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Volume 22,Issue 1,2014 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Research progress on the applications of simulation technology in grain storage ecosystem
    Wu Zi-dan Zhao Hui-yi Cao yang Li Fu-jun Wei Lei
    2014, 22(1):1-6.
    [Abstract](1602) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](484)
    The simulation technology has been applied in grain storage ecosystem following the development of information technology, and has been an important tool for the research on interactive influence among multi-factors. Combining with the structure and characters of grain storage ecosystem, the research progress and application status of the followed area was introduced in detail: environment and ecology subsystem, computer simulations for grain pile non-biological field under no manual intervention conditions, simulation research in mechanical ventilation of grain storage, computer simulation research for the detection and precontrol of storage pests, and simulation research for growth model and precontrol of storage microorganisms.The characteristics of individual field effect on grain storage ecosystem will be more unequivocal by using simulation technology. Multi-parameter optimized control strategy for grain storage ecosystem will be formed gradually based on the research of multi-fields coupling theory.
    2  Effects of milling methods on the processing quality of glutinous rice flour
    ZHOU Xian-qing XIA Wen-wen ZHANG Yu-rong HU Yu-ming
    2014, 22(1):7-13.
    [Abstract](1628) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](496)
    The effect of milling methods on the quality of glutinous rice flour was studied by analyzing the physicochemical characteristics, the thermodynamic properties and the texture of glutinous rice flour milled by different methods. The results showed that the difference between the effects of different milling methods on the quality of glutinous rice flour was significant. The moisture content of the flour was easy to control with better color, lower ash content, acidity, fatty acid value, solubility and retrogradation, and better swelling degree when the wet milling method was used. However, no significant differences were observed in their transparency, water retention and the thermodynamic properties. The quality of glutinous rice flour was the best one produced by wet milling method in texture.
    3  Research on nutrients in germinated brown rice and starch gelatinization characteristics
    JIANG Ping NIU Fei-fei LI Xue-rui LI Xing-jun
    2014, 22(1):14-18.
    [Abstract](780) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](249)
    The germinated brown rice was prepared with three varieties of japonica rice and two varieties of glutinous rice as raw material. The changes of the brown rice before and after germination in some parameters, such as free amino acid, protein, water-soluble carbohydrate, fatty acid value and starch pasting properties, were analyzed. The results showed that compared with brown rice, the contents of total free amino acids, total water-soluble sugars, reducing sugars and pectic acids of germinated brown rice increased significantly. According to Mixolab the protein structure of germinated brown rice was weakened strictly and starch pasting ability decreased notably, the contents of the oleic acid and the fatty acid value were increased. Compared germinated brown glutinous rice with germinated brown japonica rice, the former had much higher contents of water-soluble total sugars, reducing sugars and pectic acids, and much less contents of damaged starch.
    4  Research on antioxidant properties of α-amylase inhibitor in chickpea
    HAO Xiao-yan CUI Zhu-mei MA Hao GU Ai-xing
    2014, 22(1):19-23.
    [Abstract](803) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](197)
    The DPPH、·OH and ·O2-radical-scavenging activity and reducing power of α-amylase inhibitor obtained from crude extracts, ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography and reversed phase liquid chromatography was studied. The results showed that the free radical scavenging capacity and reducing power of the α-amylase inhibitor not only increased with the increase of its concentration, but also increased with the increase of its purity in the reaction system within a certain concentration range.
    5  Process optimization of recombined crisps of purple yam - Pleurotus nebrodensis by microwave puffing
    LI Chao SHANG Xue-bing ZHAO Jie-chang MA Yan-qin WANG Rui
    2014, 22(1):24-28.
    [Abstract](698) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](180)
    The quadratic multinomial mathematical model of the process of recombined crisps of purple yam- Pleurotus nebrodensis was built by response surface analysis with three factors and three levels, according to Box-Behnken central composite design (CCD) principle, based on single factor tests. The response surface and contour were graphed with the sensory evaluation score as the response value. The effects of puffing time, amount of the mixture of purple yam and Pleurotus nebrodensis(mass ratio: 1:1) and water equilibrium time on the crisps were analyzed. The result showed that the optimal parameters were obtained as follows: chip thickness 0.6 mm, puffing power 700 W, puffing time 121 s, amount of purple yam and Pleurotus nebrodensis 16.9 g, the first class wheat flour 50 g and water equilibrium time 1.3 h. Under the optimized condition, the average sensory evaluation score was 91.8. The outward appearance of the product was smooth with uniform color, moderate and identical pore size, taste crispy with aromatic flavor.
