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Volume 23,Issue 4,2015 Table of Contents

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  • Abstract List
  • 1  Effect of processing conditions on the cooking characteristics of dumpling and moisture migration analysis
    周显青 徐启恩 胡育铭 张玉荣
    2015, 23(4):1-6.
    [Abstract](728) [HTML](0) [PDF 4.17 M](677)
    In order to explore the relationship between the mobility of water molecules and the quality of quick-frozen dumplings, taking levigated glutinous rice flour as raw material, the moisture status and migration changes in dumplings during process were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The different amount of water added and frozen temperatures were set, the changes of water molecules migration in the process and the appearance of quick-frozen dumplings and the cooking qualities evaluation indexes were measured and analyzed. The results showed that migration changes of the free water and the half bound water were the root causes of the changes of quick-frozen dumpling quality, and the amount of water added in powder and cryogenic temperatures during processing were the key conditions to the moisture migration variations, and quick-frozen dumpling cooking characteristics were affected significantly by freezing methods.
    2  Effects of water addition on pea dried noodle quality
    刘明 田晓红 汪丽萍 吴娜娜 谭斌 刘艳香 翟小童 曹龙奎
    2015, 23(4):7-12.
    [Abstract](764) [HTML](0) [PDF 5.03 M](671)
    The influence of the amount of water added on pea noodle quality was researched to provide reference for making pulses dry noodles with suitable amount of water. Taking yellow pea flour as research object, pea dry noodles were made of mixed flour of wheat and yellow pea with 15% and 25% of pea flour respectively, and different amount of water. The quality of the pea dry noodles was analyzed. The result showed that when pea flour content was 15%, along with the increase of water added, the gloss and appearance of dry noodles had no significant difference, but dough sheet darkled. After being cooked, the loss rate of dry material and sensory evaluation had no significant difference. When pea flour content was 25%, along with the increase of water added, the score of gloss and appearance of dry noodles enhanced, water absorption and loss rate of dry material trended downward. Texture characteristic and microstructure were better than that with other water addition as water addition were 32% and 34%. The surface and cross profile of microstructure were very coarse as water addition was 28%, total score of sensory evaluation was the lowest as 77.2. The suitable additive quantity of water was 32%~36% and 32%~34% respectively, when pea flour content was 15% and 25%.
    3  Effect of water-soluble substances on dough and flour products
    逯蕾 韩小贤 郑学玲 刘翀 叶明星
    2015, 23(4):13-18.
    [Abstract](920) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.50 M](753)
    Wheat flour was mixed with distilled water in the proportion of 1:10, shaken, rested, centrifugated. The supernatant liquor containing water-soluble substances of wheat flour was extracted, which was mixed with water in the proportion of 7%, 13%, 20% and 27% to be added to wheat flour to make dough for steamed bread and bread. The effect of the water-soluble substances on the dough and the products was researched through measuring the rheological properties of dough, as well as products of specific votume, color, texture and sensory evaluation. The results showed that after adding water-soluble substances into the flour, water absorption rate of high-gluten flour dough were gradually increasing along with the increase of proportions of water-soluble substances; although adding water-soluble substances was not conducive to the quality of steamed bread. The index of dough was similar when 13% water-soluble substances were added compared with without adding water-soluble substances; the volume and specific volume of steamed bread was large, tasted soft without sticky. For high-gluten flour, adding 13% water soluble substances has beneficial effects on bread with large volume, better appearance, delicate texture with springiness and aroma, whose indexes reached the best.
    4  Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of total flavonoids from tatary buckwheat shell by response surface methodology
    魏增云 张海容 陈金娥
    2015, 23(4):19-23.
    [Abstract](766) [HTML](0) [PDF 4.99 M](689)
    Response surface methodology was applied to achieve the optimal conditions of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of total flavonoids from tatary buckwheat shell. Base on single factor experiments, ultrasonic power, extraction time, temperature and liquid-solid ratio were chosen as influence factors on the yield of total flavonoids according to the principle of Box-Behnken central composite design. 60% (volume) alcohol was used as an extraction solvent, the results showed that the optimal extraction conditions were ultrasonic power of 50 W, extraction time of 26 min, extraction temperature of 53 ℃, liquid-solid ratio of 49 mL g-1, and extraction times of 2. Under the optimal conditions, the extraction rate of total flavonoids was 2.02 %.The optimal extraction conditions were reasonable and reliable, which provided technical support for the utilization of total flavonoids from tatary buckwheat shell.
