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Volume 24,Issue 2,2016 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Study on grain quality safety under “new normality” in China
    2016, 24(2):1-5.
    [Abstract](853) [HTML](181) [PDF 1.22 M](706)
    China has entered a new economic development status named "new normality". The new international and national situation and new requirements which the work of maintaining the grain quality and safety would face to were analyzed. The potential risks and hidden danger on grain quality and safety problems were judged objectively. The problem-oriented principle was adopted, the dialectical thinking, creative thinking, strategic thinking and bottom-line thinking were applied, methodology and studied the possible path to solve the grain quality and safety problems in China. Practical suggestions were proposed from a comprehensive, developing and whole viewpoint, including finding new potentials on improving the supervision ability, creating new paths on optimizing supervision pattern, promoting higher income for farmers and ensuring the grain quality and safety. Our study was expected to provide a powerful support on realizing agricultural modernization and building a well-off society in an all-round way.
    2  Comparative study on physical properties of five grain materials
    孟岳成 陆冉 李延华 李杏 陈杰 吴勤
    2016, 24(2):6-11.
    [Abstract](818) [HTML](166) [PDF 3.53 M](718)
    The gelatinization property, thermodynamic properties and rheological characteristics were analyzed with wheat flour, rice flour, corn flour, buckwheat flour and pea flour as samples. The results of RVA showed that wheat flour and rice flour had the highest pasting temperature; corn flour showed bad anti-aging ability; buckwheat had good thermal stability; pea flour showed good anti-aging ability and thermal stability and also higher viscosity. The results of DSC showed corn gel had a distinct higher pasting temperature than that of wheat, rice, buckwheat and pea flour (P<0.05), which indicated that corn flour was easy to resuscitation. Rheological parameter displayed that all of these grains had the shear-thinning and thixotropic phenomenon, which revealed they were typical pseudoplastic fluids. Dynamic viscoelastic results showed that five grains had weak gel viscoelastic characteristic. Creep recovery and stress relaxation results showed that buckwheat had the largest initial elastic. Rice gel had lower initial viscosity and weak elasticity. Peas gel had the maximum initial viscosity and stronger resistance against deformation.
    3  Influences of pea flour milled by different methods on the quality of pea dried noodles
    田晓红 沈群 张敏 李芳 谭斌
    2016, 24(2):12-16.
    [Abstract](813) [HTML](169) [PDF 2.11 M](729)
    Making dried noodles with mixed wheat flour and yellow pea flour which was ground by Pin mill(PM), Roller mill(RM), Stone mill(SM) and Hammer mill(HM). The qualities of pea flour and the dried noodles were evaluated. The effect of milling method on the qualities of pea flour and the dried noodles was discussed. The result showed that The particle size of yellow pea flours milled by RM and PM are smaller with more uniformity than that milled by HM and SM. The particle size of pea flours (D[4,3],D[3,2],d(0.5),d(0.9))correlates very significantly negative with damaged starch content( r were -0.929,-0.708,-0.757,-0.978 respectively ); The pea noodles containing flour milled by RM were smoother, with better uniformity and appearance and higher score. Next was that by PM. While some granules can be seen on surface of the pea noodles which contained pea flour milled by HM and SM.The total scores of the noodles contain pea flour milled by RM and PM are 91.4 and 91.8 respectively, which were suitable to grind flore for making dried noodles than Stone mill and Hammer mill.
    4  Preparation of garlic oil microencapsulation with modified corn starch by low pressure plasma
    卢延霞 张岩 姜文利 王世清
    2016, 24(2):17-20.
    [Abstract](791) [HTML](175) [PDF 2.01 M](708)
    In order to overcome the shortage of volatileness, easily oxidized and pungent odor of arlic oil, the garlic oil microcapsules were prepared by spray-drying process with modified starch as the wall material. Ordinary waxy corn starch was preliminary modified by low pressure plasma technology. The preparation technique on garlic oil microencapsulation was optimized. The effects on the storage stability and bacteriostatic of saccharomyces cerevisiae were compared between before and after the reform of microcapsules. The results showed that film-forming performance of waxy corn starch had been significantly changed after being treated by the low pressure plasma. The optimum process of starch modified conditions of garlic oil microencapsulation was as follows: the concentration of wall material was 15%, the concentration of core material was 20%, the inlet temperature was 180 ℃, the feed temperature was 45 ℃, the embedding rate was 92.3%. The storage stability and bacteriostatic effect of the modified starch microcapsule were better than that of ordinary waxy corn starch microcapsule.
