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Volume 23,Issue 2,2015 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Research progress in influence of processing on physiologically active substance of cereals
    蔡亭 汪丽萍 刘明 田晓红 刘艳香 吴娜娜 林亲录 谭斌
    2015, 23(2):1-5.
    [Abstract](821) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.27 M](727)
    Cereals are the main source of food for humans, not only to provide the necessary large number of nutrients and minerals and other micronutrients, but also offers a variety of bioactive components that are beneficial to human health, such as polyphenols, carotenoids and so on. Previous studies showed that processing and eating methods of cereals could produce different effect on its bioactive components. The influence of cooking, baking, extrusion processing and micronization on antioxidant activity and content of the different form′s bioactive components in cereals was reviewed, in order to guide further research, and provide a theoretical basis for the people′s scientific diet and cereals processing industry.
    2  Effect of different kinds of food gel on baking properties of bread
    李可昌 刘海燕 周桂亭 张娟娟 王晓梅
    2015, 23(2):6-9.
    [Abstract](837) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.90 M](730)
    The effect of different hydrocolloids(sodium alginate, xanthan gum, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, locust bean gum, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose) on bread quality were investigated. The results showed that: by addition of proper amount of hydrocolloids, bread quality was improved effectively, showing higher specific volume, better overall acceptance and texture, springiness and cohesiveness, and lower hardness and chewiness of bread crumb, indicated that hydrocolloids possessed better anti-aging performance, therefore extended the shelf life of the bread. Compared the effect of hydrocolloids, sodium alginate and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose were the best, while xanthan gum the worst.
    3  Effect of addition amount of brown rice flour on quality of bread
    王娜 吴娜娜 杨庭 李兴峰 田晓红 汪丽萍 刘明 刘艳香 谭斌
    2015, 23(2):10-13.
    [Abstract](845) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.41 M](722)
    The impact of the addition amount of the brown rice flour on bread quality was studied. The results showed that along with the addition amount of brown rice flour increased, the volume, the springiness, cohesiveness and the resilience of bread decreased, whereas the hardness, gumminess and chewiness increased, and the cellular holes′ wall thickness, diameter and coarse air hole volume of brown rice bread increased. The cellular holes′ wall became thicker and the structure rougher and tighter, the crumb color of brown rice bread darker, and the wrinkles appeared. When the addition amount was 40%, the appearance and taste can be acceptable.
    4  Research on numerical simulation of temperature variation of steamed bread during quick-frozen
    宋晓燕 邹同华 洪乔荻
    2015, 23(2):14-16.
    [Abstract](754) [HTML](0) [PDF 3.31 M](676)
    A numerical simulation has been made for steamed bread's quick-frozen by Fluent software, the mathematical model was developed, and the experiment has been made, the simulative result matched well with the experiment date, the relative error of freezing time was 3.35%. This provided a reference for application of multi-temperature plane net belt quick-freezer in flour products industry.
    5  Effect of acid hydrolysis combined with moist heat treatment on physicochemical properties of potato starch
    邱超 姬娜 朱晓蕾 熊柳 孙庆杰
    2015, 23(2):17-21.
    [Abstract](875) [HTML](0) [PDF 3.03 M](714)
    The effect of pH value, moisture content and temperature on modification of potato starch (PS) was studied. The result showed that after being treated by partial acid hydrolysis (AH) combined with heat moisture treatment (HMT), the amylose content in PS increased, while soluble amylose content decreased; Solubility and swelling power of most modified starches decreased; Peak viscosity (PKV), trough viscosity (TV), final viscosity (FNV), attenuation and setback decreased; But gel hardness of some modified starches was higher than native starch. The biggest hardness of starch gel was 143.42 g, which was about 4.2 times higher than native PS, while gel springiness and cohesiveness of all modified starches decreased. To, Tc, Tp and Tc-To of PS modified starches significantly increased, but ΔH decreased. Crystallized potato starch was B-type, the peak of modified PS at 5.9°(2θ) decreased, double peak at 22~25°(2θ) decreased too, and even became into a single wide peaks.
    6  Research progress in effects of hydrocolloid on the physicochemical properties of starch
    刘星星 叶晓汀 姚天鸣 姚世佳 杨凤 隋中泉
    2015, 23(2):22-25.