    5  Research progress on qualities improvement of gluten-free foods
    吴娜娜 王娜 谭斌 田晓红 刘明 刘艳香 汪丽萍
    2015, 23(4):24-28.
    [Abstract](808) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.16 M](733)
    Gluten-free foods are mainly produced for people with celiac disease who are allergic to gluten. Since the raw material of gluten-free food lack of gluten, it is difficult for gluten-free food to form effective network structure and molding, with poor water retention, gas retention, springness and cohesiveness, and high aging velocity. The materials for gluten-free foods and their nutritional components were described. The progress in quality improvement by adding functional components and the techniques for processing was summarized in order to provide references for gluten-free food quality improvement and research.
    6  Study on extraction of camellia oil by ultrasonic technique
    张伟光 赵国君
    2015, 23(4):29-31.
    [Abstract](716) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.83 M](695)
    The ultrasonic assistant extraction technique of camellia oil was studied with camellia seeds as raw material.The factors affecting the extraction of camellia oil were particle size, ultrasonic time, liquid -solid ratio, ultrasonic temperature as well as ultrasound power.The L16(45) orthogonal test was designed for these factors on the basis of single factor experiments and the optimal extraction conditions were as follows: particle size was 60 screen meshes, ultrasonic time 50 min, liquid -solid ratio 7∶1, ultrasonic temperature 70 ℃, and ultrasound power 130 W. In this case, the average extraction rate of the camellia oil was 19.55%. The operation was simple and rapid with less pollution and cost.
    7  Research of wet peeling process of chufa
    田瑜 刘玉兰 张振山
    2015, 23(4):32-35.
    [Abstract](769) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.88 M](710)
    The wet peeling process conditions and effect of chufa was studied. The peeling rate and mass loss rate were selected as indexes and the effect of the soaking solution concentration, soaking temperature and time on peeling effect was studied. The results showed that the optimal conditions of wet peeling process of chufa were that soaking solution concentration was 5%, at 95 ℃, for 6 min. Under the condition, chufa peeling rate was 94.8% and the mass loss rate was 15.8%. The quality of chufa oil was improved after being treated with wet peeling process compared with the one without being treated.
    8  Study on preparation of fatty acid mixed from waste vegetable oil by hydrolysis in subcritical water and its kinetics
    黄雪 尹国强 张步宁 冯光炷
    2015, 23(4):36-39.
    [Abstract](770) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.49 M](753)
    The fatty acid mixed was prepared by hydrolysis from waste vegetable oil in subcritical water in order to study the conditions and its kinetics. The results showed that the optimal hydrolysis conditions of waste vegetable oil in subcritical water were obtained as follows: reaction temperature 280 ℃, volume ratio of waste vegetable oil to water 1∶3.5 and reaction time 30 min. Under these conditions, the conversion rate of the waste vegetable oil reached 98.1%. The kinetics analysis results indicated that the average reaction order n=1.123 89, the activation energy Ea=70.87 kJ/mol, frequency factor A=1.7706×105 and the reaction kinetics model were -dcA/dt=1.770 6×105e-70.87/RTcA1.123 89,respectively.
    9  Effect of microwave treatment on the oil yield of sesame oil and its quality
    鞠阳 汪学德 马素换
    2015, 23(4):40-43.
    [Abstract](802) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.81 M](782)
    Sesame seeds were treated by microwave. The microwave power, time, add water ratio, tempering time were selected as factors, the residual oil rate of meal as an index. The optimal microwave condition was obtained by orthogonal experiment based on single factor experiment. The quality of the oil treated by microwave under the optimal condition was compared with that without being treated. The results showed that the sesame oil yield, the content of sesamin and other trace constituents in sesame oil could be improved by microwave treatment, without obvious influence on oil color, iodine value, acid value and the content of major fatty acids. Although the peroxide value of sesame oil was increased after being treated by microwave, the oxidative stability of sesame oil was improved since it contained sesamin and other trace constituents. Microwave can be used as pretreatment to deal with oil seeds.
