粮油科技文摘,2019(1)粮油储运部分      2019-3-11

 

 

防霉剂在储粮中的应用研究进展

项芳芝,赵凯,邵倩,陶芳

      粮食在储藏期间因霉变而导致的损失一直备受关注,减少粮食储存损失是确保国家粮食安全极为重要的环节。防霉剂的开发与利用是解决粮食霉变的一个有效途径。对粮食霉变的原因,防霉剂的分类及其在储粮中的应用效果评价方法等方面进行了概述,并就生物源防霉剂在目前储粮中的应用存在的问题,提出了建议。

中国粮油学报,2019,34(1):131-137

 

环流通风对粮堆内嗜卷书虱成虫种群数量调控研究

姜俊伊,李倩倩,曹阳,石天玉

      开展环流通风工艺调控粮堆内书虱成虫种群数量研究,实验结果发现0.036、0.054、0.065 m/s单位面积通风量环流通风对其有明确的生态调控效果,随着通风时间的增加,粮堆内嗜卷书虱死亡率可达到100%。同时,环流通风对粮堆内嗜卷书虱成虫种群数量调控强度与调控时间随单位面积通风量的增大而增强,0.036、0.054、0.065 m/s单位面积通风量环流通风工艺下,粮堆内嗜卷书虱死亡率达80%时所需时间分别为84、72、30 h。

中国粮油学报,2019,34(2):93-100

 

南亚热带地区稻谷立筒仓智能化降温通风试验

韩志强,林乾,陈亮,等 

      在广州市南沙区于2018年1月16~2月7日期间,对装粮高度11 m的稻谷立筒仓(约650 t)采用自然冷空气进行智能化降温通风,分别采用5.5 kW和2.2 kW的离心风机上行式通风,风机运转条件是粮堆与大气温度之差≥3℃,粮堆平衡绝对湿度(EAHg)≦大气平衡绝对湿度(AHa)。结果表明,风机自动化运行时间主要在夜间,采用5.5 kW 风机的301号仓粮堆平均温度由19.2℃降到13.8℃,风机运转了72.9 h,单位能耗是0.087 kW h/t℃;采用2.2 kW 风机的501号仓粮堆平均温度由20.9℃降到12.4℃,风机运转了148.6 h,单位能耗是0.047 kW h/t℃,与当地人工控制的吸出式下行降温通风单位能耗比较,显著节约电能54%~75%。两个智能化降温通风仓通风结束后粮堆水分保持不变。与对照仓比较,采用低功率离心风机进行智能化降温通风后的稻谷出米率和加工品质有提高的趋势。这说明稻谷立筒仓智能化通风期间整个粮堆湿热分布均匀,不发生水分迁移。

中国粮油学报,2019,34(1):75-80

 

偏高水分玉米“控温保水”储粮新工艺研究Ⅰ

粮堆浅层通风降水的模拟试验

张来林,渠琛玲,李建锋,等

      针对目前粮库亟待解决的“湿粮储藏难”“粮食失水多”难题,依据维持储粮生态系统中温湿度的均衡就能保持粮食安全的储粮原理,将浅层通风降水、冬季冷却粮堆和夏季环流均温等技术优化集成,所形成的“表干内湿、控温保水”储粮新工艺,可有效破解长期困扰粮库“安全水分粮失水多、偏高水分粮难保管”的技术难题。本试验为“表干内湿、控温保水”储粮新工艺的前期工作,采用浅层通风降水方式,先在偏高水分玉米入仓后的粮堆内形成一个“外干内湿”的状态,为偏高水分玉米后续实施“控温保水”储粮新工艺、维持粮堆生态体系内外温湿度平衡创造条件,为“表干内湿、控温保水”储粮新工艺应用提供理论依据与技术支持。

河南工业大学学报(自然科学版),2019(1): 94-97

 

钢筋混凝土立筒仓卸料过程侧压力模拟

丁永刚,周秀,许启铿,郭呈周

      通过有限单元法对钢筋混凝土筒仓的静态及动态流动问题进行模拟,研究筒仓物料的本构关系,分析散料与筒仓壁的接触作用,并采用自适应网格划分,解决出现的大位移变形和网格扭曲畸变问题。模型采用三维实体单元构建,对散料采用Drucker-Prager准则本构关系,突破以往轴对称刚体模型的缺陷。考虑漏斗对侧压力的影响将筒壁与漏斗整体模拟,得到静态模拟以及动态卸料的水平侧压力、卸料过程中最大应力,并将模拟结果与中国规范、欧洲规范进行比较,结果表明静态模拟与中国规范契合较好,漏斗处侧压力分布复杂,其卸料侧压力是静态侧压力的1.55~1.89倍。

河南工业大学学报(自然科学版),2019(1):103-107

 

中欧美钢筋混凝土筒仓规范对比研究

段君峰,韩阳,李东桥,秦严严 

      分析了中国、欧洲和美国的钢筋混凝土筒仓规范在各自规范体系、适用范围、适用对象、贮料物理特性以及贮料压力计算的异同。研究表明:3种规范基本理论和静态压力计算均基于杨森(Janssen)静态压力理论,而贮料物理特性及动态压力放大系数等存在差别。在中心进出粮工况下,欧标的水平压力和竖向压力均最小,仓壁单位周长上总摩擦力最大;美标水平压力和竖向压力均较大;国标除水平压力外,竖向压力和摩擦力均相对较小。

河南工业大学学报(自然科学版),2019(1):108-112

 

粮食仓储物流技术领域发展中存在的问题与技术途径    

徐永安  

      以粮食市场需求、粮食消费用途为导向,通过对我国粮食仓储和物流技术领域发展中存在的问题与发展技术途径的分析梳理,存在的问题主要反映在品质控制及对仓房设施的功能性要求上。探讨了绿色、生态、优质、高效的发展理念,提出了在做好粮食仓储物流品质控制上发力,把守好粮食仓储物流的目的和底线的发展技术途径,以及细化粮食品质控制技术要求,强化粮食收获源头保质技术,研究开发绿色生态害虫防治技术、现代低温储粮技术、完备现代粮仓功能性仓型和功能性构造,细化粮油仓储技术管理等发展重点,不断提高粮食仓储物流企业的精细化运营管理水平。

粮油食品科技,2019,27(1):6-13

 

马铃薯全粉平衡水分吸附等温线与吸附等热研究    

文韵漫, 李兴军, 陈治天,等  

      采用静态称重法在温度10~35 ℃、相对湿度11%~96%范围内测定了五种马铃薯全粉的平衡水分/平衡相对湿度(EMC/ERH)数据,确定了多项式方程、修正3参数Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer(MGAB)、修正Halsey(MHAE)、修正Oswin(MOE)为适合的等温线拟合方程,采用多项式EMC方程分析马铃薯全粉的安全储运最大允许的含水率,在25 ℃、RH 60%条件下,绝对安全水分是10.05%;在25 ℃、RH 70%条件,相对安全水分是12.64%。采用MHAE分析马铃薯全粉水分吸附等热,随着含水率增加到17.5%,马铃薯全粉水分吸附等热则以抛物线形式快速地减少,之后随着含水率增加,水分吸附等热则减少缓慢。在含水率22%,马铃薯全粉水分吸附等热接近纯水的吸附等热。

粮油食品科技,2019,27(1):64-69

 

  高大平房仓磷化氢熏蒸及散气作业过程安全防护距离研究    

张 涛, 刘帅冰, 李 娜,等  

      近年来由于熏蒸散气而产生的仓内安全事故引起了行业乃至社会各方的高度关注,但熏蒸散气阶段的作业安全研究较少,相关隐患尚未被深入研究以及重视。在实仓实验中,对高大平房仓磷化氢熏蒸和散气过程仓房内外环境空气中磷化氢浓度进行现场检测,探讨熏蒸、散气作业过程的有效安全防护距离以及防护措施,研究结果为防范熏蒸作业安全事故、减少或避免发生人身伤害和经济损失提供依据。研究结果表明,安全防护距离与仓内(粮堆内)磷化氢气体浓度大小有关,不能完全以固定的安全防护距离作为判定是否安全的依据,接近熏蒸散气区域前必须检测磷化氢浓度。

粮油食品科技,2019,27(1):70-74

 

大米储藏过程中蛋白质氧化对其蒸煮食用品质的影响

吴晓娟,吴伟

      以新收获籼稻‘金优207’和粳稻‘吉粳88’大米为原料,采用温度37℃、相对湿度85%的条件进行加速陈化储藏,研究蛋白质氧化对大米蒸煮食用品质的影响。结果显示:随着储藏时间的延长,大米蛋白氧化程度不断增加;米粉峰值黏度、最终黏度、回生值和米饭硬度与大米蛋白羰基含量呈极显著正相关(P<0.01),与总巯基和游离巯基含量呈极显著负相关(P<0.01);米饭咀嚼性、弹性、外观、气味、适口性、滋味、冷饭质地与大米蛋白羰基含量呈极显著负相关(P<0.01),与总巯基含量和游离巯基含量呈极显著正相关(P<0.01);米粉最低黏度、米饭硬度与大米蛋白二硫键含量呈极显著正相关(P<0.01),而米饭黏聚性、回复性和黏着性则与大米蛋白二硫键含量呈极显著负相关(P<0.01)。这表明加速陈化储藏过程中,随着蛋白质氧化程度的增加,大米老化回生程度增加,米饭质构特性和感官品质明显下降。

食品科学,2019(1):16-22

 

贮藏条件对冷榨精炼核桃油脂氧化酸败的影响 

杨媛媛,王锐,张有林

      以冷榨核桃油为对象,研究其精炼前后的各项理化指标,并考察气体成分、温度、光照、金属离子以及抗氧化剂对冷榨精炼核桃油在贮藏过程中酸价和过氧化值的影响。结果表明:冷榨核桃油精炼后各项指标远低于精炼前,均符合国家食用油脂标准。贮藏过程中气体成分、温度、光照和抗氧化剂对冷榨精炼核桃油的酸价和过氧化值影响显著(P<0.05),添加不同金属离子对油脂氧化酸败影响不显著(P>0.05)。在贮藏温度5 ℃并添加0.02%特丁基对苯二酚(TBHQ)的条件下可有效延缓精炼核桃油脂品质劣变,贮藏28个月时酸价低于国家标准74%,过氧化值低于国家标准2%。

食品与发酵工业,2019, (1): 159-164

 