    6  Research status of extraction technology and application of maize yellow pigment
    LANG Fan-fan DONG Wen-bin XIU Xiu-hong
    2014, 22(1):29-31.
    [Abstract](652) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](193)
    The output of corn in China is considerable. As by-product of corn starch production, corn gluten meal which is rich in maize yellow pigment is the ideal material for extraction of maize yellow pigment. Maize yellow pigment as a natural colorant is applied to the food industry. In addition, because of its strong antioxidant activity, it has a series of physiological functions, such as eyesight protection, anti-cancer, prevention of cardiovascular disease. The composition and properties of maize yellow pigment are introduced and their extraction methods and application status are reviewed.
    7  Optimization of the processing technology for soybean milk angel cake
    HUANG Yi-qian SU Yang
    2014, 22(1):32-34.
    [Abstract](753) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](209)
    The processing technic and formula of soybean milk angle cakes was optimized based on traditional baking methods. A new set of scoring standards for comprehensive assessments of the cake was proposed. The optimal formula was selected by orthogonal experiments. Soybean powder and tender bean curd were used instead of a part of flour and egg yolk, and soybean milk replaced water, which improved both the nutrition and the flavor of the cake.
    8  Study on enzymatic methyl esterification of maize germ oil deodorizer distillate
    YANG Ming-duo ZHU Jing QU Tong-xu WANG Yao-hui
    2014, 22(1):35-38.
    [Abstract](603) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](180)
    The transesterification of fatty acid in maize germ oil deodorizer distillate with methanol catalyzed by immobilized lipase Novozym 435 and tert-butyl alcohol as solvent in the reaction system was studied. The optimal condition was fixed by single factor test. The results showed that the addition of lipase was 80 mg/g, reaction temperature 55℃, reaction time 20 h, the molar ratio of substances 1.5:1, the addition of tert-butyl alcohol 6%, then the esterification rate reached 96.84%. The lipase was treated with acetone after each reaction can be recycled 7 times without significant loss of activity.
    9  Variation of crude fat of peanut during being steamed or boiled
    GAO Xiang-yang GAO Gui-ya WANG Chang-qing ZHAO Shan-shan
    2014, 22(1):39-41.
    [Abstract](679) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](172)
    To explore the variation of crude fat in steamed or boiled peanuts, the peanut from market was steamed or boiled, then determined the amount of crude fat by Soxhlet extraction method according to GB/T14772-2008. The unprocessed sample was taken as control group. The effect of processing duration on the content of crude fat was studied. The results showed that steamed within 1.5 h the crude fat decreased 3.1 g/100g dry basis sample, remained the same after steamed over 1.5 h; the crude fat decreased 4.0 g/100 g dry basis sample when boiled for 3 h, remained the same after boiled over 1.5 h.
    10  Influence of microwave heating on physicochemical properties of both hot- and cold-pressed peanut oil
    XU Tong-cheng DU Fang-ling LIU Li-na TAO Hai-teng QIU Bin LIU Wei LIU Zhen-hua
    2014, 22(1):42-46.
    [Abstract](715) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](207)
    The influence of microwave on physical and chemical properties of cold and hot-pressed peanut oils was detected. The results showed that unlike the previous reports, the peroxide value of both oils increased firstly with the increase of microwave processing time and power, but decreased with the further increase of microwave processing time and power. The trends of both oils were almost the same. The content of linoleic acid in cold-pressed peanut oil was decreased significantly by microwave processing, but the contents of other fatty acids did not change significantly.
    11  Research status of the control of impurities in injectable camellia oil
    LIU Jin-yong HE Dong-ping SONG Gao-xiang TAO Ran HU Chuan-rong
    2014, 22(1):47-50.
    [Abstract](739) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](181)
    Controlling impurities in oil has been a problem in application of health science and medicine. After cold pressing, impurity removal and refining, there are still some impurities, such as free fatty acid, fat-soluble pigments, saponin, heavy metal and microorganism in camellia oil, and these impurities can be totally eliminated if every step in preparation of camellia oil has been strictly controlled. The separation and quality control of oil was expatiated by comparing all indexes of edible oil with that of medical oil, and the relative researches in oil used for injection was also discussed.
    12  Optimization of preparation of ACE inhibitory peptides by hydrolysis of corn germ meal
    WU Di REN Jian SONG Chun-li
    2014, 22(1):51-53.