    10  Research on the preparation of biodiesel from jatropha oil by solid acid-base two-step catalyst process
    刘倩 丁敏 陈云霞 邓晔 毕冬韵 蔡筱玥 曹栋
    2015, 23(4):44-49.
    [Abstract](895) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.70 M](709)
    Two-step catalyzed process was used to prepare biodiesel from jatropha oil. The first step was that the free fatty acid from jatropha oil and methanol was pre-esterified by the solid acid catalyst SiO2/Zr(SO4)2-Ti(SO4)2;The second step was that alcoholysis reaction within jatropha oil and methanol was catalyzed by base catalyst K2CO3/MgO-Al2O3 . The reaction conditions were optimized by single factor test and orthogonal test. The results showed that the optimal esterification conditions were with catalyst amount of 2%, the molar ratio of methanol to oil 12∶1, reaction temperature 75 ℃, reaction time 2 h, and the acid value reduced from 10.47 mg KOH/g to 0.70 mg KOH/g. The optimal alcoholysis reaction conditions were catalyst amount of 2%, molar ratio of methanol to oil 12∶1, reaction temperature 65 ℃, reaction time 2 h, and the alcoholysis conversion rate was around 95%. Two〖CD*2〗step catalytic method was suitable for preparing biodiesel from jatropha oil, and the results laid some theoretical foundation for the industrial production of biodiesel.
    11  Numerical simulation of miscella droplets rising process in zenith tower based on Fluent
    王俊宾 赵晨伟 唐年初
    2015, 23(4):50-54.
    [Abstract](789) [HTML](0) [PDF 4.29 M](648)
    Miscella was deacidified by zenith method, which has many advantages such as refining higher acid value oil, reducing the chances of neutral oil being saponified, reducing residual oil in soapstock and reducing production cost. Under the optimal deacidifying process conditions, the flow of miscella inside of zenith tower was simulated by Fluent software with VOF model. The phase distribution, velocity vector distribution, absolute velocity distribution and dynamic pressure distribution of miscella of the flow field inner the tower was obtained. The result showed that the dynamic characteristics of the droplet were obtained by pumping miscella into the zenith tower through single-nozzle, which provided a new research method and the necessary theoretical basis for the optimization of zenith tower and the design of the oil droplet distributor. In addition, by establishing numerical simulation method, the accurate and reliable results of liquidliquid twophase flow were obtained.
    12  Effect of sprouting on processing quality of wheat flour products
    孙辉 段晓亮 常柳 陈瑶 方秀利
    2015, 23(4):55-58.
    [Abstract](804) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.38 M](1008)
    Sprouting will degrade the harvested wheat caused by higher unsounded kernels as well as defect the end-use quality of wheat. The effects of sprouting wheat in different sprouting stages on processing quality of steamed bread and noodle were studied. The sprouting wheat were divided into two classes, shooting wheat and germinating wheat, according to whether the plumule or radicle was visible or not. The result showed that germinating wheat and shooting wheat had different influence on the quality of wheat flour and its products. Germination in a certain degree benefited the milling quality. Sprouting had a little effect on gluten quality but relatively high effect on starch quality, for specific performance, falling number value and RVA viscosity values decreased significantly along with the sprouting rate increased. The steamed bread quality was affected significantly by obviously sprouting wheat, while a little on noodle quality. Germinating wheat had a little effect on either steamed bread or noodle quality. Falling number of wheat seeds might be a good factor to measure the effect of sprouting on the quality of steaming and boiling food, without obvious impact until the falling number lower than 131 s for noodles and 175 s for steamed bread.
    13  Quality analysis of Wuhan Reganmian
    魏跃胜 梁谦长
    2015, 23(4):59-61.
