SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF CEREALS, OILS AND FOODS

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Volume 23,Issue 3,2015 Table of Contents

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  • 1  The optimization of technology making glutinous rice ball by fuzzy mathematics sensory evaluation
    张志超 周显青 张乃建 张玉荣 赵希雷
    2015, 23(3):1-6.
    [Abstract](839) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.29 M](695)
    Abstract:
    In order to optimize the processing conditions for making higher quality glutinous rice ball, the key processing factors such as the addition amount of rice flour and water and steaming time were investigated by the methods of single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment. The quality of glutinous rice ball was evaluated by the fuzzy mathematics comprehensive evaluation according to the weights analysis of sensory evaluation about color, smell, appearance structure and palatability of glutinous rice ball. Meanwhile collapse degree and texture of the samples were both measured by instrument. The results showed that the quality weight sets was K=(color 0.21, smell 0.19, appearance structure 0.24, palatability 0.36). When glutinous rice ball was evaluated by the fuzzy mathematics comprehensive evaluation, it was turned out that the sensory quality was influenced in ascending order, i.e. addition amount of glutinous rice flour>addition amount of water>steaming time, and the optimal processing condition was 25% rice flour, 58% water and steaming time 20min, which was correspondence with the results of collapse degree and texture analysis got by orthogonal experiment. Fuzzy mathematical evaluation method and instrument analysis results were consistent, which further verified the feasibility and accuracy of sensory evaluation of fuzzy mathematics sensory evaluation.
    2  Study on the decolorization of xylo-oligosaccharides from corncobs
    孙军涛 李亚欣 肖付刚 崔春利
    2015, 23(3):7-10.
    [Abstract](700) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.18 M](749)
    Abstract:
    The decolorization process of xylo-oligosaccharides from corncobs was studied. xylo-oligosaccharides were extracted from corncobs by complex enzyme, which consisted of xylanase and cellulose. The decolorization process of xylo-oligosaccharides extract was optimized with activated carbon. Result indicated that the optimal parameters were as follows: activated carbon amount 20%, total soluble sugar content 11 mg/mL, at 40 ℃ for 30 min. Under the optimal conditions, the decolorization rate and the loss rate of reducing sugar were 68.93 % and 34.75 %, respectively. The yield of xylo-oligosaccharides after ethanol precipitation was 11.58%.
    3  Effect of dry heating on physicochemical properties of potato starch-ionic gum mixture
    邱超 姬娜 李晓静 熊柳 孙庆杰
    2015, 23(3):11-15.
    [Abstract](807) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.87 M](662)
    Abstract:
    Thermally modified potato starch was prepared by dry heat treatment,mixing potato starch with xanthan, sodium alginate and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), respectively. The effects of dry heat treatment on the physicochemical properties of the mixtures were researched. The results indicated that the gel hardness, gumminess, chewiness and thermal stability of potato starch-CMC and potato starch-xanthan significantly increased after dry heating. However, those of potato starch-sodium alginate had no significant difference between before and after dry heating. Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) results exhibited that the peaks of all samples after dry heating shifted to a lower wavelengths, showed that hydrogen bonds between starch molecular chains were strengthened. The results indicated that the interaction between starch chain and ionic gums occurred during dry heat treatment.
    4  Research status and development trend of characteristic dried noodles
    田晓红 谭斌 汪丽萍 吴娜娜 刘明 刘艳香
    2015, 23(3):16-20.
    [Abstract](859) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.21 M](704)
    Abstract:
    Dry noodle was main food in China. In resent years, diversification of noodle has made great progress. Nutrition healthy noodles, such as whole wheat flour noodles, coarse cereals noodles and pulse noodles, fruit and vegetable noodles, tuber noodles, have occupied the middle-high-end market and a good development trend. Glutinous grain(such as waxy wheat, prosomillet, glutinous rice, glutinous sorghum), the new resource for food( such as quinoa, grain amaranth, Coix seed) and novel foods ingredients (such as soluble soybean polysaccharide, flaxfeed, synanthrin) have very broad development prospects in characteristics dried noodles. However, research on nutritional evaluation of new noodle products is still basically in a state of blank at present. The standard of noodle can not meet the requirements of current market. The power of technology innovation is insufficient. The market share of characteristics noodles awaits to be improved. The current situation and development trend of dry noodles over the past decade was discussed in order to provide reference for the future innovation development of dry noodles.
