郭超 曾伶 劳传忠 卢木波 郑妙 杨永强
    2016, 24(3):104-107.
    [Abstract](747) [HTML](177) [PDF 1.50 M](742)
    The sulfuryl fluoride fumigation with the concentration of 20g/m3 in five-side-sealed space loaded with stacks of bagged flour was researched. The effect of the fumigation and its permeability was analyzed. The results showed that all of the different life stages of pests were killed after 52h. The half life during fumigation was 1.6h because of the poor gas tightness, which indicated that the five-side sealing mode was not suitable for sulfuryl fluoride fumigation. Sulfuryl fluoride could permeate into the depth of 1.5m in the stacks to kill the adult pests in the depth of 0.6m after fumigation for 52h. The tolerance of Tribolium castarnum(Herbst), Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens), Sitophhus sryzae(Linnaeus), Oryzaephhus surinamemis(Linnaeus) were different.
    24  Analysis of tension device of belt bucket elevator
    赵艳平 马利平 贾佳 樊自芳
    2016, 24(3):108-110.
    [Abstract](732) [HTML](184) [PDF 2.15 M](632)
    The belt slip phenomenon in the process of belt bucket elevator operation is analyzed. The design of existing tension device was optimized. The modified tension device possesses simple structure, safe and reliable, being adjusted without downtime. It can implement automatic tensioning the belt and raise the efficiency of delivery.
    25  Necessity of establishing grain reserves from the perspective of product attributes
    2016, 24(3):111-114.
    [Abstract](704) [HTML](169) [PDF 1.11 M](675)
    Compared with ordinary commodities, grain is a kind of special commodity. This paricularily reflects in the aspects as production, circulation and consumption etc. The non-continuity and weak controllability of grain production objectively increases the non-smoothness of grain output and supply costs. Rigid demand determines that the grain demand side has a strong degree of stability. The inconsistency between the fluctuation of production side and demand side increases the risk of fluctuation in the grain market. The cost of circulation relatively high due to the perishability of grain further amplifies the range of the fluctuation of grain price. The special product attribute of grain determines the necessity of establishing grain reserve. The establishment of the grain reserve system is essential not only for the stability of the grain market in the region, but also the stable operation of the region's economy and society.

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