    [Abstract](771) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.48 M](749)
    Taking Reganmian used in several the most representative chains and self-employed shop in Wuhan market as sample, the indexes including crude protein content, alkalinity, tensile strength and hardness were analyzed in order to find the quality indicators which reflected the characteristics of Wuhan Reganmian. The data showed that there were significant differences among different brand of Reganmian in protein content, alkalinity, hardness, chewiness, tensile strength, elasticity(P< 0.05); For protein content, alkalinity, hardness and chewiness, the coefficients of variation were 7.179 6%, 9.607 6%, 9.800 8% and 9.729 2%, respectively, while for tensile strength and elastic the coefficients of variation were higher. The result showed that the indexes, protein content, alkalinity, hardness and chewiness, were applied to objectively reflect the quality of Wuhan Reganmian. At present, the indexes of Reganmian in the shop named Maixiangyuan was of the most representative quality characteristics.
    14  Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of rape pollen polysaccharide by response surface method
    姚秋萍 姬青松
    2015, 23(4):62-65.
    [Abstract](683) [HTML](0) [PDF 4.10 M](665)
    The ultrasonic-assisted extraction conditions of rape pollen polysaccharide were optimized by Box-Benhnken central composite design and response surface analysis based on the single factor experiment with ultrasonic power, extraction time, and the solvent/solid ratio as causal factors, and the extraction yield of polysaccharides as response value. The results showed that the optimum ultrasonic-assisted extraction conditions were as follows: ultrasonic power was 463 W, extraction time 20.5 min, and the solvent/solid ratio 22.7∶1 (mL/g). Under such conditions, the verification value of yield of polysaccharides was 5.28%, which was close to the predictive maximum yield of 5.30%. Ultrasonic technology can greatly improve the extraction yield of rape pollen polysaccharide.
    15  Research progress in bioactive peptides derived from edible fungus
    卞冬萍 肖明慧 陈耀
    2015, 23(4):66-69.
    [Abstract](687) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.14 M](886)
    Many studies showed that bioactive peptides could be used to solve health problems, such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, inflammation, diabetes, cancer, microbial infection and immune disorders. The varieties of bioactive peptides derived from edible fungus were summarized. The current research status of common active peptides derived from edible fungus was analyzed, and its application in the future was prospected.
    16  Determination of the biological absorption ratio of copper in wheat by fixed-time and concentration direct-reading method
    高向阳 朱盈蕊 高遒竹 王长青
    2015, 23(4):70-74.
    [Abstract](866) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.16 M](645)
    The relativity and biological absorption ratio characteristic between wheat and its trace copper in the soil was studied , taking Nanyang color wheat,Zhoumai 16 and Yanzhan 4110 as samples, rapidly determined by fixed-time and concentration direct-reading method. The result showed that the copper content was 2.17~7.81 μg/g in each sample of wheat flour,the highest total content of copper in blue wheat, the lowest total content of copper in Zhoumai 16. The copper content of wheat form Gongyi district was 4.599~7.808 μg/g,above other varieties of wheat background. The copper content was 2.17~4.52 μg/g in wheat form Zhengzhou district,lower than that of the same wheat variety. The biological absorption ratio of wheat was closely related to the varieties and the characteristics of the soil. The biological absorption ratio of Zhoumai 16 was relatively low as 13.06%~22.73%, while that of blue wheat was relatively high as 30.98%~39.81%.
    17  Determination of 5 organophosphorus pesticides residues in paddy by dispersive solid phase extraction- gas chromatography
    徐明雅 潘丹杰 杨志成 张烝彦
    2015, 23(4):75-79.
    [Abstract](793) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.61 M](427)
    A fast method was developed for the determination of 5 organophosphorus pesticide residues (dimethoate, chlorpyrifos, malathion, isocarbophos, fenitrothion) in paddy by neutral alumina dispersive solid phase extraction - gas chromatography with flame photometric detector (DSPE-GC-FPD). The powdered samples were extracted with acetonitrile. The extract was purified by neutral alumina DSPE,dried by nitrogen evaporator with water bath at 70 ℃,and dissolved by acetone and determined by capillary gas chromatograph with flame photometric detector(CGC-FPD). The results showed that the 5 organophosphorus pesticide showed a good linear relationship in the range of 0.05~5.00 μg/mL, all of their linear correlation coefficients were 0.999 9, the limit of detection was 0.002 mg/kg, and the minimum quantitative limit was 0.007 mg/kg. The spiked recoveries at three levels of standard additions in paddy were between 97.7%~108.0%, and the RSDs (n=6) were between 0.8%~5.7%. This method could be used to determine 5 organophosphorus pesticide residues in paddy at the same time.