    5  Effect of processing accuracy on heavy metal content in paddy
    丁哲慧 鞠兴荣 袁建 何荣
    2016, 24(2):21-23.
    [Abstract](757) [HTML](183) [PDF 1.34 M](708)
    The content distribution of Cd, Pb and As in different part of paddy kernel and the effect of different processing method on the removal rate of heavy metal was researched. The result showed that Pb was the metal with the highest content in the sample and the part with the highest content of heavy metal was rice bran layer. The removal rate of heavy metal increased with the improvement of processing precision. When the rice milling reached 120 s, the removal rate of As was the highest which was 42.57%, while that of Cd and Pb were 24.38% and 41.38%. In the result, the heavy metals in rice can be removed by rice milling and improving rice milling precision.
    6  Study on optimization of technology of the compound health-care beverage with red bean and adlay by response surface methodology and its stability
    蒋边 李恒 孙鹏 张伍金
    2016, 24(2):24-28.
    [Abstract](774) [HTML](186) [PDF 2.42 M](736)
    With red beans and adlay as the main raw material, the effect of the content of red bean juice, adlay juice and sugar on the sensory evaluation score of compound beverage was studied. The optimal formulation of compound beverage was researched by response surface methodology on the basis of the study. With suspension stability as the main evaluation index, the optimum stabilizer of compound beverage and its dosage were studied. The results showed that the best compound beverage recipe was adlay juice 40%, red bean juice 28.0%, sugar 5.6%.Adding 0.1% xanthan gum, guar gum 0.1%, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose 0.05% as stabilizer, the compound beverage had the optimal stability and sensory score. The product possessed pure color, light mellow, rich nutrition, and had certain health care function.
    7  Optimization of phosphoric acid-assisted hydrated degumming of wheat germ oil by response surface
    胡新娟 张正茂 寇秀云
    2016, 24(2):29-34.
    [Abstract](755) [HTML](168) [PDF 4.53 M](732)
    Based on single factor experiment, phosphoric acid was chosen as degumming agent of wheat germ oil. The mathematical model between the amount of phosphoric acid, water, temperature, stirring time and the phospholipid content in the degummed oil was established by central composite design and response surface optimization. The optimum degumming conditions were as follows: amount of phosphoric acid 0.51%, degumming temperature 60 ℃, time 31 min, the amount of water 3.53 times of the initial content of phospholipid. The phospholipid content of degummed wheat germ oil was 9.31 mg/kg which was close to the predicted value 9.10 mg/kg. Therefore, the model was feasible to forecast the degumming results under different technology.
    8  Study on desugarization of powered soybean phospholipid with low PC content
    史苏佳 曹栋 王强
    2016, 24(2):35-38.
    [Abstract](685) [HTML](185) [PDF 2.48 M](615)
    Using powered soybean phospholipid with low PC content as raw material, the process of desugarization was optimized by the orthogonal experiment based on the single factor experiment. The results showed that the desugaring rate arrived 89.7% and the content of sugars in the extractive raw sugar was 89.2% when the optimum parameters were chosen as follows : temperature 30 ℃, extractive time 70 min, volume ratio of hexane to ethanol 1∶〖KG-*2〗2, volume fraction of ethanol 50% and extraction for twice. The kinds of the removed carbohydrates and its content were determined by high performance liquid chromatography, which were stachyose, sucrose and raffinose,with contents of 71.1%,17.3%,6.6%,respectively.
    9  Effect of antioxidants on the stability of radish seed oil
    赵功玲 郭延成 王冉冉
    2016, 24(2):39-42.
    [Abstract](624) [HTML](177) [PDF 2.11 M](676)
    The effects of antioxidants including TBHQ, BHA, BHT and PG on the storage stability of radish seed oil were studied according to the change of the acid value, peroxide value, refractive index, contents of conjugated diene and conjugated triene of radish seed oil. The results showed that under the conditions of accelerated oxidation of 60±1 ℃, the storage stability of the radish seed oil could be significantly improved by adding antioxidants, among which TBHQ was the best antioxidant followed by BHT, BHA,and then PG. The sample with 0.015 %TBHQ had a suitable stability degree and its shelf life was prolonged from 14 to 42 months at 20 ℃.
    10  Contrast analysis of sensory, textural and nutritional components of coarse grain dried noodle
    金静 李颖 王远路 梁文星
    2016, 24(2):43-46.