    [Abstract](792) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.13 M](819)
    Addition of hydrocolloid improved the quality of food, reduced the cost and extended the shelf-life. Numerous studies showed that the effect of hydrocolloid on the physicochemical properties of starch varied with its own properties. The effects of factors on the physicochemical properties of starch and the research progress in the related mechanisms were investigated, which laid a theoretical foundation for the application of food additives in food industry.
    7  Study on the Maillard reaction between SPI and xylose in the dry state
    徐真真 黄国清 肖军霞
    2015, 23(2):26-30.
    [Abstract](855) [HTML](0) [PDF 3.11 M](739)
    The SPI and xylose were treated in dry heat condition, and the Maillard reaction was taken place between SPI and xylose.The effects of temperature, mixing ratio, relative humidity and reaction duration on the reaction were investigated. Meanwhile, the thermal performance and rheological property of the resultant Maillard reaction product were detected as well. The results indicated that the Maillard reaction occurred readily between SPI and xylose and the optimum condition was temperature 80 ℃, SPI to xylose ratio 4∶1, relative humidity 26.10% and reaction duration 5 h. The Maillard reaction product yleided under such condition possessed the highest absorbance at 290 nm. DSC analysis revealed that labile intermediates were produced during the reaction and rheological measurements indicated that enhanced elastic properties and increased viscosity, implying the formation of high-molecular weight products. It was concluded that the Maillard reaction in dry state has great potential in the modification of SPI.
    8  Effects of astaxanthin from phaffia rhodozyma on the oxidative stability of oil
    钟先锋 张继如 黄建锋 张勇 黄桂东 华东
    2015, 23(2):31-34.
    [Abstract](847) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.53 M](638)
    Effect of astaxanthin from phaffia rhodozyma (prepared in our laboratory) on the oxidative stability of oil was studied. The astaxanthin was selected as antioxidant, and peroxide value (POV) and acid value (AV) as the main indexes. The antioxidant activity was studied, compared with common antioxidates, such as TBHQ,BHA and BHT. The results showed that astaxanthin was an oil antioxidant, whose effect was a little better than that of TBHQ, much higher than that of BHA and BHT on tea oil,and the effect on tea oil was obvious in dose-effect relationship. When the adding amount was 0.015%, the antioxidant effect of astaxanthin from phaffia rhodozyma was good. Astaxanthin from phaffia rhodozyma is a natural antioxidant, which has potential antioxidant application value to tea oil.
    9  Study on the toxicological evaluation of structured lipids synthesized from rapeseed oil and octanoic acid by enzymic method
    栾霞 王瑛瑶 郭咪咪
    2015, 23(2):35-39.
    [Abstract](868) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.14 M](629)
    The edible safety of synthesized structured lipids(SLs)from rapeseed oil and octanoic acid by enzymic method was studied, in order to provide scientific basis for using it as a new resource of food. The toxicity of SLs was evaluated by acute toxicity test and heritage toxicity test of mice (Ames test, micronucleus test of bone marrow PCE cell in mice and sperm shape abnormality test of mice). The results showed that in the acute toxicity test, the oral maximum tolerance dose of SLs was larger than 20.46 g/kg bw, which meant the SLs belonging to non-toxic grade; The results of the heritage toxicity tests were all negative, suggested that there were no genetic toxicity in the structured lipids. The synthesized structured lipids(SLs)from rapeseed oil and octanoic acid by enzymic method belong to non-toxic grade food and do not have genetic toxic effect.
    10  Influence of different medium heating treatment conditions on acid value and carbonyl value of oils
    周婷 李志健
    2015, 23(2):40-43.
    [Abstract](747) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.12 M](657)
    According to the design theory of orthogonal experiment, the heating time, heating temperature, adding amounts of salt and monosodium glutamate were selected as the factors which affected oil quality to design the orthogonal experiment. The soybean oil was heated under different conditions with iron pan or non-stick pan. The acid values and carbonyl values of the heated oil were detected to analyze the effect of the factors on the oil quality. The results showed that heating time had the highest effects on the acid value and carbonyl value of oil, followed by heating temperature,and the amounts of salt and monosodium glutamate were the minimum influence factor to acid value and carbonyl value. The acid value and carbonyl value of oil heated in non-stick pan were higher than that in iron pan, which showed that the heating medium had influence on the quality of oil, and the oil quality changed less in the iron pan than that in non-stick pan.
    11  Optimization of microwave thawing process of frozen tofu
    田少君 马燕 张学鹏 干霖
    2015, 23(2):44-48.