超高大平房仓装仓路线实仓试验探究

李晓亮,董德良,卢献礼,等

     针对现阶段超高大平房仓粮食入仓工艺不完善,不同库区装仓路线和效果参差不齐,部分库点装仓不规范等问题,提出了一种基于计算机模拟装仓过程的指导思路,并给出了针对不同仓型、不同粮种、不同装仓设备的装仓工艺软件。在结合实仓调研的基础上,通过数据统计和在实仓试验中发现的问题对工艺及时修改和完善,并将修正的入仓工艺同实仓验证具体结合,通过理论装仓工艺路线和经验路线的对照和分析,验证修正后的工艺软件是否满足需要。经验证,基于计算机模拟的装仓工艺与现阶段具有操作性的实仓验证路线基本一致。本试验成果对整个系统规范、高效、安全地进行超高大平房仓入粮工作具有积极的意义,为规范整个行业入仓工艺提供了理论支撑和技术保障。

粮食储藏,2018(6):1-6

 

利用浅圆仓安全储藏小麦过程中技术应用分

刘朝伟,吕建华,杨冰

      分析了利用3个浅圆仓分别储存小麦33和37个月的技术使用及粮情变化情况。结果表明适时使用机械通风技术和磷化氢双回路环流熏蒸技术可实现小麦安全储藏。仓温和平均粮温的最高值同时出现,且仓温高于平均粮温8.9℃;1~5月,平均粮温低于20℃,呈逐渐升高趋势;10月以后,平均粮温呈逐渐下降趋势。在小麦储藏期间,仓内相对湿度保持在60%左右。试验仓储藏期小麦品质符合宜存指标。

粮食储藏,2018(6):7-10

 

热泵干燥技术在粮库节能减排中的应用

李博,李伟钊,魏娟,等

      粮食热泵干燥技术具有经济、环保、节能、安全等诸多优势,为解决粮食产后数量损失、品质下降、流通破碎、储藏变质等问题提供了新的有效技术方案,取得了显著的经济效益、社会效益和环境效益。

粮食储藏,2018(6):11-14

 

发展中国家农户储粮减损研究现状

吴芳,朱延光,严晓平,杨玉雪

      发展中国家50%以上的粮食储藏在农户,但由于农户储粮方法原始、设施简陋、工艺落后等原因,农户储粮损失特别严重,粮食储藏环节的损失成为发展中国家粮食产后各环节(从收获到消费)损失最严重的,占总损失的50%~60%。使用科学储藏方法可使农户储粮损失降低至1%~2%。对发展中国家主要粮食种类农户储藏减损研究进行综述,对造成损失的主要因素和可能采取的减损措施进行了讨论。 

粮食储藏,2018(6):11-14

 

华南地区浅圆仓控温储粮应用新工艺

施国伟,庄泽敏,向征,等

      通过"量身定制"的安装于仓外的储粮专用空调和谷冷相结合的控温方法,探索形成了华南地区浅圆仓玉米安全度夏控温新模式和控温新工艺。结果表明:该控温模式有效解决了长期存在的浅圆仓玉米上层发热问题,实现最高粮温不超过30.0℃,平均粮温20.0℃左右的控温目标;探索总结出一种具有创新性、有效性和良好安全性的浅圆仓空调控温系统新工艺。

粮食储藏,2018(6):25-30

 

保安谷保护剂雾化防护储粮持效期示范试验

韩伟,王波

      在高大平房仓,使用专用雾化器雾化保安谷(50%甲基嘧啶磷乳油)针对储粮害虫进行防护试验。经过试验,发现保安谷对主要储粮害虫玉米象、锈赤扁谷盗、书虱、赤拟谷盗等具有很好的防治效果,且具有防护期长、方便简单、安全可靠等优点。

粮食储藏,2018(6):31-32

 

储粮害虫物理防治技术研究

邓树华,吴树会,潘琴,李凯龙

      就储粮害虫物理防治技术进行了综述。主要总结了机械防治、惰性粉防治、气调防治、诱虫灯技术、高低温技术、辐照技术方面的研究成果,介绍了各种物理防治技术的杀虫机理和实际应用效果,为实现生态储粮提供了重要依据。 

粮食与油脂,2019, (1): 10-11

 

玉米冻藏过程中挥发性成分变化及主成分分析 

徐瑞, 李洪军, 贺稚非

      为研究冻藏温度和时间对玉米挥发性风味的影响,采用顶空-固相微萃取(HS-SPME)结合气相色谱-质谱联用技术(GC-MS),分别对在-4、-18、-40 ℃条件下冻藏1、2、3个月的玉米样品进行分析,为玉米贮藏保鲜提供理论指导。研究表明:随着贮藏时间的增加,当贮藏温度为-4 ℃和-18 ℃时,烃类物质相对含量先增加后减少,醇类物质种类数量及相对含量均不断增加,酮类物质种类数量不断减少;当贮藏温度为-18 ℃与-40 ℃时,醛、酸、酯类物质相对含量先减少后增加。此外,当贮藏时间为1个月时,贮藏温度越低,烃类、酮类物质种类数量越多,相对含量越小;当贮藏时间为3个月时,贮藏温度越低,烃、酮、酯类物质相对含量越大,醛类物质种类数量和相对含量越小。随后,选取63种主要挥发性成分进行主成分分析,挥发性成分主要指向醛、酮、酯类物质,棕榈酸乙酯、癸醛、2,3-辛二酮、4-甲基二苯甲酮、辛醛、植烷、癸二酸二壬酯、棕榈酸异丙酯、邻苯二甲酸二异丁酯、十四酸异丙酯是玉米挥发性成分的主要特征化合物。

食品与发酵工业. 2019, (1): 210-218

 

玉米高温烘干塔人工控制与自动控制数据挖掘及数学模型分析研究

史钢强

      玉米高温烘干塔水分在线人工控制要求操作人员有非常高的敬业心和水平,也是劳动强度非常大的工种,人工控制逐步被自动控制代替。通过选取人工控制的规律摸索阶段数据,具有温度波动大、水分波动大的特点,而且操作人员敬业,数据可靠,影响参数非常多,达到14个,这样大量的准确数据具备数据挖掘及数学模型分析的基本要素,通过数据分析,找到了一种函数与人工控制曲线拟合度比较好,相关度R达到0.9245,可以作为人工控制的替代方法或简单自动控制方法而应用。该玉米高温烘干塔采用自动控制即DM510在线水分控制系统,由于系统影响参数比较少,只有7个(DM510本身变量只有5个),比人工控制参数少了一半。通过对1个烘干周期的数据分析,找到了一种函数与自动控制曲线拟合度比较好,相关度R达到0.8162,可以作为自动控制系统没有办法完成自主学习前的一种应用补充。

粮食加工,2019(1):55-57

 

大米堆垛出库前增湿机调质通风试验

冯继明,吴佑思,程发根,等

      通过增湿机对准低温仓的包装大米进行调质通风试验,调质数天后大米平均水分增加了0.5%,而其它质量指标无明显变化,在一定程度上增加了大米净重,有效地降低储备过程中因水分损耗造成的亏损,提高了经济效益。同时为防止大米在调质通风过程中可能发生的结露情况,增湿机还增加了制冷功能实现了精准控温。

粮食加工,2019(1):71-73

 

不同储藏温度及储藏时间对籼米品质变化研究

谈军,曹川,马玉侠

      以安徽粮食批发交易市场有限公司现代粮食物流中心库储存的籼稻为原料,不同储藏年限的稻谷经过砻谷机制成糙米后用碾米机制成籼米,检测不同年份籼米的质量指标,测定脂肪酸值、蛋白质、品尝评分、直链淀粉等指标变化规律

粮食加工,2019(1):43-45

 

气膜粮仓的实用探讨

叶青云,朱可亮

      介绍了气膜粮仓的结构、功能,结合粮食存储的特性,提出了安全、经济、高效的管理建议与气膜粮仓各系统整合的智能化研究方向。 

粮食与食品工业,2019(1):57-59

 

粮食烘干机选型和配套环保设施的研究分析

郭善辉,段谟泽

      随着国家对农业的不断重视,我国粮食烘干能力也得到很大提升。面对粮食烘干能力的提升,也引起了国家对粮食干燥设施选址的重视和工艺设计需求的不断提升。为此,本文从不同角度浅谈大中型粮食烘干机的选址和工艺设计。

粮食与食品工业,2019(1):55-56

 

浅析粮食加工厂粉尘防爆的重要性及措施

恽利军,王一珠,潘昕

      粉尘爆炸是一种强烈的化学反应,对于食品加工厂来说是一种灾难性的威胁。粉尘爆炸会直接导致人力、物力、财力的损失。所以,必须重视对粉尘爆炸的预防和抢救。本文主要分析了粮食加工厂粉尘爆炸的原因和特点,论述了预防粉尘爆炸的重要性,并针对其危害性提出了行之有效的预防措施,希望能为相关行业提供帮助。 

粮食与食品工业,2019(1):27-29

 

不同磷化氢浓度熏蒸治理锈赤扁谷盗试验

苏金坪,刘焱,张彬武

     为了有效治理储粮害虫锈赤扁谷盗,本文通过模拟仓中熏蒸防治锈赤扁谷盗结果,计算锈赤扁谷盗磷化氢熏蒸Ct值,同时在仓中利用200、300、400 mL/m3的3个不同浓度的磷化氢熏蒸锈赤扁谷盗。结果表明,中央储备粮益阳直属库锈赤扁谷盗磷化氢熏蒸平均Ct值为6 567(mL·h)/ m3,经补药维持在300、400 mL/ m3两个浓度的磷化氢熏蒸相应处理35、30 d后,实现了有效防治锈赤扁谷盗成虫和卵的目标,经200 mL/m3浓度的磷化氢熏蒸处理未能有效杀灭锈赤扁谷盗卵。

粮食科技与经济,2018(12):58-60

 

Microencapsulated food‐grade antioxidant applied as a preservative of peanut seed quality in microcosm‐ and pilot‐scale trials

Natalia Soledad Girardi,Daiana Garcia,María Alejandra Passone,et al 

      In Argentina, peanuts are stored for 3–6 months. It is important to avoid proliferation of fungi and insect pests during this period. In this study, the potential of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) microcapsules to conserve peanut kernels was evaluated in microcosms and on a pilot scale.The results show that in microcosm assays, microcapsules containing BHA at a dose of 1802 µg/g reduced 37% of total fungal count. Higher reductions (77–100%) were obtained with a combined treatment with BHA formulation (1802 µg/g) plus fungicide (methyl thiophanate 0.0100 g/L and metalaxyl 0.0133 g/L). However, germination levels of peanut seeds treated with the BHA formulation were less than 6% throughout the incubation time. In pilot‐scale trials, the storage conditions allowed the control of fungal development and insect proliferation. Quantifiable levels of BHA were also detected throughout the entire storage period. The combined treatment significantly reduced fungal contamination at 2 months of storage (C1‐2015: 37.41%; C1‐2016: 28.48%; C2‐2016: 45.02%). Seed germination of unshelled stored peanuts was not affected by the formulation.