    18  Determination of organophosphorus pesticides residues in carrot juice by SBSE- LC-MS/MS
    倪永付 闫秋成 王勇 朱莉萍 高洁
    2015, 23(4):80-82.
    [Abstract](698) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.11 M](623)
    The organophosphorus pesticides residues in carrot juice was determined by stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) combining with liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry. The sample was extracted by SBSE. After being desorbed, the sample was performed on ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C18 column. The analysis was carried out in the multiple reaction monitoring mode and external standard method was used for quantification. The calibration curve of the three organophosphorus pesticides showed a good linear relationship as concentrations in the range of 0.5~50 μg/L with the correlation coefficient r=0.995 3~0.999 9, the detection limit of this method was 0.5 μg/kg. In different concentrations, the average recovery rate of this method was 86.8%~95% and the coefficient of variation 4.3%~12.8%.
    19  Research progress on application of immunosensor in determination of mycotoxins in cereals and oils
    王瑞鑫 张微 李书国
    2015, 23(4):83-87.
    [Abstract](781) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.39 M](774)
    The mycotoxins pollution is one of the main factors that induce food safety problems. At present, the popular methods for determination of mycotoxins in cereals and oils are mainly thin-layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, supercritical fluid chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, immunosensor, ELISA kits and rapid test card etc. Electrochemical immunosensor has great potentialities in rapid detection, online detection and on-site determination for 〖JP2〗mycotoxins in foods because of the advantages such as rapid, sensitive and specificity. The reaction mechanism, classification, antigen/antibody immobilization of electrochemical immunosensor were summarized, the applications of aflatoxin immunosensors, ochratoxin immunosensors, fumonisin immunosensors, deoxynivalenol immunosensors and zearalenone immunosensors in determination for mycotoxins in cereals and oils were briefly described. The present problems were analyzed and suggestions were given in the end.
    20  Research on the factors brought by furfural inhibitor during acid-pretreatment of corn stover
    张莎莎 张坤 陈晓晓 王晓俊 左小明 薛冬桦
    2015, 23(4):88-92.
    [Abstract](764) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.92 M](697)
    To explore the factors that affect the generation of furfural inhibitor during the process, corn stover was pretreated using diluted sulfuric acid. The correlation between pretreatment conditions and reducing sugar and furfural was analysed by partial correlation. The analysis showed that the main factor affecting furfural generation was the concentration of the sulfuric acid. There was a positive correlation between the concentration of furfural and sulfuric acid. Pretreatment temperature and time were associated with the furfural concentration significantly; however the solid〖CD*2〗liquid ratio was not associated with the generation of furfural. The results showed that the optimal results were achieved by using 1% sulfuric acid to pretreat the corn stover at 120 ℃ for 90 minutes and ratio of solid to liquid 1∶10, as results, the furfural concentration was measured as 0.99 mg/mL with reducing sugar at 27.6 mg/mL.
    21  Study on optimization of extraction condition of polysaccharide from salviamiltiorrhiza f. alba by response surface methodology and its antioxidant activity
    2015, 23(4):93-97.