    [Abstract](555) [HTML](179) [PDF 1.53 M](769)
    The texture properties, nutritional components and sensory evaluation of five coarse grain noodles were investigated. The result showed that the texture properties were significant difference in this five coarse grain noodles. The parameters of the corn noodles were higher, hardness 314.867 g, gumminess 219.352,chewiness 208.672,springiness 0.994,tensile force 19.8 g, tensile distance 58.840 mm.The sensory evaluation of corn noodles was better than others, and the content of protein was abundant. The nutritional composition of corn noodles was close to national standards,i.e. protein content 4.5 g, fat content 2.2 g, phosphorus 188.5 mg, calcium 15.5 mg in 50 g corn noodles.
    11  Effects of sieving fineness on the physicochemical properties of extruded wheat bran and processing qualities of whole wheat flour
    刘艳香 汪丽萍 张敏 蔡亭 刘明 田晓红 吴娜娜 翟小童 谭斌
    2016, 24(2):47-50.
    [Abstract](588) [HTML](158) [PDF 1.49 M](682)
    Took extruded wheat bran (the mixture of crude bran, fine bran,wheat germ and wheat shorts) as raw material, the effects of sieving fineness (44.15~198.48 μm) on the physicochemical properties of extruded wheat bran and processing quality of whole-wheat flour were investigated. Results showed that with sieve mesh being increased, particle size distribution in extruded wheat bran became narrow; sieving fineness had great influence on the content of pentosan and ferulic acid, while a little influence on holding water capacity and swelling property of extruded wheat bran, and pasting properties and farinograph properties of whole-wheat flour; The uniformity can be obtained for wheat bran products by being extruded.
    12  Research on formula of enema made of peanut protein powder
    杜娟 左丁
    2016, 24(2):51-54.
    [Abstract](603) [HTML](165) [PDF 1.32 M](694)
    Peanut protein powder contains very high nutritional value. The powder was added into the sausage, which can not only improve the value quality of the products but also increase the usage of peanut protein powder. The optimal formula to produce sausage product was obtained by the single factor and orthogonal test with peanut protein powder, ratio of thin to fat, starch content as factors. The result showed that mass fraction of peanut protein powder was 5%, the ratio of thin to fat 83∶17 and the mass fraction of starch 8%. The peanut protein powder sausage products developed have the special flavor of peanuts, clear fleshcolor and elasticity with compact slice without pores.
    13  Research progress on nutritional quality and processing technology of barley
    曹文 叶晓汀 谢静 史定国 张智超 刘加友 隋中泉
    2016, 24(2):55-59.
    [Abstract](633) [HTML](158) [PDF 1.16 M](738)
    Barley is one of the major cereal foods for people lived in Eastern Europe, North Africa, Himalayan region in Asia and other region with extreme climate, providing novel functional benefit for human health. The progress in nutritional components and process of barley was summarized in the aspects of starch, fiber, protein and β-glucan. The qualities of barley products were affected by the physicochemical properties of barley and process, which provided information for the development and application of barley food.
    14  Quantitative analysis of starch, amylose and amylopectin in sorghum seeds by Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy
    邵春甫 李长文 王珊 王凡 尤伟 孙国娟 邹江鹏 周欣乐
    2016, 24(2):60-64.
    [Abstract](757) [HTML](160) [PDF 2.38 M](777)
    The content of starch, especially amylopectin, in sorghum seeds are extremely important to the quality of Moutai-flavor liquor which was fermented from sorghum, yet the research on determination for starch, amylose and amylopectin is paid great attention. Fourier transformed near infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIRS), due to its accuracy, stability, quickness and non-destructiveness, was successfully applied to setup a simultaneous determination system of starch, amylose and amylopectin. The results showed that the correlation coefficients of starch, amylose and amylopectin quantitative models were 0.954 9、0.923 6 and 0.940 1, while the root mean square errors of cross validation were 1.027 1、0.088 5 and 1.264 6. Thus it was concluded that FT-NIR is absolutely appropriate for the analysis job.
    15  Determination of Pb, As, Cr, Cd, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn in biscuit by ICP-MS
    李浩洋 李蓉 林晓云 冯雪雅 李云松 邓建
    2016, 24(2):65-68.