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry,2019(4)

 

Moisture content, insect pest infestation and mycotoxin levels of maize in markets in the northern region of Ghana

N. Manu, G.P. Opit, E.A. Osekre, et al

     Reliable quantitative data on maize post-harvest losses and factors that cause them in northern Ghana are limited. In this study we assessed maize at six markets in the Northern Region of Ghana, in and around Tamale, during the harvest and storage period of October 2015–June 2016. Across all the markets and sampling periods grain temperature was 32.6?±?0.2?℃ and equilibrium moisture content (EMC) was 9.5?±?0.2%. EMC tended to decrease to a low in January and February and then increased again, while mean maize temperature was above 30?℃ in all months. The primary stored product insects collected from the samples were Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), Sitophilus spp., Rhyzopertha dominica(Fauvel), and Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens). Using all the market and sampling month data, there was a significant correlation between EMC and total number of insects recovered, but not between total number of insects and temperature. The average percentage of insect-damaged kernels (IDK) in the maize sampled across all the markets and sampling periods was 2.7?±?0.2%, with a range between 0 and 21.4%. Using all the market and sampling month data, levels of insect damage tended to be positively correlated with maize moisture, but not temperature, and levels of insect damage increased with number of stored product insects recovered. The action threshold for aflatoxin in maize in Ghana is 15?ppb, but overall mean aflatoxin level was 19.8?±?1.5?ppb and aflatoxin levels ranged from 0.3 to 132.2?ppb, with 53% of the samples having levels above 15?ppb. The mean fumonisin level was 1.2?±?0.0?ppm, which is below the 4.0?ppm action threshold for Ghana. Our results show that aflatoxin levels were high in the market maize in Northern Region of Ghana and insects were prevalent, even though grain moisture tended to be relatively low, especially compared to the Middle Belt of Ghana.

Stored products research,2019,80(1):10-20

 

Paddy rice stored under hermetic conditions: The effect of relative humidity, temperature and storage time in suppressing Sitophilus zeamais and impact on rice quality

Maria Otilia Carvalho, Patrícia Fradinho, M. João Martins,et al

The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of relative humidity in suppressing Sitophilus zeamais, in paddy rice stored under hermetic conditions, during four and seven months, at different average temperatures, as well as the impact on rice quality.Hermetic bags, GrainPro® SuperGrainbag® Farm™, were used to store two rice varieties under three different relative humidities: 67%, 75% and 85% RH, and average temperatures of 14?℃, 17?℃ and 24?℃, both monitored by Hobo® Data loggers, with the probe placed inside the bags. CheckpointII Portable O2 and CO2Gas Analyzer was used to assess gas contents on the top and bottom of each bag. At the end of the trials, paddy samples were collected to estimate water activity (aw). The rheology behaviour of rice pastes prepared with race flour obtained from the different treatments was also evaluated, using a controlled stress rheometer.The results showed that the response of the stored-product insects changes with environmental conditions, O2 and CO2 contents. Other parameters were considered; aw increased with relative humidity and temperature, but decreased with storage time. The relative humidity played an important role, together with the increase of temperature, in suppressing insect populations. A modified atmosphere was naturally produced inside the hermetic bag, under 85% RH, with low O2 and high CO2 contents, at different average temperatures, 14?℃ and 17?℃. These results demonstrated that S. zeamais can survive, but has no progeny. Under the same conditions, but at the higher average temperature of 24?℃, S. zeamais attained 100% mortality before producing progeny.The increase on respiration rate, registered by CO2 increase and O2 decrease, for higher RH values, reduced the viscoelastic functions and changed the starch gelatinization point of Indica and Japonica rice.The results obtained showed that storing paddy hermetically, at low relative humidity, did not change atmospheric content and maintained the viscoelastic functions of the rice pastes.

Stored products research,2019,80(1):21-27

 

From immobilization to recovery: Towards the development of a rapid diagnostic indicator for phosphine resistance

 Christos G. Athanassiou, Nickolas G. Kavallieratos, Daniel L. Brabec, et al

      The aim of this work was to evaluate the insect mobility patterns of phosphine-resistant and -susceptible adults of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum(Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) after exposure to phosphine. Exposure bioassays were carried out at two concentrations, 1000 and 3000?ppm, while adults were observed every 15?min, for a total period of 90?min. During this observation interval, adults were visually classified as active (able to walk normally), partially immobilized (not able to walk, but showing a minimal movement), or completely immobilized (no visible movement). After the observation period, all adults were placed in a phosphine-free environment, and they again were classified as active, partially immobilized or completely immobilized. At 1000?ppm, the majority of adults of the susceptible T. castaneumpopulation were quickly immobilized after a 15?min observation period, while in contrast, the majority of adults of the resistant T. castaneum population were still active after the termination of the 90?min interval. At 3000?ppm, the percentage of immobilized susceptible adults was increased at the 15?min observation period, while the majority of resistant adults were immobilized only after 90?min. In the post-exposure period, the vast majority of the susceptible adults were dead. In contrast, most resistant adults recovered, regardless of the concentration that had been exposed. The results of this study delineate major differences in movement in phosphine-resistant and -susceptible T. castaneum strains, and can be applied as a quick diagnostic bioassay for the evaluation of resistance to phosphine in stored product insects.

Stored products research,2019,80(1):28-33

 

Insecticidal efficacy of a binary combination of cyphenothrin and prallethrin, applied as surface treatment against four major stored-product insects

Chrysovalantou Karanika, Christos I. Rumbos, Paraskevi Agrafioti, et al

    In the present study, we investigated the insecticidal efficacy of a commercial binary combination of two pyrethroids, cyphenothrin and prallethrin, as structural treatment against adults of Sitophilus oryzae (L.), Oryzaephilus surinamensis(L.), Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val and Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) in laboratory bioassays. In a first series of bioassays, the insecticide was applied at its label dose on concrete and metal surfaces, whereas mortality and knockdown levels were recorded after 1, 3, 7 and 14?d of exposure. In a second series of bioassays, the residual efficacy of the insecticide was evaluated on concrete for a period of four months, stored either in continuous darkness or exposed to light. In these bioassays, mortality and knockdown of the exposed insects was measured after 3, 7 and 14?d of exposure. Finally, in a third series of bioassays, we investigated the immediate and delayed effect of the tested formulation on adults of the four insect species after exposure for 1, 3 and 7?d. Based on our results, the application of the tested insecticide as surface treatment can provide efficient control against adults of all four species tested. The surface type did not significantly affect the insecticidal efficacy of the tested formulation, at least for the surfaces tested. Moreover, exposure to light negatively affected the residual activity of the insecticide, as for all insect species tested, mortality was significantly lower on dishes exposed to light than on the ones stored in the dark for storage intervals equal or longer than two months. Finally, reduced delayed mortality was observed for all exposure intervals, as knocked down individuals remained, in most cases, knocked down even 7?d after their removal from the treated dishes.

Stored products research,2019,80(1):41-49

 

Effect of artificial aging on wheat quality deterioration during storage

Ping-Ping Tian, Yang-Yong Lv, Wen-Jing Yuan, et al

     The quality of wheat deteriorates naturally during long-term storage. In this study, to evaluate the quality changes of stored wheat, an artificial aging treatment was applied to accelerate the deterioration of wheat grain. The germination rate, free fatty acid content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and embryo and endospermmicrostructures were examined in the wheat cultivars Zhengmai-103 and Zhengmai-379. In both wheat cultivars, seed germination almost completely ceased during storage for 10 months, whereas the contents of free fatty acids and MDA increased significantly. The variance analysis results showed that the accelerated deterioration process had significant effects on the free fatty acid, MDA, and superoxide radical contents. Further, the storage time was well correlated with the germination rate, free fatty acid content, and MDA content, and there was significant correlation between the free fatty acid and MDA contents (P?<?0.05). However, there was no significant correlation between the superoxide radical content, which decreased in the later stages of storage, and the above indicators. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed that artificial aging resulted in blurring of the interstitial space in the embryo cells of wheat seeds, looser binding between the protein matrix and starch granules in the endosperm, and increased exposure of starch granules, which have some protein fragments on their surfaces. The insights obtained in this study about the quality deterioration of stored wheat can potentially be applied to the development of improved wheat cultivars.

Stored products research,2019,80(1):50-56

 

Development of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on rice milling components and by-products: Effects of diet and temperature

Frank H. Arthur, Brook A. Hale, Laura A. Starkus, et al

      Development of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle, was assessed on different rice components and their various by-products (i.e., diets) commonly found in rice mills, in two separate experiments. In the first experiment, eggs did not develop through to the adult stage on rough rice hulls, paddy rice dust, and milled rice dust, while eggs developed to the adult stage to some extent on rice flour, milled whole kernels, brown rice, milled broken kernels, and bran. For the diets where development occurred, the lowest percentage was on brown rice, and adults that emerged on brown rice had smaller elytra compared to adults emerging on the other diets. In the second experiment, 1–2-day old neonates were exposed on the diets listed above and held at 22, 27, 32, and 37?℃. At all temperatures, development to the pupal and adult stages was slowest on rice flour. At 22?℃, development to those stages took about twice as long compared to development at 27?℃. As temperature increased developmental times were reduced. Even though neonates developed slowest on rice flour adult emergence rates were not affected. Predictive models were used to estimate potential population development on the diets. At 22 and 27?℃, adult size as measured by elytra length was greatest when they developed on bran, while body weight was generally lowest for adults that developed on brown rice. Results show that T. castaneum can utilize rice components and by-products produced during the rice milling process, although not all components or by-products were optimal for development, and emphasis should be placed on cleaning and sanitation to remove food sources to limit infestations. Mill managers can use these results to show the importance of sanitation, and potentially improve overall pest management programs inside the mill.