    [Abstract](814) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](197)
    Corn germ meal was hydrolyzed by alkaline protease to prepare ACE inhibitory peptides. Based on the single-factor experiments, the orthogonal experiment was used to optimize enzymatic conditions and the ACE inhibitory rate was used as the indicator. The optimal condition was as follows: substrate concentration was 5% (W/V), enzyme concentration 3% (W/W), temperature 60℃, pH 5.5, hydrolysis time 2.5h. Under the condition the inhibition of the hydrolysate against ACE was the strongest, the inhibitor rate was 86.38% and the degree of hydrolysis was 22.7 6 %. The hydrolysate was separated by the ultrafiltration membrane with the molecular weight cutoff 6 KDa. The inhibitory activities of the two fractions were determined. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of fraction Ⅱ was 1.38 mg/mL, which was higher than that of the un-ultrafiltration fraction (3.16 mg/mL).
    13  Study on production of glutamine-bioactive peptides by hydrolysis of wheat gluten with alkaline protease
    MA Hong-long HAN Fei LI Ai-ke CHEN Guang
    2014, 22(1):54-57.
    [Abstract](698) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](185)
    Wheat gluten was hydrolyzed by alkaline protease to obtain the peptide with high content of gln and the technics was optimized by single-factor and orthogonal experiment. The effective content of gln in peptide was determined by amino acid analyzer. The results indicated that the optimal parameters to hydrolyze wheat gluten were as follow: pH 8.0, temperature 70℃, enzyme concentration E/S 4%, substrate concentration 7%, reaction time 150 min. Under such conditions, the effective content of gln could reach 17.65%, account for77.31% of the total Glx(Glu+ Gln, content 22.83%),TCA-NSI was 77.86%,the protein content was 76.03%, the free amino content was 2.06%. The product had high effective content of gln and peptide.
    14  Analysis on the nutritional and functional components in by-products of rice processing
    CAO Xiu-juan XIONG Jian YIN Tie TIAN Xiao-hong ZHANG Xiao-lin
    2014, 22(1):58-62.
    [Abstract](671) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](196)
    The nutritional and functional components in rice bran, rice bran meal and white rice bran were determined and analyzed in order to realize the difference between the components. The results showed that the carbohydrates in the three by-products were above 50%. White rice bran was the highest in starch, while rice bran meal in dietary fiber. Rice bran was rich in oil and vitamin E, which was raw material of rice bran oil. White rice bran, rich in starch, can be used as raw material for fermentation or brewing. Compared with white rice bran and rice bran, rice bran meal was rich in protein and dietary fiber, with less microbial infections which was propitious for preservation. In addition, rice bran, white rice bran and rice bran meal were good sources of essential amino acids for human body, which accounted for about 45% of total amino acids.
    15  Effect of batter fermentation conditions on quality of steamed bread
    LIU Chang-hong ZHANG Huang LI Zhi-jian
    2014, 22(1):63-67.
    [Abstract](767) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](187)
    In order to explore the applications of liquid sourdough leaven in industrial production of steamed bread, the effects of fermentation conditions of liquid sourdough on the quality of steamed bread were studied by single-factor experiment, in which the ratio of flour to water, yeast amount, fermentation time and fermentation temperature were selected as independent variable. The effect of the independent variables, such as specific volume, the ratio of height to diameter, whiteness, the rate of aging and the texture, on the quality of steamed bread was evaluated and the fermentation condition was optimized. The results showed that steamed bread with good quality can be produced when the ratio of flour to water was 0.4 ~ 0.6 with 0.5% ~ 0.7% of yeast, fermentation time 12 ~ 24h and the fermentation temperature 28 ~ 33 ℃.
    16  Effects of food additives on the quality of steamed bread
    GUO Hong-zhen SHI Zhen-xia XIE Chun-yan
    2014, 22(1):68-70.
    [Abstract](771) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](211)
    The effects of distilled monoglyceride, soybean lecithin and ascorbic acid on the quality of steamed bread were investigated. The optimum additions of distilled monoglyceride, soybean lecithin and ascorbic acid in the steamed bread were also determined by single factor experiment together with the orthogonal experiment. The results indicated that the quality of steamed bread was improved significantly after adding distilled monoglyceride, soybean lecithin and ascorbic acid. The optimal quality of steamed bread was obtained when the addition of distilled monoglyceride, soybean lecithin and ascorbic acid were 5g/kg, 80mg/kg and 3 mg/kg, respectively.
    17  Influence of storage conditions on the quality of soybean
    LI Chen-yang ZHANG Zhen-shan LIU Yu-lan
    2014, 22(1):71-75.