    [Abstract](834) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.68 M](749)
    Thawing needs long time and is contaminated easily by traditional way. In order to overcome the disadvantages and adapt to modern catering industry, microwave thawing for frozen tofu was optimized. Frozen tofu was thawed under different microwave power and time, and compared to fresh tofu. To explore the effects of thawing by microwave on the quality of frozen tofu, indexs such as basic composition, texture, pH, color and sensory quality were investigated. The result showed that the optimal thawing parameters of microwave power and time were 150 W and 90 s.
    12  Analysis of sterols content and composition in special vegetable oils
    朱琳 薛雅琳 张东 徐冉 柴杰
    2015, 23(2):49-52.
    [Abstract](932) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.64 M](872)
    The total content of sterols in 4 kinds of special vegetable oils,i.e. peony seed oil, walnut oil, pumpkin seed oil and grape seed oil, and their composition were analyzed by gas chromatography. The result showed that sterols content in peony oil was 240.0 mg/100 g, of which the main components were β-sitosterol, Δ5, 23-stigmastadienol and Δ5-avenasterol; In walnut oil, the total content of sterols was 100.5 mg/100 g and β-sitosterol was the main component; In pumpkin seed oil,the total content of sterols was 299.6~358.4 mg/100 g, and the main components were β-sitosterol, Δ5,24-stigmastadienol and Δ7-avenasterol; In grape seed oil,the total content of sterols was 222.5~234.9 mg/100 g, and the main components were β-sitosterol, campesterol sterol and stigmasterol. The research provides basic data for development and process of special vegetable oil.
    13  Study on physicochemical indexes of wheat protein hydrolysate by different drying methods
    程帆 韩飞 李爱科 薛秀恒 王菊花
    2015, 23(2):53-56.
    [Abstract](843) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.62 M](747)
    The difference of physicochemical properties of wheat protein hydrolysate in 2 different drying conditions was studied in order to provide basic data for the industrial production of wheat protein hydrolysate. Gluten was hydrolyzed by Alcalase, using the fermentation tank as a reactor to obtain the hydrolyzate which was rich in glutamine. Wheat protein hydrolysate was prepared by spray drying or fluidized bed drying. The physicochemical indexes were investigated. The results showed that by spray drying, the content of moisture, protein, peptide, effective glutamine and TCA-NSI were 6.2%, 78.23%, 59.13%, 16.66%, and 81.06% respectively,and the dried product was white powder; by fluidized bed drying, the data were 11.14%, 22.49%, 5.04%, 2.03% and 28.99% respectively, and the dried product was yellow fine granular. Spray drying was more complicated to operate, time-consuming and expensive than fluidized bed drying, but it had higher effective glutamine. The two drying metheds could be used in different area for preparing wheat protein hydrolysate.
    14  Rapid detection of borax in wheat flour based on computer colorimetry
    张玉荣 暴洁 张德伟 周显青
    2015, 23(2):57-60.
    [Abstract](793) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.40 M](641)
    According to the principle that borax is converted to boric acid under acid condition, and boric acid has color reaction with curcumin, the image of the color reaction between borax and color liquid was collected by self-designed image acquisition sensors, the rapid method to screen borax in wheat flour based on computer and colorimetry was set up by LabVIEW design image processing software. The chromogenic condition of the chromogenic system and the operation function of the software were optimized. The results showed that the brightness I value of the color system was linear with boric acid in the range 0~4 mg/L. The borax content and I value curve was determined. The relation curve formula was planted into data analysis system, after collecting the images, the actual level of borax was automatically acquired by the software. The method used for the actual sample analysis, and the recovery of standard addition was 96.6%~96.6%, RSD was 1.18%~3.14%.
    15  Effect of inhibition of additives on the acrylamide in chips
    李金旺 于帆 唐清华 徐志祥
    2015, 23(2):61-64.
    [Abstract](868) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.03 M](685)
    In order to find a way to inhibit formation of acrylamide during deep frying chips, four additives such as green tea and garlic with different levels were used to soak potato strips before frying. The acrylamide in chips was quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed by GC-ECD. The results showed that all of the four additives had inhibition on acrylamide formation. The inhibition rate of green tea reached 49.53% when the concentration was 5 g/100 mL and soaked for 60 min.
    16  Research progress in adulteration detection in food by spectrometry
    常云彩 孙晓莎 巩蔼 任顺成 李辉 李琛 李然 张圆俊
    2015, 23(2):65-67.