Stored products research,2019,80(1):85-92

 

 

 

粮油科技文摘,2019(1)粮油加工部分      2019-3-12

 

 

精准营养与粮油健康食品的发展趋势

姚惠源

       从健康中国2030主要指标、主要措施以及中国居民膳食指南建设3方面论述了健康中国是我国的重大发展战略;从营养健康食品的发展阶段、我国疾病谱发生转变及慢性非传染性疾病逐年上升、需求迫切食品营养科学与与系统化基础数据库支撑、全链条交叉融合创新发展正成为精准营养和粮油健康食品产业创新发展新模式等方面展望了精准营养健康食品的发展趋势;并提出了我国发展精准营养与健康食品的相关建议。

粮油食品科技,2019,27(1):1-5

 

发芽粟米研究进展

胡帅,高金燕,武涌,袁娟丽,陈红兵

      发芽是改善粟米功能性质,提高粟米营养价值的重要加工方式。本文从粟米发芽的工艺条件、发芽后粟米营养成分和加工性质的变化及其在食品中的应用三个方面对发芽粟米进行了综述。总结粟米发芽的最优条件,比较发芽前后蛋白质、脂肪等主要成分及酚类、黄酮、抗营养因子等功能性活性物质含量、组成的变化,分析发芽粟米糊化性质和功能性质的差异,展望发芽粟米在食品中的应用前景。旨在为粟米发芽精深加工及粟芽产品的开发提供参考信息,促进我国粟类资源的高值化利用。

中国粮油学报,2019,34(1):138-142

 

复合酶-间歇超声法制备玉米多孔淀粉工艺

蒋新龙,蒋益花,王纯洁,朱志友,金文浩,沈佳琦

      以玉米淀粉为试验原料,以甲基紫吸附率为响应值,采用Plackett-Burman(PB)和Box-Behnken Design(BBD)法优化复合酶-间歇超声法制备多孔淀粉工艺。同时,用扫描电镜(SEM)对多孔淀粉颗粒的微观形态进行了分析。Box-Behnken响应面法优化结果表明,制备玉米多孔淀粉最佳条件为:水浴加热预处理15 min,底物淀粉浓度 33.33%、酶用量 0.4%(相当于10.87 IU/g)、酶配比(糖化酶:α-淀粉酶)9:1、pH 5.0,反应温度 50 ℃、反应时间 10 h,超声功率250 W,超声时间29.83 min,吸附率为62.42%,是原淀粉对甲基紫吸附率的 2.8倍。电镜微观形态分析显示,多孔淀粉微孔的吸附率变化与其微观结构变化相吻合。

中国粮油学报,2019,34(2):53-60

 

低共熔溶剂催化油酸制备生物柴油工艺优化及动力学研究

李佳敏,寿飞艳,颜诗婷,李芳浩,鲁艮春,姚兰英,韩晓祥

       以油酸和甲醇为原料,对甲苯磺酸/甲基三苯基溴化鏻形成的低共熔溶剂为催化剂,考察醇酸摩尔比、催化剂用量、反应时间及反应温度等因素对油酸甲酯收率的影响,并通过响应面分析法优化生物柴油的制备工艺。结果表明,对苯甲磺酸与甲基三苯基溴化鏻摩尔比为2:1时所形成的低共熔溶剂(DES-2)具有最好的催化活性;以DES-2为催化剂时,生物柴油的最佳合成条件为:催化剂用量为油酸质量的1.08%,醇酸摩尔比5.8:1,反应时间2.8h,温度373 K,此条件下,生物柴油的收率达97.3%,该结果与模型预测值基本相符。

中国粮油学报,2019,34(2):79-92

 

微波预处理对小麦面筋蛋白糖基化改性的影响

杨雪飞,臧艳妮,赵妍嫣,罗水忠,姜绍通,郑志

      采用微波预处理小麦面筋蛋白并经葡萄糖糖基化改性后,研究其溶解性和乳化性的变化,同时对改性小麦面筋蛋白的结构进行了表征。结果表明,适当功率的微波预处理有利于小麦面筋蛋白的糖基化改性,微波功率为350 W时,小麦面筋蛋白糖基化改性效果最为显著,其在等电点处的溶解性较对照组提高了78.48%,且乳化活性及乳化稳定性最高分别达到41.65 m2g-1和11.99 min。适当功率的微波预处理使小麦面筋蛋白表面疏水性提高,而与葡萄糖接枝后,蛋白的表面疏水性降低。SDS-PAGE、傅里叶红外光谱及荧光光谱表明,小麦面筋蛋白以共价键的结合形式接入了葡萄糖分子,生成了糖蛋白。

中国粮油学报,2019,34(1):10-17

 

琥珀酰化改性菜籽蛋白基复合膜制备及其性能研究

李扬,章铖,邹昱成,王博,鞠兴荣

      琥珀酰化改性菜籽蛋白(SRPI)与羟丙基甲基纤维素(HPMC)复合制得薄膜。通过SDS-PAGE分析菜籽蛋白在琥珀酰化前后组分的改变,及对制备的复合膜机械性能、水蒸气透过性、透明度、二级结构和微观结构进行表征。结果表明:菜籽蛋白(RPI)经琥珀酰化改性后,30 KDa组分分子量有所增加;SRPI膜与RPI膜相比,拉伸强度提高18.7%,断裂伸长率提高38.7%,透明度提高121%,并且蛋白膜的二级结构中β-折叠与α-螺旋占比增大,规则卷曲占比减小。此外,当SRPI:HPMC=3:1时,复合膜与SRPI膜相比阻水性提高24.1%,拉伸强度提高101.3%,α-螺旋与规则卷曲的占比明显变化,而β-转角占比提升,有利于蛋白膜的结构稳定,并且复合膜微观结构紧凑,均匀,这表明琥珀酰化改性菜籽蛋白与羟丙基甲基纤维素具有良好的相容性。本研究为菜籽蛋白基复合膜的开发与利用提供了理论依据。

中国粮油学报,2019,34(1):37-42

 

高效降解棉籽粕中游离棉酚菌株的筛选及复配发酵方式的优化

亓秀晔,谢全喜,于佳民,赵倩,张志焱,徐海燕,谷巍

      本实验旨在利用酵母菌和乳酸菌发酵棉籽粕,研究其对棉籽粕中游离棉酚降解率的影响,并对发酵前后棉籽粕的营养指标如活菌数、酸溶蛋白、pH和游离棉酚含量等进行比较。结果发现:可高效降解游离棉酚的酵母菌BLCC4-0327,可改善发酵风味的乳酸菌BLCC2-0092。并对筛选出的酵母菌和乳酸菌复配发酵进行了初步研究,结果表明,最优复配发酵组为BLCC4-0327+BLCC2-0092(1:1),30℃厌氧发酵。与空白对照组相比,最优复配发酵组各发酵阶段的发酵棉籽粕的pH均显著降低(P<0.05),发酵24 h时pH降至5.73;酸溶蛋白含量显著提高(P<0.05),发酵24 h时酸溶蛋白含量达到14.61%,发酵48 h时酸溶蛋白含量达到17.61%;游离棉酚含量显著降低(P<0.05),发酵24 h时游离棉酚降解率达到70.99%,发酵48 h时游离棉酚降解率达到73.44%。由此可知,酵母菌BLCC4-0327与乳酸菌BLCC2-0092 复配发酵可有效降低发酵棉籽粕中的游离棉酚含量并改善其营养品质。

中国粮油学报,2019,34(1):99-106

 

砻碾工艺条件对稻米籽粒力学特性的影响

周显青,孙晶,张玉荣

      为了探索砻碾工艺条件对稻谷籽粒力学特性的影响,以5种粳型和5种籼型稻谷为原料,设置不同轧厚比和碾白时间,分别进行稻谷砻谷和糙米碾白试验,然后测定经砻谷和碾白后籽粒的力学特性,并分析砻谷和碾米后籽粒破碎力的变化。结果表明:随着轧厚比的减小,糙米籽粒的压缩力、剪切破碎力和三点弯曲破碎力呈下降趋势,轧厚比对其所承载的压缩力的影响较大,对其所承载的剪切破碎力和三点弯曲破碎力的影响较小,品种间差异对其所承载的压缩力的影响较大,对其所承载的剪切破碎力和三点弯曲破碎力的影响较小;碾白后整精米籽粒所承载的3种破碎力随着碾白时间的延长而减小,其中,粳稻样品中有3种所承载的破碎力下降较为均匀,其所承载的压缩力、剪切破碎力受品种影响较大,而所承载的三点弯曲破碎力受品种影响较小;籼稻在碾白时间超过60 s后,所承载的3种破碎力下降快,品种间差异对其所承载的压缩力、剪切破碎力影响较大,对其所承载的三点弯曲破碎力影响则较小。可见,籽粒所承载的三点弯曲破碎力的大小可用于来指导碾米工艺参数合理调整,以降低碎米率。

河南工业大学学报(自然科学版),2019(1): 1-7

 

复合酶法水解大豆浓缩磷脂制备甘油磷脂酰胆碱工艺研究

孟燕楠,梁少华,魏贤之,刘二蒙

       以大豆浓缩磷脂为原料,复合酶(磷脂酶A1和磷脂酶A2)为催化剂水解制备甘油磷脂酰胆碱。首先建立了甘油磷脂酰胆碱的液相色谱标准曲线,方程为y=8 179.1x-3 492.1(R2=0.998 3);然后测定了大豆浓缩磷脂中磷脂和磷脂酰胆碱的含量,分别为42%和10.4%。通过单因素试验,考察了反应时间、反应温度和加酶比例对复合酶法制备甘油磷脂酰胆碱工艺效果的影响。根据单因素试验结果,选取影响显著的因素,以甘油磷脂酰胆碱转化率为评价指标,采用Box-Benhnken试验设计对工艺条件进行了优化,得到最优工艺条件:反应时间95 min、反应温度41℃、加酶比例1.1%(以反应物质量计)。在此条件下,甘油磷脂酰胆碱转化率为70.65%,与理论预测值基本一致。

河南工业大学学报(自然科学版),2019(1): 14-19

 

制备条件对大豆分离蛋白-淀粉复合膜机械性能的影响

魏倩,王莺颖,阎欣,张莹莹,郭兴凤

      为了改善大豆分离蛋白膜的机械性能,将淀粉添加到大豆分离蛋白中制备复合膜,以复合膜的抗拉强度和断裂延伸率为评价指标,研究了淀粉添加比例、甘油添加比例、成膜液pH以及成膜温度对复合膜机械性能的影响。结果表明:复合膜的抗拉强度和断裂延伸率均随着淀粉添加比例的增加呈现先升高后降低的趋势,在淀粉添加比例为50%时最大;pH值和成膜温度对复合膜的抗拉强度和断裂延伸率的影响呈现相同的趋势,抗拉强度逐渐增强,断裂延伸率先升高后降低;随着甘油添加比例的增加,复合膜的抗拉强度逐渐降低而断裂延伸率逐渐增加。在单因素试验的基础上采用响应面方法对复合膜的制备工艺条件进行优化,得到优化工艺:淀粉添加比例50.3%、甘油添加量46.4%、成膜液pH 9.6、成膜温度60.2℃,在此条件下制备的大豆分离蛋白-淀粉复合膜的断裂延伸率为104.2%,抗拉强度为6.3 MPa。