    [Abstract](878) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](231)
    Taking the high quality soybean as raw material, short-term storage for 35 days, the influence of different moisture content (10.58%,15.23%,20.17%) and temperature (20 ℃,25 ℃,30 ℃) on the crude fat and crude protein content, the total number of mold, quality of oil and soybean meal in the soybean were investigated. The results showed that, under the condition of different temperature and moisture stored for 35 days, the crude fat and crude protein content in soybeans didn’t change obviously; but the high temperature and high moisture storage conditions could easily make soybean mildew, total number of mold increased rapidly with the highest number up to 1.09×105 CUF/g; at the same time, the acid value and peroxide value of soybean oil increased significantly, respectively up to 5.21 mgKOH/g and 3.70 mmol/kg, the content of unsaturated fatty acid decreased slightly, the highest range of reduction up to 5.01%; the KOH protein solubility of defatted soybean meal decreased obviously, the lowest down to 59.72%.
    18  Evaluation of the uncertainty of lead content in rice by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry
    LUO Yan-ling
    2014, 22(1):76-78.
    [Abstract](647) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](275)
    The uncertainty of the determination of lead content in rice by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) was evaluated. The main effecting factors on the uncertainty were analyzed. The mathematic model was built according to GB5009.12-2010,based on Guide to Evaluation of the Uncertainty in Chemical Analysis. The result showed that when the lead content in rice was 0.100 ㎎/㎏,the expanded uncertainty was 0.009 ㎎/㎏(k=2). When determining the lead content in rice by GF-AAS,the most influential factor on the total uncertainty was the uncertainty produced during sample digestion process and determining the mass concentration of lead in sample digestion solution.
    19  Determination of five kinds of trace elements in wheat flour by high resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry
    WU Yong-hua CHEN Shang-long LIU En-qi LI Tong-xiang CHEN Hua-yun
    2014, 22(1):79-81.
    [Abstract](667) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](200)
    An effective method was developed for rapid determination of five trace elements in wheat flour by microwave digestion-high resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Under the selected work conditions, the contents of Cu, Cd, Pb, Mn, Al in wheat flour were 1.35, 0.099,0.039,5.01,10.2 μg/g, and the detection limits were 1.22,0.077,1.53,0.614,1.54 ng/mL, respectively. The recoveries for the samples were 96.0%~104.7%, and the precision relative standard deviations were less than 5.81%.
    20  Study on determination of vitamin B1 in germ-retained rice and polished rice by high performance liquid chromatography
    BAI Xi-chun HAN Jun-jie JI Wei-dong
    2014, 22(1):82-84.
    [Abstract](665) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](198)
    The method to detect vitamin B1 in germ-retained rice and polished rice by HPLC-UV detector was researched. The samples were extracted by 0.1 mol/L hydrochloric acid for three times in ultrasonic cleanser, and the extract solution was measured after being concentrated. The chromatographic conditions were that detection at 246nm, mobile phase was methanol:sodium acetate(0.1 mol/L) =80:20,column temperature was 30 ℃ ,current velocity was 0.9 mL/min. The result showed that coefficient of recovery of this method was above 90%, all of the RSD was less than 5%, the detection limit (S/N=3) was 0.012 μg/mL. This method was fast, easy to operate with better repeatability.
    21  Progress in detection technology of anti-nutritional factors in soybean meal
    FU Ting-ting LI Ai-ke LIANG Xin-xiao YUN Ting-ting WANG Yong-wei QI Wen-tao
    2014, 22(1):85-90.
    [Abstract](753) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](203)
    Soybean meal has been widely used as a good protein resource in monogastric animal feed for its characteristics of high protein content and balanced nutrients. However, the application of soybean meal was limited since it contained some anti-nutritional factors, such as soybean antigen proteins (sensitizing factor), oligosaccharide, phytic acid and goitrogen etc. The progress and application effect of the methods that can be used to detect the anti-nutritional factors in soybean meal were introduced. The shortages were summarized and the speculations regarding future directions of these methods were analyzed.
    22  Application of bulk sampling in grain sampling inspection
    HAN Juan ZHAO Li LI Yao
    2014, 22(1):91-94.
    [Abstract](675) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](210)
    The application of bulk sampling method in grain hygiene sampling inspection was discussed. The bulk sampling method was compared with the traditional sampling method, including costing, risking and confidence level of test result. The advantages of bulk sampling method were analyzed and the extended applications were expected.