    5  Research progresses in germinating hull-less barley
    申瑞玲 绍舒 董吉林
    2015, 23(3):21-25.
    [Abstract](664) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.15 M](730)
    Abstract:
    Research on germinating cereal was drawn more and more attention by scholars, especially for the germinating hull-less barley, which was loved by the people because of its characteristics of good taste and high nutritive qualities. The changes in nutrition components before and after germination, physiological functions during hull-less barley seed germination, research status and progress in development of germinating hull-less barley at home and abroad were summarized, which provided theoretical basis for development of germination hull-less barley in China.
    6  Ethyl esterification of hempseed oil and molecular distillation of its production
    周凯琳 舒奕 陶莎 耿晶娟 薛文通
    2015, 23(3):26-31.
    [Abstract](742) [HTML](0) [PDF 4.66 M](647)
    Abstract:
    The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were extracted from hempseed oil by combined technology of ethyl esterification and molecular distillation. The molecular distillation conditions of the product were studied. The results of ethyl esterification showed that when alcohol amount 80 mL, NaOH 1%, temperature 70 ℃, reaction time 30 min, the yield of hempseed oil fatty acid ethyl ester was the highest and the form of PUFAs was best preserved. The results of molecular distillation showed that when vacuum degree 2.0 Pa, distillation temperature 90 ℃, it had a good enrichment effect. The content of PUFA ethyl esters raised to 82.09%, recovery rate was 79.28%. The results of multi-stage molecular distillation showed that after four stages molecular distillation, the PUFA ethyl esters were purified up to 87.91%, recovery rate was reduced to 53. 91%.
    7  Study on antioxidant activity and structural identification of 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin from the seeds of euphorbia lathyris
    封家福 赵琦 卫秀敏 勾秋芬 陈封政
    2015, 23(3):32-35.
    [Abstract](722) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.59 M](636)
    Abstract:
    To investigate the active substances in the seeds of euphorbia lathyris, its ethyl acetate extract was obtained after the seeds were powdered, ethanol immersion extracted, condensed, degreased and extracted with ethyl acetate. The monomer compound was obtained after the ethyl acetate extract was washed and recrystallized.The compound was identified as 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin by mass-spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance,whose antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging assay and antioxidant experiment on lard. The result showed that the IC50 values of 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin was 0.058 μg/mL, much lower than that of Vitamine C, 0.542 μg/mL. The result of lipid peroxide value test showed that the antioxidant activity of 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin was stronger than Vitamine C.
    8  Effects of three kinds of edible oil and triolein on blood lipids of mice
    曾臣红 郭丽娜 刘焱 高建平
    2015, 23(3):36-39.
    [Abstract](831) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.14 M](939)
    Abstract:
    The effects of lipin on blood lipid were compared by gavaging mice with lard, peanut oil,olive oil or the triolein with high cholesterol emulsions or high dose of one of the edible oils, respectively. Results showed that the serum total cholesterol (TC) and liver index increased significantly, and the level of total triglyceride (TG) in serum decreased, after the mice were gavaged with one of the three edible oils or the triolein with high cholesterol emulsions. After being gavaged with one of the three oils, TC of the mice was increased by each of the oils. The serum levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and body weight were all increased because of the three oils or triolein. Meanwhile, olive oil, lard and triolein increased the liver index. In conclusion, lard, peanut oil, or olive oil mixed with cholesterol can increase serum total cholesterol level; however, there was no evidence showing that high dose of oils caused hypertriglyceridemia; peanut oil was most not likely to cause fat accumulation in the liver; triolein has no obvious influence on increasing TC, and no significant improving effect on the rise of total cholesterol level caused by cholesterol mixed with oils.
    9  Study on modification of hydroxylated soybean phospholipids by acylation
    祝品 李桂华 康雪梅 毛程鑫
    2015, 23(3):40-44.