河南工业大学学报(自然科学版),2019(1): 20-25

 

大豆甾醇硬脂酸酯的合成工艺研究

姜兴兴,陈竞男

      植物甾醇是一种新资源食品,可以有效降低人体血清中的胆固醇含量。为改善植物甾醇的溶解性与生物利用率,常用酯化的方法提高其脂溶性。采用正相高效液相色谱法对大豆甾醇硬脂酸酯进行定性定量分析。以大豆甾醇硬脂酸酯产率为考察指标,研究催化剂种类、醇酸物质的量的比、催化剂用量、反应温度和反应时间对大豆甾醇硬脂酸酯产率的影响。在单因素试验的基础上,进行正交试验得到合成大豆甾醇硬脂酸酯的最佳工艺条件,并进行验证。大豆甾醇硬脂酸酯的最佳合成工艺条件:以硫酸氢钠为催化剂,催化剂用量为5%(大豆甾醇与硬脂酸的质量之和),大豆甾醇与硬脂酸的物质的量的比为1∶1.2,反应温度为130℃,反应时间为8 h,大豆甾醇硬脂酸酯的产率为95.00%,大豆甾醇转化率为97.29%。在此条件下合成的大豆甾醇硬脂酸酯产品经纯化后,以红外光谱法进行表征。以化学法合成了高纯度的大豆甾醇硬脂酸酯产品,为植物甾醇酯的高效生产与开发利用提供了技术支持。

河南工业大学学报(自然科学版),2019(1):32-37

 

酸浸工艺对方便米粉保鲜及品质的影响

张玮;陈洁;陈玲

      以菌落总数、水分含量、水分活度、糊化特性、感官评分为评价指标,研究不同酸体积分数、酸浸时间对方便米粉的保鲜效果和品质的影响。结果表明:经过酸浸处理后,方便米粉的菌落总数明显降低,表明酸浸处理能够有效地延长方便米粉的保质期;与未酸浸相比,酸浸后方便米粉的水分含量显著增加,衰减值和回生值显著减小,表明酸浸处理能够改善方便米粉中淀粉的热稳定性且减缓米粉的老化;酸浸处理对方便米粉的感官品质指标没有显著影响。经相关性分析发现,酸浸处理后米粉的水分活度和感官评分与各糊化参数均呈不同程度的正相关,其中不同酸浸浓度处理后米粉的感官评分与峰值黏度、最低黏度和最终黏度呈显著正相关。综合考虑保鲜效果和品质,确定酸体积分数1%、酸浸时间3 min为最佳工艺。此时,方便米粉回生值显著减小,米粉不易老化,保鲜期可达3个月以上。同时,1%乳酸处理3 min后米粉的感官评分较高,且与未酸浸米粉没有显著性差异。

河南工业大学学报(自然科学版),2019(1):50-55

 

响应面法优化戊聚糖曲奇饼干工艺配方研究    

张 强, 赵卉珉, 梁 进  

      旨在改良传统曲奇饼干的制作工艺,研究了添加戊聚糖制备曲奇饼干的最佳工艺配方。在单因素实验明确戊聚糖粉、绵白糖以及烘焙时间对曲奇饼干感官品质影响的基础上,利用Box-Behnken设计实验,对产品进行品质分析。结果表明,采用戊聚糖粉添加量10.85%,绵白糖添加量27.58%,烘焙时间18.93 min的条件,制作戊聚糖曲奇饼干,具有传统曲奇饼干酥松香甜的口感和滋味,还起到为人体补充戊聚糖膳食纤维的作用。

粮油食品科技,2019,27(1):24-29

 

Viscozyme L预处理花生粕提取花生浓缩蛋白的研究    

于丽娜, 齐宏涛, 彭娅萍, 杨伟强, 孙 杰, 张初署, 毕 洁, 王明清  

       为了优化复合植物水解酶(Viscozyme L)预处理花生粕结合乙醇洗涤法制备花生浓缩蛋白的工艺条件,以花生粕为原料,采用单因素实验和响应面实验设计方法,研究花生浓缩蛋白制备工艺条件对蛋白质量百分含量和提取率的影响。结果表明,Viscozyme L预处理花生粕结合乙醇洗涤法制备花生浓缩蛋白的最优工艺参数为:酶添加量6.1 FBG/g、pH值4.2、酶解温度43 ℃、酶解时间4.5 h,在最佳工艺条件下,蛋白的质量百分含量和提取率验证实验值分别为73.21%±0.59%和85.23%±0.67%,两者与模型预测值的差异均小于1%。为进一步开发利用花生粕提供了一种新途径。

粮油食品科技,2019,27(1):34-40

 

复合乳化剂对糙米工程米食用品质的影响    

高 扬, 管立军, 李家磊, 张志宏, 王崑仑, 严 松, 卢淑雯  

      通过测定糙米工程米熟化后米饭的分散率及其质构综合评分,研究大豆磷脂、单硬脂酸甘油酯(GMS)和蔗糖脂肪酸酯(SE)单体及其复配添加对糙米工程米食用品质的影响。结果表明:单一乳化剂对糙米工程米的食用品质有改善作用,三种乳化剂复合使用改善效果更为明显。最佳复配比例为大豆磷脂0.6%、GMS 0.2%、SE 0.5%,添加复合乳化剂糙米工程米熟化后,米饭分散率和质构特性明显改善。

粮油食品科技,2019,27(1):41-45

 

生物酶–超声波协同提取制备米糠多糖工艺    

庄绪会, 郭伟群, 刘玉春, 刘诗瑶  

      以脱脂米糠为原料,采用淀粉酶和糖化酶水解除去淀粉,采用胃蛋白酶除去蛋白,在酸性条件和碱性条件下各提取一次,优化米糠多糖提取工艺。实验结果表明,脱脂米糠以1∶15 g/mL料液比加水充分混匀后,以3%的淀粉酶水解2 h、3%糖化酶水解1 h、3%胃蛋白酶水解1 h除去淀粉和蛋白,分别在酸性和碱性条件下70 ℃、200 W超声提取90 min,得到米糠多糖的得率为8.12%。冷冻干燥后的粗多糖含有84.2%的米糠多糖,6.6%的粗蛋白,2.1%的灰分和5.8%的水分。

粮油食品科技,2019,27(1):57-63

 

一种多用途的新兴油料作物——油莎豆

王瑞元,王晓松,相海

      油莎豆是集粮、油、牧、饲于一体的,综合利用价值高、开发潜力大的新兴经济作物。为了促进油莎豆资源的有效利用,综述了油莎豆在我国的栽培情况,发展油莎豆产业的优势,以及油莎豆产业发展存在的问题,并提出了建议。我国油莎豆产业发展存在品种退化、规模化生产环节装备空白、加工技术准备不足以及对油莎豆价值认可度有待提高等问题,建议国家相关部门出台相关政策,加大油莎豆的研发、创新,促进油莎豆产业的发展。

中国油脂,2019,44(1)

 

碱炼脱酸条件对菜籽油综合品质的影响

周润松,鞠兴荣,王博,等

      以脱胶菜籽油为研究对象,研究碱液质量分数、碱炼初温和超碱量对菜籽油脱酸率、微量营养素(总甾醇、总生育酚、总酚、 β-胡萝卜素)和抗氧化性损失率的影响。在单因素试验的基础上,设计三因素三水平正交试验,并采用加权综合评分法计算多指标综合评分,对菜籽油碱炼脱酸工艺进行参数优化。结果表明:最佳碱炼脱酸条件为碱液质量分数9.50%、碱炼初温35℃、超碱量0.10%,采用上述脱酸条件,脱酸率为80.23%,总甾醇损失率为4.12%,总生育酚损失率为5.89%,总酚损失率为46.12%,β-胡萝卜素损失率为16.34%,抗氧化性损失率为35.56%。

中国油脂,2019,44(1)

 

EPA和DHA的分离研究进展

董青,李敏,杨亦文,等

      EPA和DHA主要的生产来源是深海鱼油,但其含量较低不能直接满足食品和制药业的需求,富集提纯EPA和DHA尤为重要。简述了EPA和DHA的分离研究进展,主要从富集和高纯度单体的制备两个方面展开,系统介绍了低温结晶法、尿素包合法、分子蒸馏法、超临界流体萃取法、银离子络合法、脂肪酶法、高效液相色谱法、超临界流体色谱法、模拟移动床色谱法的分离原理以及近年的研究成果,并比较了各种方法的优缺点。最后对EPA和DHA提纯分离发展前景提出了展望,两种或多种分离方法组合是发展趋势,脂肪酶法和模拟移动床色谱法值得进一步深入研究。

中国油脂,2019,44(1)

 

乳酸菌源共轭亚麻酸的分离制备

朱光贞,杨波,杨芹,等

      乳酸菌发酵产生的共轭亚麻酸(CLNA)在慢性疾病中有重要的生理功能,CLNA由多种异构体组成,各种异构体的生理功能存在差异。建立了分离制备乳酸菌发酵液中游离态CLNA异构体的方法,成功获得了结构单一的CLNA异构体。结果表明:在现有条件下乳酸菌源CLNA单一异构体法通过薄层色谱法分离;高效液相色谱法可实现乳酸菌源CLNA单一异构体的分离,最优分离制备条件为高效液相色谱柱Ultimate(5XB-C30,4.6 mm×250 mm)、流动相甲醇-水-甲酸(体积比70∶30∶0.01)、流速1 mL/min、检测紫外波长205 nm和233 nm。在最优分离制备条件下,保留时间和峰面积的相对标准偏差分别为0.05%~0.38%、1.88%~4.65%,制备得到的CLNA1纯度为97.48%,CLNA2的纯度为100%,CLNA3的纯度为65.30%。该方法重复性好,分离度高,适合分离乳酸菌发酵液中游离形式CLNA。

中国油脂,2019,44(1)

 

酶解对豆粕营养成分及体外消化率的影响

赵荣,张英雪,单春乔,等

      为了探讨酶解对豆粕营养价值的影响,试验以豆粕为原料进行体外酶解预消化处理,测定样品的营养成分及体外消化率。结果表明,经过酶解之后的豆粕与原料相比,粗蛋白质、酸溶蛋白、还原糖以及氨基酸含量有了明显的提高(P<0.05),氢氧化钾蛋白质溶解度、粗蛋白质消化率以及干物质消化率也有显著增加(P<0.05)。酶解之后的豆粕营养价值明显提高。