    [Abstract](784) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.11 M](829)
    Food adulteration is an important factor in affecting the safety of food. In addition to need to perfect laws and regulations, food safety regulations are still relying on advanced technology. The spectrum method is widely used in the detection of food adulteration because of its strong characteristics, fast and easy operation and unrestricted sample status. The applications of spectrometry in all kinds of food adulteration detection system were summarized.
    17  Study on the expression of regulation of two strong promoters in bacillus subtilis
    周艳敬 常晓娇 吴子丹 伍松陵 孙长坡
    2015, 23(2):68-72.
    [Abstract](1030) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.62 M](819)
    The effect of two kinds of constitutive strong promoters P43 and PlapS on regulation of heterologous gene was compared on the expression level of ZEN degrading enzyme gene ZLHY6 and the enzyme activity evaluation. The degrading enzyme gene regulated by PlapS received efficient expression in bacillus subtilis 168, and the degrading enzyme activity reached the highest level of 219.02 U/mL after fermentation for 12 h. Moreover, the genetic stability of ZEN degrading enzyme gene expression vector pWBZ7 regulated by PlapS in Bs 168 lays a foundation for efficient expression and secretion of degrading enzyme.
    18  Preparation of corn germ protein polypeptide by compound protease hydrolysis and its antioxidant activity
    李艳娟 李书国
    2015, 23(2):73-78.
    [Abstract](826) [HTML](0) [PDF 3.92 M](644)
    The corn germ protein polypeptides (CGPP) were prepared from protein of corn germ by compound enzyme (alkaline proteases:papain=1∶1). The reducibility of polypeptides was selected as a detecting index and the conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis were optimized by response-surface method designed by Box-Behnken on the basis of single factor experiment. The optimum enzymolysis conditions of the corn germ protein were determined: protease dosage 9 200 IU/g, substrate concentration 11% and hydrolysis time 188 min. The reducibility of polypeptides of corn germ protein was 0.229 under the optimal conditions. The polypeptide was added to the noodles to check its ability of oxidation resistance, anti-browning, compared with the effect of ascorbic acid. The results showed that polypeptides of corn germ protein can effectively anti-browning in the storage of fresh noodles. When the additive amount was 0.9%, the effect of anti-browning was the same as ascorbic acid. TPA test results showed that adding 0.9% corn germ protein polypeptides into the noodles can improve its hardness and flexibility to a certain extent.
    19  Preparation of magnetic nanoparticles immobilized lipoxygenase and its activity
    丁文武 孙铭珍 曹汝毅 夏云空
    2015, 23(2):79-82.
    [Abstract](780) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.21 M](765)
    Magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared to immobilize lipoxygenase. The influence of factors on the enzyme activity of free enzyme and immobilized lipoxygenase was investigated. The results showed that the particulates were black short rod particles by TEM, and the mass of enzyme immobilized on the composite carrier was about 6.0%; the optional temperature for free enzyme and immobilized lipoxygenase was the same of 30 ℃; the optional pH value for free enzyme was 8.0, for immobilized lipoxygenase 9.0; The activity of the free and immobilized lipoxygenase showed a maximum activity when H2O2 concentration reached 14.0 g/L and 8.0 g/L,respectively. Under the optimum conditions, the activities of free and immobilized enzyme were 3.95×105 U/mL and 9.40×105 U/g, respectively.
    20  Optimization of preparation of biodiesel from waste oil in solvent free system by biological enzyme
    高晓龙 谭传波 郝泽金
    2015, 23(2):83-86.
    [Abstract](737) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.99 M](661)
    In order to seek the optimal condition for preparing biodiesel from waste oil by biological enzyme, the condition of transesterification was optimized by response surface methodology. Various molar ratio of methanol to oil, enzyme amount, reaction temperature and reaction time selected as the independent variable, and the yield of biodiesel as response value, the experiment with 4 factors and 3 levels was designed by Box-Benhken central composite, and after data preprocessing a regression model was founded by response surface analysis. Analysis showed that the result of the regression equation obtains good fitting, the optimal condition of the transesterification were: molar ratio of methanol to oil 4∶1, enzyme amount 10%, reaction temperature 35 ℃ and reaction time 15 h. Under these conditions, the yield of biodiesel was 95.9%.
    21  Rate of moisture adsorption in shelled yellow corn
    李兴军 吴子丹 姜平
    2015, 23(2):87-92.