    [Abstract](745) [HTML](0) [PDF 3.88 M](654)
    Abstract:
    Taking maleic anhydride as acylating agent, hydroxylated soybean phospholipids were acylated. The influences of reaction time, reaction temperature and anhydride dosage on the acylating rate of modified phospholipids were studied. The reaction conditions were optimized by response surface methodology as follows: reaction time 30 min, reaction temperature 55 ℃, and acylating reagent dosage 4%. Under the optimum conditions, the acylating rate was 61.60%. Infrared spectrum characterized that amide groups were generated in the acylated modified phospholipids. Compared with raw phospholipids, the emulsifying stability of hydroxylated and acylated phospholipids were improved in a certain degree.
    10  Research and application progress on oil body of plant seeds
    邢星 王瑛瑶 魏安池 方冰
    2015, 23(3):45-49.
    [Abstract](684) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.29 M](713)
    Abstract:
    Oil body is a spherical mass of liquid tri-acylglycerols surrounded by half unit membrane, and it owns good stability as a kind of natural emulsion. The structure and components of seed oil body, the variety and characteristics of proteins associated with oil body were summarized, and the research progress in oil bodies' extraction and purifying technology at home and abroad suiting for their application were focused on. Its properties and potential application in different fields, especially the exploitation research in food industry were elaborated.
    11  Mechanisms of t9,t11-CLA against oxidative stress injury in rats
    钟先锋 黄建锋 张继如 张勇 黄桂东 华东
    2015, 23(3):50-52.
    [Abstract](723) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.14 M](670)
    Abstract:
    The antioxidant effect of t9, t11-CLA was investigated based on the indicators of the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in rats serum and liver tissue. The results showed that after feeding for 4 weeks, the activities of SOD and GSH-Px in the serum and liver tissues of middle and high dose group were distinctly higher than that of control group(P<0.05), while the change of the content of MDA was opposite, which indicated that t9, t11-CLA had good protective effect on oxidative stress injury in rats and this protective effect came from their own antioxidant capacity as well as the activated antioxidant enzymes of the body.
    12  Optimization of CTAB-assisted extraction of pectin from blood pomelo peel by response surface methodology
    陈健旋
    2015, 23(3):53-58.
    [Abstract](644) [HTML](0) [PDF 6.51 M](336)
    Abstract:
    The process of CTAB-assisted extraction of pectin from blood pomelo peel was optimized. Based on the single-factor experiments, selecting concentration of CTAB, pH, temperature and time as independent variables and the extraction yield of pectin as response value, the effects of each independent variable and their interactions on the extraction yield were studied by Box-Behnken design. The quadratic multinomial model of each factor and the yield was set by Design-Expert 8.05b software.The results showed that the optimal extraction conditions of pectin from blood pomelo peel were: CTAB concentration 0.62%, pH 2.1, temperature 56 ℃ and time 93 min. The yield of pectin could be up to 20.85% under the optimal extraction condition, the relative error was 0.28% compared to the predictive value, which indicated the feasible model fitted well with the experimental data. The pectin showed a viscosity of 58.2×10-3 Pa·S, content of methoxy group 6.47%, degree of esterification 38.9%, ash content 0.82%, content of total galacturomic acid pectin 85.7%, which accorded with the standard of QB2484-2000. The pectin was a kind of low methoxy pectin and could be used as thickener.
    13  Brief introduction of research and develop on canadian pulses and related food products
    孙辉
    2015, 23(3):59-61.
    [Abstract](684) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.12 M](683)
    Abstract:
    Canada is the largest exported country of pulses in the world. Research in the field of pulse-flour food gradually increased in recent years. An overview of research and development of pulse and their food products by Pulse Canada and other organizations in Canada was summarized, including nutritional characteristics, development of wheat- pulse-flour food, effects of milling methods on the quality of pulse flour as well as foods made of blending flour, and detection technologies of pulse quality, in order to provide some reference information for R & D works in China.
    14  Determination of chronium and its bio-absorptance in wheat by microwave digestion-flow injection chemiluminescence
    高向阳 高遒竹 朱盈蕊 王长青
    2015, 23(3):62-65.