粮食与饲料工业,2019(1):41-43

 

超声波协同双酶复合酶解米渣蛋白制备ACE抑制肽工艺研究

徐敏,武爱群

      运用超声波协同双酶复合酶法水解米渣蛋白制备ACE抑制肽。超声波预处理后米渣蛋白水解物ACE抑制活性显著上升,碱性蛋白酶水解产物ACE抑制活性最强。通过单因素分析和响应面优化,得出最优水解条件为:超声功率1 000 W,超声时间25min,酶解时间2.5h,料液比1∶8,加酶量3 000U/g。在此基础上复合中性蛋白酶水解,水解时间缩减至2.0h。水解产物通过超滤以及Sephadex G-25凝胶层析后,得到一分子量为338u,最强ACE抑制活性IC50为116μg/ml组分P2。

粮食与饲料工业,2019(1):1-7

 

紫薯产品的开发研究进展

曹诚,申梦娜,寇福兵,等

      紫薯,不仅含有丰富的膳食纤维,还含有红薯中所没有的花青素。对紫薯相关产品如面包、蛋糕、饼干和饮料等的开发情况进行综述,研究紫薯相关产品中紫薯添加量的差异性,探究产品原料和工艺对紫薯产品的影响,以期为紫薯新产品的开发提供参考。

粮食与饲料工业,2019(1):32-35

 

大豆枣糕的研制

刘世军,张雪原,唐志书,等

      枣糕是一种传统美食,以小麦粉为主要材料。本品在枣糕的基础上添加了大豆粉,使其营养更加丰富。研究了影响大豆枣糕质量和口感的因素,确定大豆枣糕的最佳配方。以大豆枣糕的感官评分为评价依据,通过单因素试验和正交试验,对产品配方进行优化。结果表明,大豆枣糕的最佳配方是枣泥300g,小麦粉80g,大豆粉40g。此配方制作的大豆枣糕口感绵密,品质最佳。

粮食与饲料工业,2019(1):30-31

 

南豆腐加工过程中品质及蛋白质结构的变化

赵雷,朱杰,苏恩谊,等

      以大豆为原材料,采用传统豆腐制作工艺,探讨加工工艺对南豆腐品质的影响,并利用傅里叶变换红外光谱和十二烷基硫酸钠-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳研究加工过程中大豆蛋白结构的变化。以豆腐得率、保水性、质构特性和色差为评价指标,当凝固剂质量分数1.2%、蹲脑时间20 min和压型力度3.0 g/cm~2时,制得的豆腐得率和保水性均较高,硬度和咀嚼性较好,色泽偏白,符合南豆腐"嫩"的特征。未经处理的大豆蛋白二级结构中以β-折叠(46.36%)为主,其次为β-转角(18.48%)和无规卷曲(15.45%),浸泡、打浆会导致β-折叠含量下降、β-转角含量增加,蛋白质构象由收缩的紧密结构逐渐转变为展开状态;而点脑、蹲脑以及加压操作后,大豆蛋白的β-折叠含量不断回升,无序结构减少,蛋白结构较为稳定。豆腐加工操作对大豆蛋白的亚基影响较小,只有豆腐脑与南豆腐蛋白的电泳条带灰度变浅,而成型后的南豆腐含有一定量的7S亚基以及11S亚基,说明在加工过程中蛋白质的保持率较好。

食品科学,2019(1):62-69

 

预酶解-挤压膨化对全谷物糙米粉品质特性的影响

赵志浩,刘磊,张名位,等

      以3种糙米(普通糙米、红色糙米、黑色糙米)为原料,预酶解-挤压膨化制备实验组糙米粉,未经预酶解处理直接挤压膨化制备对照组糙米粉,分别测定其水溶性指数、吸水性指数、结块率、分散时间、米糊黏度、色度、糊化度、感官评分以及淀粉、还原糖、蛋白质含量等指标,并对淀粉和蛋白质进行体外模拟消化,比较并分析预酶解-挤压膨化对糙米粉品质特性的影响。结果表明:与直接挤压膨化相比,预酶解-挤压膨化处理使普通糙米、红色糙米、黑色糙米3种糙米粉的水溶性指数分别提高了2.04、1.35倍和1.71倍;吸水性指数分别降低了67.87%、60.96%和62.17%;结块率分别提高了5.44、6.27倍和3.07倍;分散时间分别缩短了66.61%、61.79%和64.30%;米糊黏度降低,黏度曲线趋于平直,剪切稀释效应减弱;淀粉含量分别降低了29.22%、28.71%和26.70%,糊化度分别降低了19.53%、8.94%和13.13%;可溶性蛋白含量分别提高了1.50、2.87倍和2.27倍;差异均达显著水平(P<0.05)。同时,亮度值略有升高,色差值分别为3.01、4.66、3.28;快消化淀粉比例降低,慢消化淀粉和抗性淀粉比例升高;蛋白质体外消化速率加快,消化率升高;综合感官评分显著升高(P<0.05)。实验结果表明预酶解-挤压膨化处理提高了糙米粉的冲调分散性、降低了米糊黏度,提高了感官评分和蛋白质体外消化性能,对糙米粉品质具有提升作用。

食品科学,2019(1):108-116

 

超高压脲包法提高模拟亚麻籽油中多不饱和脂肪酸分离效率

朱凯莉,陈婧超,范清苹,等

     采用超高压尿素包合法(脲包法)富集亚麻籽油中亚油酸和亚麻酸两种多不饱和脂肪酸(poly unsaturated fatty acids,PUFA),以非包合相PUFA含量及得率为考察指标。当尿素/混合脂肪酸质量比为3∶2且尿素-混合脂肪酸与95%乙醇溶液料液比为5∶14时,脲包混合液在20℃冷却30 min并采用300 MPa压力保压20 min后,亚麻籽油中PUFA质量分数可达96.05%,这与传统的冷冻脲包法(-18 ℃、18 h)对PUFA的分离效果(97.41%)类似,但非包合相中PUFA得率提高41.39%。采用差示扫描量热仪分析、扫描电子显微镜观察不同压力下尿素包合物(urea inclusion complexes,UIC)晶体热力学性质和晶体形貌,结果显示:当压力小于300 MPa时,增大压力可以促进UIC结晶形成六方晶系晶体,且晶体形态趋于规则,晶体分布密集。超高压脲包法能够提高亚麻籽油中PUFA的分离效率,且与压力促进包合物晶体趋于规则和稳定有关。

食品科学,2019(1):130-136

 

基于模糊数学综合评价方法的马铃薯工程米适口性研究 

苑鹏, 段盛林, 欧阳道福,等

       以籼米、粳米和通过挤压重组的马铃薯工程米为研究对象,采用组合赋权法及模糊数学综合评价结合质构仪分析技术,对马铃薯工程米的口感品质进行比较分析,建立1种马铃薯工程米口感品质评价的方法。结果表明:通过组合赋值法,在大米的气味、外观、适口性和滋味这些感官指标中,适口性的权重最大为0.279,外观的权重最小为0.178,符合人们的一般认识。通过对大米的硬度、弹性和咀嚼度等客观指标归一化处理后进行权重分析,根据模糊数学来划分评价指标评语集,创建隶属函数,得出大米质量的评价指标集及评语集,可确定待测目标的等级和优劣情况。

食品与发酵工业,2019,(1): 88-93

 

不同分子特性玉米蛋白高F值活性肽的制备及其模拟消化吸收

王鑫,侯威,赵磊,等

      以玉米黄粉为原料,通过碱性蛋白酶和风味蛋白酶复合酶解制备玉米蛋白高F值活性肽(HFRP),同时根据分子量、电荷性和疏水性差异将HFRP进行分离纯化,并对其吸收特性和耐胃肠消化特性进行探究。结果表明:通过复合酶解法对玉米黄粉进行水解,得到HFRP(F值=26.29)。将HFRP分别按照分子量、电荷性和疏水性进行分离、收集,得到12种组分。通过构建Caco-2细胞体外吸收模型,研究不同分子特性组分的吸收状况,采用质谱扫描鉴定出质荷比(m/z)分别为203.1409、229.2980、226.9517、284.2966的高吸收短肽LA、IP、PL、HQ;通过研究不同分子特性组分的胃肠消化状况,采用质谱扫描鉴定出质荷比(m/z)分别为226.9517、284.2966的耐消化短肽PL和HQ。短肽PL和HQ分子量小,疏水性高,在溶液中带有正电荷,具有优先吸收和耐胃肠消化的特点。本研究为玉米蛋白高F值活性肽的开发提供了理论依据。

食品工业科技. 2019, (1): 58-65

 

黑小麦不溶性膳食纤维酶解产物组成分析及其对全谷物挤压膨化产品品质的影响

孙元琳,仪鑫,李云龙,等

      对以黑小麦不溶性膳食纤维为原料所制备的木聚糖酶酶解产物(BWXH)的组成及应用特性进行系统分析,并研究其对全谷物挤压膨化产品品质的影响。通过木聚糖酶对黑小麦不溶性膳食纤维进行酶解,得到BWXH,采用双波长法对BWXH中阿魏酰低聚糖含量(FOs)进行测定,并结合离子色谱、傅里叶变换红外光谱等技术对BWXH的单糖组成、低聚糖组成和红外光谱特征等理化特性指标进行了分析;模拟高温高压,对BWXH的稳定性进行检测;并将BWXH添加到全谷物挤压膨化产品中,其对挤压膨化产品的膨化率、感官评分及产品冲泡特性的影响进行分析。结果:BWXH中的FOs含量为0.104 mmol/g,阿魏酰基团含量为0.717 mg/g。通过离子色谱分析,FOs以DP2、DP3和DP4为主,主要单糖组成为阿拉伯糖、木糖和葡萄糖,其摩尔比为1.70∶4.25∶1.00,分支度(A/X)为0.40。高温高压(121℃,0.15 MPa)处理下能够进一步促进BWXH中高聚合度膳食纤维向低聚合度FOs的转变,使FOs含量增加。挤压膨化实验表明,适量(7%)添加BWXH可对谷物挤压膨化产品品质提升具有较好的改善作用。

食品工业科技. 2019, (2): 8-12

 

