Rice and flour products are a type of major food in China, which is abundant in nutrients and humidity and thus is suitable for microbial growth. Spoilage microbes could shorten the shell life of food, and pathogenic microbes could cause food poisoning cases. In recent years, rapid detection on food borne microbes includes traditional and nucleic acids amplification methods, of which PSR is advantageous on sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility, showing a promising application prospect. In addition, viable but non-culturable (VBNC) microbial cells is incapable of being detected by “Golden standard” culturing methodology, and thus becomes an important threat for food safety. This review has summarized the major microbes in rice and flour products, currently available detection methodologies, as well as the biological characteristics and detection method of VBNC, which will provide significant information on further safety control of microbes in rice and flour products.