    23  Study on variation of moisture in lobster sauce during fermentation by nuclear magnetic resonance
    SU Wu ZHENG Xiao-fen FAN Lin OU YANG-jing TAO Xiang-lin LI Zi-ming JIANG Li-wen
    2014, 22(1):95-99.
    [Abstract](651) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](215)
    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) transverse relaxation time (T2) was used to reflect the hydrogen proton component and motility in fermented soybean products in different fermentation time, in order to discover the variation of moisture in fermented soybean products. The T2 signal of fermented soybean was collected by PQ001 analysis software and CPMG sequence to obtain T2 spectrum. The spectrum showes that the hydrogen proton in fermented soybean roughly divided into four phases: T21 (0.01 ~ 1.52 ms), T22 (1.52 ~ 7.05 ms), T23 (7.05 ~ 100 ms) and T24 (> 100 ms). Through the component content analysis, along with the anaerobic fermentation, decomposition of protein-based materials by microbial enzymes, metabolic activity of microorganisms and the formation of flavor substances, the combined water reduced continuously. There was a process of mutual transformation of water in cells (T22 and T23), and the content of free water also decreased in a certain extent. During the fermentation, the umami ingredients increased largely, amino nitrogen improved significantly, flavor substances increased significantly, the color of soften soybean deepened. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method can indirectly reflect the formation of the flavor and the change in texture during fermentation.
    24  Optimization of screening and fermentation conditions of a high-producing neutral protease strain
    ZHANG Jing
    2014, 22(1):100-103.
    [Abstract](574) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](177)
    6 neutral protease strains was screened from the soil, among which a highest enzyme producing strain bacillus subtilis was studied on its optimum neutral protease producing conditions by fermentation. The results showed that the optimum culture medium was prepared with corn flour of 1%, (NH4)2SO4 of 0.6%、Na2HPO4o12H2O of 0.4%, KH2PO4 of 0.03%, CaCl2 of 0.1%, pH of 6.0. And the optimum neutral protease producing conditions were as follows: fermentation time 48h, fermentation temperature 30℃, the loaded crude enzyme solution 100mL/250mL. In these conditions, the highest enzyme activity of crude enzyme reached 1475.6U/mL.
    25  Optimization of fermentation medium for alcohol dehydrogenase from acetobacter aceti
    WANG Tao LI Wen CHEN Ya-qing
    2014, 22(1):104-108.
    [Abstract](635) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](177)
    The fermentation medium of alcohol dehydrogenase produced from acetobacter aceti was optimized by single factor experiments and orthogonal experiments to increase the strains’ activity of producing alcohol dehydrogenase. The results showed that the optimal formula was glucose 1%, yeast extract 2%, ethanol 3%, MgSO4 0.05 %, KH2PO4 0.45%. Under the above condition, the enzyme activity was 0.423U/mL after fermentation for 3 days.
    26  Progress in enzymatic properties of microbial lipase and applications
    HUANG Huang LI Zong-jun WANG Yuan-liang HOU Ai-xiang
    2014, 22(1):109-118.
    [Abstract](615) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](221)
    Microbial lipases are being drawn more and more attention as a class of catalyst with powerful function. There are many kinds of them, which widely exist in mold, yeast and bacteria. Furthermore, the microbial lipases from different sources have different physical enzymatic properties and gene structure. The present researches, both domestic and abroad, about the optimum temperature, the pH and pH stability, substrate specificity, the effect of enzyme activity, gene structure and application of Rhizopus lipase, Aspergillus lipase, Penicillium lipase, Mucor lipase, Geotrichum lipase, Candida lipase and bacterial lipase, and their applications were summarized. The progress of lipase in the food processing industry was discussed.
    27  Kinetics of cereal quality change during drying
    ZHAO Xue-wei DI Kun LI Xiao-hua
    2014, 22(1):119-125.
    [Abstract](698) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](173)
    Cereal quality changed after being dried. It is necessary to know kinetics of quality changes during drying for effectively predicting and controlling cereal quality after being dried. The kinetic models used to describe the processes and their results were summarized and analyzed. According to the power-law kinetic equation, the reaction orders of cereal quality during drying range from 0 to 2, and most of the activation energies range from 100×103 J/mol to 400×103 J/mol. The power-law model is not suitable for describing some types of changes.
    28  Research on QFD modeling method of grain dryer
    ZHAO Xiang-tao XING Jun-jie
    2014, 22(1):126-129.
    [Abstract](559) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](171)
    QFD design theory was analyzed and introduced. A model of the first grade house of quality for grain dryer was established based on this theory. The comprehensive competitive ability of the grain dryer was analyzed.

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