马铃薯泥面条制作工艺优化及品质分析

蒲华寅,牛伟,孙玉利,等

      为保留马铃薯的风味和营养成分,提高面条品质,加快马铃薯主食化进程,采用马铃薯泥和小麦面粉复配制作马铃薯泥面条。以感官评分为评价指标,结合单因素实验和正交试验,进而得到较优的马铃薯泥面条加工工艺。结果表明,在马铃薯泥占比50%的条件下,面条的较佳加工工艺参数为:面团醒发温度20 ℃、醒发时间30 min。复配改良剂最佳配方为:谷朊粉添加量3%、魔芋粉添加量1%、单甘酯添加量1%。该条件下制作的马铃薯泥面条品质较好,感官评分达90.1分。研究表明,在小麦面粉中加入马铃薯泥,所制备面条品质降低,但适当的添加改良剂可在一定程度上提升马铃薯泥面条品质。

食品工业科技, 2019(2): 170-174

 

富硒糙米抗氧化肽酶法制备工艺优化

杜润峰,赵爽,刘昆仑,等

      以富硒糙米蛋白为原料,优化富硒糙米蛋白抗氧化肽酶法制备工艺。以酶解产物抗氧化能力指数(oxygen radical absorbance capacity,ORAC)和水解度为评价指标,考察酶种类、酶解时间、pH值、底物浓度、加酶量及酶解温度对酶解产物抗氧化活性的影响。在单因素试验基础上,采用三因素三水平响应面法确定富硒糙米抗氧化肽的制备工艺。结果表明:中性蛋白酶较适宜制备富硒糙米抗氧化肽,其最佳酶解工艺条件为:pH 8.0,底物浓度3%,酶解时间69 min,酶解温度55℃,加酶量12 000 U/g。在此条件下,富硒糙米蛋白酶解产物的抗氧化能力为(1 232.57±62.34)μmol TE/g,显著高于同等条件下非富硒糙米蛋白酶解物的抗氧化能力。 

食品研究与开发,2019(1): 70-75

 

玉米的品质特性及综合利用研究进展

马先红,李峰,宋荣琦

      结合国内外研究发展现状,归纳了玉米的各类品质特性,包括物理品质、营养品质、药用价值及加工品质,总结了玉米在变性淀粉、胚芽制油、制糖、酿酒、石油化工等方面的加工应用,以期为玉米综合开发利用提供一些参考。

粮食与油脂,2019, (1): 1-3

 

加工方法及新技术对面制品品质和营养价值的影响

汪翔,丁长河

      综述了面制品的传统加工方法以及近年来流行的新技术,分析了不同的加工方法和技术对面制品品质和营养的影响,提出了目前面制品生产过程中的问题,并展望了未来的研究方向。

粮食与油脂,2019,(1): 4-6

 

3D打印技术在食品行业中的应用研究进展

王琪,李慧,王赛,等

      为研究3D食品打印材料的设计,回顾了3D打印技术应用,并着重讨论食品材料性能如何起作用,如何通过合理设计3D食物结构来满足3D食品打印的可行性,可后续加工性。对3D打印技术的发展前景做出展望,旨在为3D打印技术在食品行业的研究应用提供理论参考。

粮食与油脂,2019, (1): 16-19

 

水稻加工智能工厂浅述

蒋志荣,刘华旺,贾雳

      水稻加工在智能工厂模式下,可以大幅度减少加工增碎与降低碾减率。以籼米中的黄花粘与丰良优作为比对品种,将原来加工中的增碎由25%~30%降低到20%~22%,将原来13%左右的碾减率降低到11.5%,得米率的提高使得每吨糙米至少增加200元收入;同时,于粳稻而言,能在规模生产中加工到"期望的精度"可以使大米加工达到"适度加工"的"度":最大的得米率、最优的口感、最少的营养物质流失。

粮食加工,2019(1):35-37

 

稻谷加工新工艺的探索

刘涛

       大米是日常生活最离不开的主食之一,但是大米加工的工艺技术和市场对大米的需求不太匹配,落后的工艺不但浪费粮食资源,还不能满足市场日益增加的需求,因此,大米加工的新工艺、新技术也就得到快速发展和应用,新技术的推广必将满足市场需要和供给侧改革结构调整。

粮食加工,2019(1):38-39

 

冷冻面团在烘焙工艺中的研究进展

张超,孙建祥,葛瑞来,等

      冷冻面团在欧美、日本等一些发达国家的面包行业已得到广泛应用,不仅可以扩大规模、降低成本,还能提高质量。主要综述冷冻面团在烘焙工艺中的现状、工艺、存在的问题以及前景展望。 

粮食加工,2019(1):22-24

 

发酵花生粕产品质量稳定性研究

孙东伟,初丽君,徐会茹,等

      考察了发酵花生粕的产品质量在温度、湿度、光照等因素的影响下随时间变化的规律,为其生产、包装、贮存、运输条件和有效期的确定提供科学依据。结果表明:发酵花生粕易吸潮结块,应放置于干燥阴凉处,产品有效期大于12个月。

粮食与食品工业,2019(1):34-37

 

青稞营养及其制品研究进展

刘小娇,王姗姗,白婷,等

      青稞营养丰富,含有人体所需的多种营养成分。综述青稞的营养价值,并从固体青稞制品和液体青稞制品两个方面对青稞加工现状作了简述,分析了青稞加工过程中存在的问题及对策,为青稞加工利用研究提供理论参考。 

粮食与食品工业,2019(1):43-47

 

油脂酶法脱胶技术的研究

杨静雯,于殿宇

      论述了酶技术在油脂精炼中的应用情况,并对酶法脱胶的工艺、参数和辅助设备进行了详述,分析了该技术的实际应用效果,以期为后续的技术改进提供基础。

粮食与食品工业,2019(1):48-50

 

国内外磨粉机发展现状及展望

黄奇鹏,武文斌,李聪,等

      以磨粉机为研究对象,结合国内先进磨粉机和国外领先磨粉机发展现状,对我国磨粉机未来发展方向进行展望,为磨粉机研究人员提供参考。

粮食加工,2019(1):4-8

 

米糠稳定化技术和米糠功能性应用

左青,钱胜峰,彭伟城

      介绍了米糠营养性和脂肪酶的活性,如何测试脂肪酶活性,推广规模型米糠稳定化技术,如何评价米糠稳定化指标,开发高伴随物的米糠油和米糠的功能性应用。

粮食与食品工业,2019(1):5-9

 

谷朊粉豆渣馒头的研制

李燮昕,唐茂林,李佳芳

      在传统馒头配方中用豆渣取代部分面粉,同时加入适量的谷朊粉,改善口感,提高其营养性。利用单因素试验,正交试验结合感官评价及质构参数的方法,制得品质优良的谷朊粉豆渣馒头,其最优配方是面粉230 g,豆渣粉12 g,谷朊粉15 g,酵母2.5 g。成品比普通馒头膳食纤维含量、蛋白质含量都有明显提高。 

粮食与油脂,2019, (1): 34-37

 

银杏-籼米粉特性及其挤压粉丝的品质研究

高利,于晨,高成成,汤晓智

      为了加大银杏果的利用率,本文将银杏粉和籼米粉按照一定比例混合并制作挤压米粉丝。研究了银杏粉添加对米粉糊化特性、流变特性、凝胶质构和微观结构等理化特性的影响。利用挤压加工技术生产挤压银杏米粉丝,研究了银杏粉添加对挤压粉丝蒸煮特性、质构特性以及色泽等品质特性的影响。结果表明,随着银杏粉添加量的增加,样品糊化后的凝胶呈现出较多大小、均匀程度不同的孔状结构。与原籼米粉相比,混合粉的峰值黏度、最低黏度、崩解值、回生值、弹性模量、黏性模量、凝胶强度随银杏粉添加量的增加而降低,糊化温度略有升高;米粉丝的硬度、弹性、咀嚼性随银杏粉添加量的增加而降低,但银杏粉添加量在30%以内,银杏米粉丝仍具有良好的品质。

中国粮油学报,2019,34(2):1-7

 

鲜面片色泽稳定性及与小麦品质性状的相关性分析

姜小苓,李小军,李淦,李婷婷,李秀玲,于红彩,茹振钢,王跃东

      以来源于不同地区的71份小麦品种(系)为材料,分析研究了鲜面片在放置、干燥和煮后的色泽变化,并初步探讨了面片色泽与小麦品质的相关性。结果表明,鲜面片色泽在参试材料间存在极显著差异(P<0.01),a*值的变异系数最大,L*值的变异系数最小;鲜面片放置、干燥和煮后,L*值会下降,b*值升高;鲜面片L*值随放置时间延长逐渐降低,a*值和b*值则呈升高趋势。相关分析表明,面粉白度、粗蛋白和总淀粉含量与鲜面片色泽及其稳定性的相关性达显著或极显著水平。筛选出3个面片色泽亮白且稳定的优异材料,可作为培育优质面条小麦的亲本加以利用。

中国粮油学报,2019,34(2):8-13

 

复合酶制剂对全麦馒头品质的改良作用

刘丽娅,岳颖,蔺艳君,周闲容,佟立涛,王丽丽,周素梅

      全谷物营养健康概念深入人心。但受加工技术水平影响,我国全谷物食品感官品质欠佳,产业发展缓慢。本研究采用生物酶对以纯全麦粉制作的馒头制品进行品质改良。结果表明:葡萄糖氧化酶(Gox)、戊聚糖酶(Pn)和纤维素酶(Ce)三酶协同作用,当添加量分别为Gox 40 mg/kg、Pn 40 mg/kg、Ce 30 mg/kg时,馒头比容可达到2.69 cm3/g,较空白样品提高22%;馒头高径比0.56,挺立度适中;同时馒头内部结构明显改善,气孔均匀、质地疏松、富有弹性、粗糙感显著降低。

中国粮油学报,2019,34(2):14-19

 

海拔差异对青稞品质影响的研究

白婷,靳玉龙,朱明霞,王波

      青稞在不同海拔高度种植会影响籽粒品质和农艺性状,为探究青稞品种在不同海拔区域的品质差异性,从而为不同海拔地区青稞生产区域布局及优质高产青稞品种的选育提供依据;试验通过在西藏自治区内外5个不同海拔地区种植2个推广型青稞品种藏青25和喜马拉22号,经品质方面多重比较分析,发现海拔对青稞籽粒的品质影响显著,随着海拔升高,藏青25和喜马拉22号籽粒淀粉、脂肪含量均随海拔升高先降低后升高又降低,藏青25和喜马拉22号Ca、Cu含量均随着海拔的升高先升高后降低,籽粒中Fe、Mg、Mn、Na、P、Zn的含量随海拔升高先升高后降低再升高。藏青25的蛋白质含量在海拔3 658m时最高;在海拔3 658 m处有所升高,可能原因是当地海拔育种过程中的品质定向积累作用;海拔对青稞灰分、含水量影响不显著。藏青25籽粒黄酮含量呈增加趋势,喜马拉22号黄酮含量先升高后降低。β-葡聚糖含量总体呈先降低后升高趋势,氨基酸呈先增加后降低趋势,青稞中γ-氨基丁酸含量变化不明显。