    [Abstract](714) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.14 M](648)
    Abstract:
    The relationship between wheat and trace chromium in soil was studied in order to provide a scientific basis for the breeding of wheat varieties enriched in chromium and development of functional food with rich chromium. With applications of microwave digestion sample, the determination method of chromium content in color wheat, common wheat and soil was established by flow injection chemiluminescence. The results showed that in six varieties of wheat grown in five areas, the chromium content was between 0.126 3~0.451 6μg /g. Different varieties had different content of chromium, chromium content in common purple wheat was higher; the same varieties of wheat planted in different area, the chromium content was different. Wheat planted in Shangqiu the chromium content was higher. Under the same growth environment, different varieties of wheat had different chromium biological absorption ratio, common purple wheat had higher biological absorption ratio, the biological absorption ratio of the common purple wheat planted in Shangqiu was as high as 27.62%, which was an ideal natural raw material to supplement chromium and had a certain cultivation prospects.
    15  Rapid determination of potassium bromate content in wheat flour
    刘海顺 宋立山 巩蔼 张德伟
    2015, 23(3):66-68.
    [Abstract](696) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.06 M](762)
    Abstract:
    According to the theory that 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine(TMB) can be oxidized under acid condition by potassium bromate (KBrO3) and the principle of color reaction, potassium bromate content in wheat flour was detected by qualitative detection of visual colorimetry and quantitative detection of spectrophotometry. The effects of system acidity, color liquid dosage, reaction time on the change of color were studied, and the experimental conditions were optimized. Results showed that under the optimal experimental conditions, the color gradually deepened as the potassium bromate content rose, and the concentration of potassium bromate within the range of 0~4 mg/L in line with the beer′s law. The linear regression equation was ΔA=0.2437 C-0.0052 with R2=0.999 3. These methods can be applied in practice, visual colorimetric method can determine the content of potassium bromate rapidly and the recovery rate of spectrophotometric method was 96.51%~101.70%, RSD 1.79%~3.12%, which can meet the needs of the supervise of food safety in the market.
    16  Detection method of Deoxynivalenol in wheat
    欧阳毅 程树峰 唐芳 张海洋
    2015, 23(3):69-72.
    [Abstract](723) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.52 M](672)
    Abstract:
    建立了一种新的小麦脱氧雪腐镰刀菌烯醇(DON)高效液相色谱检测方法。采用聚乙二醇和水对小麦样品进行振荡提取,提取液分别用活性炭、柱层析硅胶、中性氧化铝、酸性氧化铝、碱性氧化铝净化,比较几种吸附剂对小麦DON净化效果。结果表明,用酸性氧化铝净化效果最好,除杂率为66.3%,净化液通过0.22 μm聚醚砜滤膜可直接用于HPLC检测;色谱条件:分离柱为C18柱;流动相为甲醇∶水(20∶80);波长为230 nm。三水平加标平均回收率为91.0%~103.7%,不同污染水平的小麦阳性样品精密度试验相对标准偏差(RSD)为2.3%~8.5%;与免疫亲和柱(IAC)净化方法比较,方法间误差为2.3%~8.4%。本方法具有操作简便、快速、准确、成本低,可满足小麦DON大宗样品定量测定的要求。
    17  Detection of aluminium in puffed food by microwave digestion with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry
    叶发明
    2015, 23(3):73-75.
    [Abstract](789) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.68 M](666)
    Abstract:
    The determination of aluminum in puffed food by microwave digestion-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was established. The puffed food was treated by microwave digestion, with internal standard elements to compensate matrix effect, combined with the dynamic reaction cell technology to eliminate the interference of mass spectrometry, analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Under the optimal experimental conditions, aluminum showed a good linear relationship in the concentration range of 0.1~1.0 mg/L, the linear correlation coefficient r=0.999 7, the detection limit 0.023 mg/L (n=11), the recovery of standard addition 90.8%~103.0%, relative standard deviation 0.4%~3.2%. This method is rapid, simple, accurate and high sensitivity, etc., which was suitable for the determination of puffed food.