    [Abstract](855) [HTML](0) [PDF 5.94 M](637)
    The changes of moisture content in shelled corn samples with different initial moisture content(IMC), low (3.85%~4.21%), normal (9.50%~10.32%) , and high (18.29%~18.65%), were determined in the conditions of 10, 20, 25, 30, 35 ℃ , relative humidity RH 65%, RH 86%, and RH 100%, respectively. A moisture diffusion equation was developed to fit for the relationship between moisture ratio and time. In the range of RH 65% to 100%, the lower IMC, the higher moisture adsorption rate at 10~35 ℃. The moisture adsorption rate or desorption rate increased with an increase in temperature. At RH 65%, RH 86%, or RH 100%, the moisture adsorption rate of corn samples with low IMC below 4.21% at 20~35 ℃ sharply decreased within 120~144 h, but the same samples at 10 ℃ tardily decreased within 192~216 h, then changed gently. For corn samples with normal IMC, its moisture desorption rate at 10~35 ℃ quickly deceased within 72~84 h under RH 65%. At RH 86% and RH 100%, its moisture adsorption rates sharply decreased within 96~120 h and 120~144 h at 10~35 ℃, respectively. The moisture desorption rates of two corn samples with high IMC above 18% at RH 65% and RH 86% sharply decreased within 48~72 h, thereafter changed slowly, but slowly decreased at 10 ℃. The moisture adsorption rates of two corn samples with high IMC above 20% at RH 100% showed similar trend to the moisture desorption rates of the same samples at RH 65% and RH 86%.
    22  Application of intelligent ventilation technology in granary
    陈赛赛 王伟宇 张勇 焦义文 尹道娟
    2015, 23(2):93-96.
    [Abstract](780) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.11 M](734)
    Intelligent ventilation technology for grain storage can realize intelligent analysis and judgment of storage conditions, it can achieve full automatic monitoring in ventilation operation as well as has many advantages such as high efficiency, energy saving and labor saving. The application of intelligent ventilation technology in grain safe storage was reviewed, including in ventilation for decreasing temperature, decreasing humidity and removing accumulated heat and other aspects. The prospect of constructing the digital grain depot was also expected, which would provide references for the broader application of intelligent ventilation technology in the construction of digital granaries.
    23  Test of granary loaded with corn ear for farmers in Northeast China
    董殿文 李吉芬 董梅 林琳 高树成 周云 王德华
    2015, 23(2):97-99.
    [Abstract](842) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.81 M](761)
    A new type of granary for corn ear was developed for farmers in order to meet the needs of rapid increase of good storage mode. The modular assembly structure was adopted, which constituted a cuboid space to store the corn ear. It was welded with pieces of steel mesh sheet, which was easier to transport and install. The test of granary loaded with corn ear proved that it had stable mechanical property, the function of mildew proof, ratproof, and natural air drying was remarkable, which can successfully reduce the loss of the grain for farmers and ensure the grain quality very well. It provided technical support for the farmers to store grain safely.
    24  Experiment of corn water retention storage in large warehouse in Northwest China
    张建利 宋国敏 曹毅 刘长生 赵勇 柴雪峰 林子木
    2015, 23(2):100-103.
    [Abstract](698) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.90 M](630)
    Recirculation ventilation system under film was installed in the test warehouse, and the axial flow fan was intelligent controlled. When the weather was wet and cold in winter, it would be ventilated with small air volume and slow speed. But when the upper layer grain temperature reached higher than 20 ℃, recirculation ventilation system will be started up to equilibrate the temperature in grain heap; when the temperature exceeded 25 ℃, the axial flow fans were started by the intelligent control system to remove heat accumulation. By adopting the technical process, grain temperature was controlled and grain moisture was kept in the test warehouse. In the test warehouse the grain moisture reduced 0.5 % compared with the control warehouse after storage for 3 years.
    25  Research on countermeasure against waste of food in catering consumption sector
    樊琦 刘梦芸
    2015, 23(2):104-107.
    [Abstract](849) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.12 M](765)
    Nowadays the waste in the catering consumption sector is very severe. With the improvement of living standards of residents and the increase of dine out, the amount of food waste presents a further tendency to expand. There is a lack of effective countermeasure. Taking catering consumption sector as an example, the main causes of waste were studied in the aspects of dining mode, catering system, market competition mechanisms. The control measures were proposed, such as creating a dining environment of saving, advocating separate dining system, building the mechanism of rewarding saving and opposing waste, and actively promoting the reform of operating mechanism in public canteens.

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