    [Abstract](767) [HTML](168) [PDF 1.15 M](621)
    Determination method of Pb,As,Cr,Cd,Cu,Zn,Fe and Mn in biscuit by ICP-MS was researched.The sample was digested by the full automatic microwave, the digestion solution was determined by ICP-MS with Bi,Ge,Sc and In as internal standard, the determination results were validated with the national standard method. The accuracy and reliability of the method were verified by the recovery and analysis of the national standard substance wheat (GBW10052). It showed that all of the linearly dependent coefficients of the curves were more than 0.999, the detection limits varied from 0.002 mg/kg to 0.500 mg/kg, the relative standard deviations were lower than 6.55%, the relative deviations of two methods between 3.73%~8.40%, the recoveries were from 88.0% to 106% ,the results of determination in the national standard substance of GBW10052 were all within the ranges of standard values. The test results are satisfied.
    16  Preliminary identification of pathogen causing wheat to mildew and exploration of control method
    高小明 胡斌 李皖光
    2016, 24(2):69-72.
    [Abstract](705) [HTML](152) [PDF 2.20 M](655)
    In recent years, in many places of Anhui, the base of wheat mildew and produce much black mould. Using tissue culture method to explore this unknown pathogen, the pathogen is inoculated to Bangladesh red culture medium after being treated with 70% alcohol, 0.1% silver nitrate and sterile water, and then placing in 25 ℃ constant temperature incubator, observing and analyzing colony morphology, diameter, etc. every five days. And observing the shape of conidium by microscope to identify the unknown pathogen was Alternaria tenuissima. It’s definitude basically that camphor and litsea cubeba oil have inhibition to the pathogen by traditional Chinese medicine fumigation methods which provide scientific guidance for storage of wheat not suffering from the infection of Alternaria tenuissima.
    17  Determination of trace propyl gallate in cooking oil by spectrophotometry with chloroauric acid
    杨秀军 凌绍明 欧阳辉祥
    2016, 24(2):73-75.
    [Abstract](778) [HTML](163) [PDF 1.34 M](695)
    A new method of determination of propyl gallate(PG) in cooking oil by spectrophotometry was developed, based on the principle of propyl gallate(PG) was reduced by chloroauric acid to produce gold nanoparticles, which had a strong absorption peak at 530nm. The effects of chloroauric acid concentration, heating temperature and reaction time on the systems, and interference test of coexisting substances in cooking oil were investigated, the conditions were optimized. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the concentration of PG was proportional to the △A in the range of 0.34~13.65 μg/mL. The linear equation was △A530nm=0.160 3ρ+0.056 1, with correlation coefficient was 0.994 6, and the detection limit was 0.093 μg/mL. The result of determine PG in cooking oil by the method was the RSD 0.9%~3.1%, and the average recovery rate 90.3%~97.0%.
    18  Study on the immobilization conditions of chickpea fermented by bacillus natto
    金爽 谭金燕 白秀云 吕晨 夏欣欣 付玉杰
    2016, 24(2):76-79.
    [Abstract](816) [HTML](163) [PDF 2.34 M](664)
    The fermentation of chickpea with immobilized Bacillus natto was optimized to provide references for the further using and industrial production. The fermentation of chickpea with immobilized Bacillus natto (natto-chickpea) was optimized and the effect on thrombolytic activity was studied by the single factor experiments. The result showed that the species of immobilized matrix, matrix concentration, calcium chloride concentration, concentration of Bacillus natto and bead diameter had significant effects on the thrombolytic activity of natto-chickpea. The optimal immobilization conditions were: concentration of sodium alginate 7%(W/V), concentration of calcium chloride 2.5%(W/V), concentration of Bacillus natto 7.4 log cfu/mL, alginate bead diameter 5 mm. Under this optimal condition, the alginate bead has a very high reusability. The process was optimized by single factor experiments which improved highly the thrombolytic activity. The method is of feasibility and can be extended in production.
    19  Study on the stress resistance of encapsulated enterococcus faecalis pre-fermented and post-fermented
    张琳 贠婷婷 綦文涛 李杰 李爱科
    2016, 24(2):80-84.