    18  Discussion on the distribution of cadmium and inorganic arsenic in japonica rice
    乔丽娜 魏立立 朱旭东 宁阳阳
    2015, 23(3):76-78.
    [Abstract](814) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.43 M](697)
    Abstract:
    The content of cadmium and inorganic arsenic in brown rice and rice was detected. The results showed that cadmium was distributed evenly in the japonica rice, the content in brown rice and rice was nearly the same; while the inorganic arsenic in japonica rice was mainly distributed in the epidermis. After being processed from brown rice to rice arsenic content reduced 2 times. It provided a basis for removal of heavy metal residues in food and rational application of grain resources.
    19  ASAP ion source and its application in rapid detection of contaminants in grain and oil products
    李尧 党献民 任正东 刘旭 龚珊
    2015, 23(3):79-84.
    [Abstract](725) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.45 M](632)
    Abstract:
    Atmospheric pressure solids analysis probes (ASAP) ion source is a relatively new type of ion source technology. The technique has broad prospect in the applications of detection of chemical contaminants. As one of the rapid screening method, ASAP is receiving more attentions. The principle, structure and characteristic of ASAP were introduced. The practical examples about quantitative and quantitative analysis of chemical contaminants in grain and oil food were introduced. The application of ASAP ion source was analyzed from hardware and methodology point of view. The ASAP ion source technology used as rapid detection of contaminants in grain and oil products have great value in practice.
    20  Optimization of combination of cadmium reduction strains in fermented rice noodle
    卢露 吴卫国 傅亚平
    2015, 23(3):85-89.
    [Abstract](677) [HTML](0) [PDF 3.86 M](625)
    Abstract:
    The optimal ratio of cadmium abate bacterial strain in fermented rice noodle was studied based on the Design-Expert software, by central composite design and response surface analysis. The amount of cadmium (Cd) reduction in fermented rice noodle was taken as an indicator. The optimal ratio of cadmium abate bacterial strain was determined by central composite experiment and response surface analysis on the basis of single factor test. The optimal add volume (V/V) were: L. plantarum 2.84%, S. Cerevisiae 2.31% and L. acidophilus 3.00%. The cadmium abatement rate was 79.94% detected by verification test, which was close to the result of predictive value of the equation 80.87%. The cadmium content in final product fermented rice noodle was 0.08 mg/kg(converted by rice moisture content), which was 60% lower than the national food safety standard value of the cadmium content in rice. The results showed that the improvement of cadmium reduction percentage in the fermented rice noodle can be achieved through combinatorial optimization of fermentation strains.
    21  Screening of bacillus being able to degrade zearalenone
    葛婵婵 熊犍 赵晨 汪洋 申琳 张晓琳
    2015, 23(3):90-94.
    [Abstract](682) [HTML](0) [PDF 3.43 M](630)
    Abstract:
    Two bacillus T-246 and T-420, which possess very good degradation effect, have been screened from 217 strains of bacillus, which were cultured in 96-well micro plate with strain and viral co-culture, by primary screen and rescreen. It was confirmed that 15 μg/mL zearalenones (ZEN) could be degraded by these strains within 6 h and 9 h, respectively. These two strains were identified as Bacillus stratosphericus and Bacillus pumilus based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis. In addition, the preliminary study on their degradation mechanism showed that they were able to bind ZEN, but the main effect of scavenging ZEN was due to the degradation activity of extracellular enzyme.
    22  Study on extraction of cod oil by enzymatic hydrolysis
    刘超 苗钧魁 刘小芳 王松 高华 冷凯良
    2015, 23(3):95-100.
    [Abstract](677) [HTML](0) [PDF 4.27 M](619)
    Abstract:
    Cod oil was extracted by papain hydrolysis. The technology was optimized by single factors and response surface tests according to the extraction rate. The technology was compared with traditional dilute alkaline hydrolysis in the aspects of cod oil extraction rate and quality. The result showed that the optimum condition of enzymatic technology was as follows: ratio of solid to liquid 1∶1.5, pH 6.5, the quantity of enzyme 3 270 U/g, temperature 50 ℃and enzymolysis time 2 h. The extraction rate of the optimal technology could reach 93.44% and the obtained fish oil had good quality with acid value 5.49 mg/g, iodine value 148.31 g/100 g and peroxide value 7.49 meq/kg. The extraction rate and quality of cod oil extracted by the enzymatic hydrolysis was prior to that extracted by the diluted alkaline hydrolysis method.