    [Abstract](758) [HTML](0) [PDF 5.15 M](707)
    The extraction technology of polysaccharide from salvia miltiorrhiza f. alba by optimized complex enzyme method was studied to evaluate its antioxidant activity. Taking polysaccharides extraction rate as response value, the ratio of water to material, enzymolysis temperature and time, and complex enzyme concentration (papain:cellulase:pectinase=2∶2∶1) as experimental factors, the mathematical model was established by response surface method. The extraction conditions were optimized. The physico-chemical characteristics of the polysaccharide and the free radical scavenging activity to DPPH and·OH were analyzed. The result showed that according to quadratic regression model response surface analysis the effect of the 4 factors on polysaccharide yield was decreased in the order of ratio of water to material, extraction time, extraction temperature and complex enzyme concentration. The optimal conditions were that the concentration of complex enzyme was 8.0 mg/mL, extraction time was 70 min, the ratio of water to material was 45∶1 mL/g, and extraction temperature was 52 ℃. Under the optimal conditions, the experimental extraction rate was 13.36%, the predicted extraction rate by mathematical model was 13.70%. The difference between them was less than 5%. The sample was levogyration and acidity polysaccharide, and soluble in water easily with relatively strong antioxidant activity, the IC50 for DPPH and ·OH were 0.969 mg/mL and 3.114 mg/mL, respectively, which was weaker than those of vitamin C. The polysaccharides from salvia miltiorrhiza f. alba extracted by optimal complex enzymatic extraction technology optimized by response surface methodology showed relatively strong antioxidant activity.
    22  Research progress in metabolic regulation of erythritol produced through fermentation
    曹翠翠 胡永红 杨文革 李佼佼
    2015, 23(4):98-102.
    [Abstract](724) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.99 M](711)
    The research progress in synthetic pathway, key enzymes and metabolic regulation of erythritol was reviewed. The method of changing metabolic pathway using metabolic control was analyzed. The future development of research trend in regulation mechanism of synthetic pathway for erythritol at the molecular level was prospected.
    23  Research on stored grain insect image segmentation based on tower layered-fuzzy C-means algorithm
    任斌 张志宏
    2015, 23(4):103-106.
    [Abstract](795) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.05 M](693)
    An improved stored grain insect image segmentation of tower layered - fuzzy C-means algorithm(TL-FCM)was brought out to solve the problems such as high operation cost and high noise sensitivity in traditional fuzzy C-means algorithm (FCM). A tower layered structure was adopted to reduce computation time complexity, at the same time to restrict the target image subordinate degree of pixels. The constraint was added into the objective function of traditional algorithm, therefore neighborhood information was effectively constrained. Simulation results showed that the new algorithm needed less computation time, effectively retained detail image information with ideal performance and results.
    24  Change on storage quality of edible oil in different specification of tank
    朱丽琼 朱启思 吴秋婷 曾彩虹 邓常继
    2015, 23(4):107-109.
    [Abstract](860) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.46 M](709)
    The related indicators of edible oil quality during storage were monitored to compare the change of the oil quality,including peanut oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, stored in non-standard oil tank with standard oil tank. The results showed that the quality of peanut oil stored in non-standard tank was better than stored in standard tank. With stored in non-standard tank, the quality of soybean oil and rapeseed oil, was better than peanut oil.
    25  Rotatable fastening circular vents for granary
    陶琳岩 张来林 王文广 陈朝
    2015, 23(4):110-111.
    [Abstract](729) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.23 M](682)
    The functions, classification and existing problems of vents, design requirements and applications were dissertated. The structure of rotatable fastening vents and their usage were introduced. This kind of vent had the characteristics of simple structure and convenient operation, which was popular and widely used in the grain depots.
    26  Prospect of application of chaos theory in stored grain insect forecast
    党豪 孙福艳 吕宗旺 甄彤 曹阳 赵会义
    2015, 23(4):112-115.
    [Abstract](839) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.03 M](748)
    According to the technical demand of stored grain pests forecast in China,research status and open questions about stored grain pests forecast was analyzed. In order to solve the problem, the increasing population of insects, growth rhythm, and chaotic characteristics of time sequence were discussed. The phase space reconstruction,Poincare section, and the return map and auto correlation function of chaos theory are applied tentatively to analysis and predict time series of pests in non-stationary stage.Chaotic theory is applied to the field of prediction for stored grain insects to seek the innovation and break through point of stored grain pest’s prediction technique, which provided technology support for stored grain pests prediction system and had guiding significance for the improvement of stored grain pest’s forecasting technology and food security.

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