    [Abstract](678) [HTML](171) [PDF 2.00 M](770)
    The enterococcus faecium were pre-fermented encapsulated by the method of emulsion and internal gelation and post-fermented encapsulated by spraying dry. The stress resistance of the both microencapsulation formulations to the storage, high temperature, gastric juice and intestinal juice were evaluated compared with free enterococcus faecium. The results showed that the survival rates of pre-fermented encapsulated enterococcus faecium were 19.46% and 6.90% higher respectively than those of un-capsulated and post-fermented encapsulated enterococcus faecium after storage at room temperature for five months. The resistance of enterococcus faecium to the high temperature at 110 ℃ and 130 ℃ was significantly increased (P<0.05) by the pre- fermented encapsulation compared with post-fermented encapsulation and free. The survival rates of pre-fermented encapsulated and post-fermented encapsulated enterococcus faecium were significantly increased (P<0.05) compared with those of uncoated ones when they were treated in the simulated gastric conditions for 30, 90 and 180 min. The pre-fermented encapsulated was particularly evident. The results were similar in mimic environments of gastric juice and intestinal juice. The survival rates of pre-fermented encapsulated and post-fermented encapsulated enterococcus faecium were increased 19.17% and 14.18%(P<0.05)compared with un-capsulated ones after they were treated in the simulated intestinal conditions for 180 min.These results suggest that the resistance of encapsulated enterococcus faecium is much higher than that of un-capsulated ones. The pre- fermented encapsulation can be a more effective way than post-fermented encapsulation for protecting probiotic microbes and has a high value of practical application.
    20  Simulation of temperature and moisture variation in ventilation for stored grain
    张晓静 王远成 高帅 赵会义 魏雷
    2016, 24(2):85-89.
    [Abstract](713) [HTML](158) [PDF 5.67 M](614)
    The temperature and moisture content are critical to achieve safe wheat storage. The researchers have designed a variety of mathematical models to predict the temperature and moisture content of wheat during ventilation, which generally take a lot of memory and time. The problem can be solved effectively by a new mathematical model based on local heat and mass balance principle and Fortran program. And the proposing of R makes moister transmission closer to the actual condition. The accuracy and feasibility of the model was verified by comparison with the experimental results and it is very significant for the guidance of wheat storage.
    21  Effect of hypoxia on phosphine resistance of sitophilus oryzae (linné) and rhizopertha dominica (fabricius)
    张涛 田琳 伍祎 汪中明 贺培欢 郑丹 曹阳
    2016, 24(2):90-92.
    [Abstract](693) [HTML](170) [PDF 1.32 M](407)
    Phosphine resistance of main stored grain insects such as Rhizopertha dominica (Fabricius) and Sitophilus oryzae( Linné) increased and , controlling insects by only PH3 was more difficulty than ever. Low oxygen concentrations were used to control lesser grain borer and rice weevil and offspring with different resistance level to phosphine. The results showed that lesser grain borer and rice weevil adult can be all killed in 2 % oxygen concentrations within 6 days, without offspring, lesser grain borer and rice weevil adult can be killed less than 50 % in 5 % oxygen concentrations after 28 days, without offspring
    22  Present situation and prospects of detection technology of stored-grain insects
    高华 祝玉华 甄彤
    2016, 24(2):93-96.
    [Abstract](716) [HTML](185) [PDF 1.20 M](808)
    The present situation of development of detection technology of stored-grain insects at home and abroad was summarized. The advantages and disadvantages of the near infrared spectra, X-ray, microwave radar and conductance detection technology were compared. The innovation of stored-grain insects detection technology was explored in order to provide better technical support for storage pest detection.
    23  Construction and practice of intelligent grain depot
    陈赛赛 王力 胡育铭 尹道娟 王伟宇 焦义文
    2016, 24(2):97-101.
    [Abstract](747) [HTML](282) [PDF 1.15 M](1152)
    As intelligent construction for grain depot can improve the level of warehouse management, save the cost of labor, make scientific business decision, and guarantee the safety of grain storage, it has been increasingly concerned in various fields such as grain purchasing and storage enterprises. The construction and application of intelligent grain depot was summarized. Its application status in grain monitoring, intelligent ventilation, intelligent air conditioning, intelligent entering and exiting warehouse, video monitoring, warehouse information management and other aspects were introduced. The prospect of the construction of intelligent grain depot was also presented at the end of the paper.
    24  Development of late-model spiral grain scraper
    赵艳平 马利平 樊自芳
    2016, 24(2):102-104.
    [Abstract](714) [HTML](166) [PDF 2.16 M](680)
    Comparing with several grain scrapers on the market and find that there are some defects between them. A new grain scraper is developed. This new kind of grain scraper adopts spiral and promoting the combination of strong structure and the production can reach to 120t/h.This new grain scraper overcome the current existing shortcomings and the insufficiency of grain scraper on the market. At the same time this new grain scraper solve the problem of winding the scraper with hemp rope and impacting perforated ventilation duct and equipment on the ground, which greatly improve the efficiency and life span of grain scraper.

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