    23  Increasing the titer of erythromycin by optimization of nitrogen source with new glucose feeding process
    陈勇 李静
    2015, 23(3):101-104.
    [Abstract](775) [HTML](0) [PDF 3.26 M](713)
    Abstract:
    The ratio of available nitrogen source to slow release nitrogen source in erythromycin industrial fermentation medium were optimized under the condition of equal proportion of total nitrogen. Meanwhile feather peptone was tentatively used as a new type of available nitrogen source. The experimental results showed that, when the optimal ratio of available nitrogen source to slow release nitrogen source was 3.9, (the concentration of feather peptone 6 g/L and the soybean meal 33 g/L),erythromycin titer reached to 11 059 U/mL. Compared with corn steep liquor, feather peptone has the characteristic of stable quality, thus erythromycin titer fluctuation caused by quality instability of corn steep liquor can be avoided. Using the optimized medium, the traditional pH-feedback glucose feeding was compared with pH-RQ-feedback glucose feeding. The results showed that the erythromycin titer reached to 11 915 U/mL with pH-RQ-feedback glucose feeding, which was 7.7% higher than that with the traditional pH-feedback glucose feeding, moreover the total glucose amount fed to fermenter was decreased by 40%.
    24  Forecast shelf life of rice bran by chemical reaction kinetic model
    卢慧勇 舒在习 曹阳 贾然
    2015, 23(3):105-109.
    [Abstract](773) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.81 M](772)
    Abstract:
    The rice bran was stored in different temperature. The effect of different storage temperatures on acid value(AV)and peroxide value(POV) of rice bran was discussed. The relationship between temperature and storage life was set based on the temperature-AV/POV first order chemical reaction kinetics model to predict the storage life of rice bran under different storage temperature.The result showed: there was a logarithmic relationship between the storage life (t) of rice bran and storage temperature (T), the relation is: lnt=-0.031 3 T+4.959 2, the storage life can be calculated by substituting different temperature based on the relation.
    25  Investigation of pest species on the surface of stored grain bulk
    齐艳梅 田琳 张涛 李燕羽 伍祎 汪中明 贺培欢 曹阳
    2015, 23(3):110-112.
    [Abstract](788) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.12 M](444)
    Abstract:
    Environment temperature is the key factor to cause stored grain pests. The pests adapt to the temperature in medium and high temperature grain storage ecoregion in China, in which pest damage is serious. In order to guide integrated pest management, 19 grain depots located in the medium and high temperature grain storage ecoregion were randomly selected to carry out the investigation on the grain stored insect species by trapping technology with corrugated board. The results showed that eighteen kinds of main grain pests were found. There was little difference in insect species between medium and high temperature region, species of external-feeding pests were much higher than that of internal-feeding pests. The temperature and humidity of both medium and high temperature area were suitable for the development of pests,and the pests species in medium temperature area was slightly higher than that in high temperature area.
    26  Advisement about grain storage and logistics facilities construction in urban planning
    陆正磊
    2015, 23(3):113-115.
    [Abstract](703) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.12 M](730)
    Abstract:
    In recent years, grain storage and logistics facilities in the suburbs is gradually approaching the urban planning residential area, with the development of urbanization and the construction of railways and other infrastructure continues to advance. New residential areas built around the grain storage and logistics facilities not only affect grain logistics, the noise and air pollution produced from normal grain producing also not good for surrounding people. So, some original grain storage and logistics facilities, especially built since the 1990's, do not meet the urban and regional planning now. They had to move and result in a serious waste of resources. The situation and problems in grain storage and logistics facilities planning and the principles that should be followed in urban planning were analyzed in order to provide reference for city planning and grain administrative department.

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