中国粮油学报,2019,34(2):34-39

 

小粒黑大豆蛋白质功能特性研究

江帆,郭颖,王华,梁鸡保,杜双奎

      以收集于黄土高原的8种小粒黑大豆为试验材料,4种小粒黄大豆为对照,采用碱溶酸沉法提取蛋白质,对其蛋白质的功能特性进行分析。结果表明,8种小粒黑大豆蛋白的氮溶解指数、吸水性、吸油性、乳化能力及乳化稳定性、起泡能力、凝胶强度在51.72%~62.07%、51.72%~62.07%、2.29~2.95 g/g、1.52~1.70 g/g、54.40%~88.60%、83.35%~97.16%、75.70%~95.8%、154.59~203.66 g之间。小粒黑大豆蛋白的氮溶解指数和吸油性显著低于小粒黄大豆;盐池黑豆、定边小黑豆和靖边王渠子黑豆的蛋白质吸水性显著高于小粒黄大豆;乳化能力及乳化稳定性均优于小粒黄大豆,起泡性和泡沫稳定性差于粒小粒黄大豆;除子洲小黑豆、横山老黑豆和偏关小黑豆外,小粒黑大豆蛋白的凝胶强度显著高于小粒黄大豆。不同品种间小粒黑大豆蛋白质的氮溶解指数、吸水性、吸油性、乳化稳定性、起泡能力及凝胶强度有显著差异。

中国粮油学报,2019,34(2):61-66

 

微波处理对全麦粉理化性质及全麦鲜湿面品质的影响

赵梅,韩传武,宋俊男,李曼

      采用微波处理全麦粉,用粉质仪和动态流变仪研究了微波处理对全麦面团流变学特性的影响;采用快速粘度分析仪(RVA)、X射线衍射仪、SDS-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(SDS-PAGE)等分析了全麦粉中淀粉和蛋白组分结构和理化性质的变化;并验证了微波处理对全麦粉中微生物和多酚氧化酶的抑制效果和对全麦鲜湿面品质及褐变程度的影响。结果表明,微波处理可以显著提高全麦面团的稳定时间,增加面团的弹性和类固体性质,同时可改善全麦粉的黏度特性,使淀粉结晶特性略有提高;SDS-PAGE图谱显示,微波处理可引起全麦粉中蛋白组分发生有限聚合,这种聚合作用主要由二硫键引起。微波处理能够显著降低全麦粉中的菌落总数和PPO活性,抑制全麦鲜湿面褐变,提高面条煮后拉断力。

中国粮油学报,2019,34(1):18-23

 

不同磨粉方法对荞麦面团流变学性质的影响

于笛笛,李垚熹,袁艳秋,马洁,孙华幸,陈锦程,Kaori FUJITA,栾广忠

      采用石磨、高速万能粉碎机及湿磨三种磨粉方法制得荞麦粉。然后测定由上述荞麦粉制备的荞麦面团的热机械学特性、拉伸特性、质构特性及应力松弛行为。结果表明:与干磨荞麦面团相比,湿磨荞麦面团具有显著较低的面团形成时间和稳定时间以及显著较高的蛋白弱化度,但磨粉方法对淀粉糊化特性影响较小。湿磨荞麦面团的拉断距离低于干磨荞麦面团的拉断距离,但其硬度、黏着性、弹性和胶着性显著高于干磨荞麦面团。此外,湿磨荞麦面团与干磨荞麦面团相比具有显著较高的残余应力和显著较短的松弛时间。不同磨粉方法会导致荞麦面团流变学性质产生差异,面团流变学性质的差异将满足不同的加工需求。

中国粮油学报,2019,34(1):24-29

 

传统酵子中非酿酒酵母发酵馒头面团的特性研究

李志建,崔明玉,宋克丹,韩坤宸,邓璀,马榕灿,姚晔彤

      以从传统酵子中分离鉴定的异常威克汉姆酵母(Wickerhamomyces anomalus Y13)和德尔布有孢圆酵母(Torulaspora delbrueckii Y22)两株非酿酒酵母为材料,考察了两种酵母菌单独与混合接种条件下发酵小麦粉馒头面团的特性。结果表明:Y22在面团发酵的起始1 h内具有最快的发酵速度,1.5 h后与混合酵母菌群发酵的面团高度无显著差异,整个过程中Y13的发酵力都最低;Y22发酵面团中的还原糖含量随着发酵的进行逐渐增加,Y13与混合酵母发酵面团中还原糖含量在面团发酵的前8 h略有增大,而后则呈减少的趋势,说明糖含量不是发酵力的限制因素而与酵母本身特性相关;在面团发酵的前12 h,Y22发酵面团的pH显著低于Y13,说明其产酸水平高于Y13;混合酵母菌发酵小麦粉面团24 h后,Y13的细胞数量与其单独发酵时无显著差异,但Y22的细胞增长数量显著小于单独发酵面团的,说明混合酵母菌发酵体系下Y22的生长受到Y13的部分抑制。利用Y22与混合酵母菌群制作馒头的比容显著大于国标要求,具有应用于馒头生产的潜力。

河南工业大学学报(自然科学版),2019(1):44-49

 

冻前预处理对冷冻熟制马铃薯烩面品质的影响

焦婷婷,章绍兵

      为改善冷冻熟制马铃薯烩面的品质,在马铃薯烩面冻制前对其进行了低温水洗和适度干燥处理。研究发现:对于马铃薯烩面内聚性、复煮损失和感官评价影响最大的因素是水洗温度,水洗温度低,马铃薯烩面品质好;干燥温度对烩面内聚性和感官评价具有显著性影响,干燥时间对烩面的玻璃化转变温度(T'g)具有显著性影响,随着干燥时间延长,T'g显著提高。通过正交试验确定烩面冻前预处理最佳条件为:水洗温度4 ℃、干燥温度50 ℃、干燥时间9 min。该条件下制作的冷冻熟制马铃薯烩面内聚性为0.825±0.01,复煮损失为(6.39±0.37)%,感官评分为93.75±2.19,T'g为(-16.45±0.92)℃。对马铃薯烩面进行冻前预处理可以改善其部分品质,并显著提高其玻璃化转变温度。

河南工业大学学报(自然科学版),2019(1):56-61

 

青麦仁面条品质分析

张国治,杨徐宁,卫阿枝,张康逸

      在优化青麦仁面条配方的基础上,通过测定青麦仁面条的巯基和二硫键含量、蛋白质二级结构、微观结构及流变学特性,分析青麦仁面条配方优化前后的品质变化,以验证优化配方的可靠性。结果表明:优化后的青麦仁面条,二硫键(—S—S—)含量与未优化的相比升高,巯基(—SH)含量变化相反,但与空白面条相比升高;青麦仁的加入破坏了面条原本的蛋白二级结构,优化之后,又恢复为与原始结构基本一致;青麦仁面条蛋白质网状结构被破坏,不能形成较好的结构,孔隙不明显,优化过后的青麦仁面条的蛋白质网状结构较好,接近于空白面条状态;青麦仁添加使蛋白结构致密,不易形成较好网状结构,未优化的青麦仁面条蛋白几乎没有网状结构,结构致密,优化后的青麦仁面条孔隙均匀,网状结构明显。频率扫描得出优化后的青麦仁面条的黏性减小,弹性增大,表明优化结果比较理想。

河南工业大学学报(自然科学版),2019(1):62-67

 

马铃薯全粉对面条品质影响的主成分分析研究    

杨 健, 康建平, 张星灿, 刘 建, 华苗苗, 钟雪婷, 白菊红  

      为了探讨马铃薯全粉对面条品质的影响,通过测定添加不同比例马铃薯全粉的面筋特性、蒸煮特性、质构特性和感官评价,并结合主成分分析进行综合评价。结果表明:随着马铃薯全粉添加量的增加,面条色泽呈暗红趋势变化,其面筋含量逐渐降低;面条的蒸煮特性、质构特性及感官品质呈现先增加后降低的趋势,说明适量添加马铃薯全粉可以在一定程度上提高面条的食用品质。应用主成分分析法对不同马铃薯全粉添加量的面条进行研究,确定了反映面条品质的3个主成分因子,3个主成分的累积贡献率达到88.35%。为进一步开发高含量马铃薯全粉面条提供数据支撑。

粮油食品科技,2019,27(1):17-23

 

鲜榨山茶油与特级初榨橄榄油营养价值的比较

谭传波,田华,周刚平,等

      以鲜榨山茶油和特级初榨橄榄油为研究对象,对其理化指标、脂肪酸组成和营养成分进行测定并比较。结果表明:鲜榨山茶油在理化指标上与特级初榨橄榄油相当,脂肪酸组成与特级初榨橄榄油相似,但油酸含量高于特级初榨橄榄油,棕榈酸和硬脂酸含量低于特级初榨橄榄油;在维生素E、角鲨烯、植物甾醇等天然生物活性物质方面媲美特级初榨橄榄油。

中国油脂,2019,44(1)

 

黑小豆超微全粉对面团流变学特性及馒头品质的影响

王军,程晶晶,王周利,等

      以不同比例的黑小豆超微全粉替代小麦粉,研究黑小豆超微全粉对配粉糊化特性、面团流变学特性及馒头品质的影响。结果表明,随着黑小豆全粉添加量的增加,配粉各项黏度值和峰值时间均显著降低,糊化温度升高。配粉的吸水率增加,面团形成时间、稳定时间和粉质指数先增加后降低。面团拉伸曲线面积和拉伸阻力先增加后降低,延伸度显著降低。试验中拉伸比例在1.2~1.3比较合适。添加黑小豆全粉使馒头的外观、组织结构、色泽和弹韧性得分均降低,比容、黏性及气味和滋味差异不显著。馒头的硬度和咀嚼性显著增加,黏附性先降低后增加,内聚性、弹性和回复性均无显著变化。图像分析指标除气孔延长度外均差异显著。图像分析法可定量描述馒头的内部气孔结构,对馒头品质的评价更加准确、客观。黑小豆全粉的添加量以5%~10%为宜。 

中国食品学报,2019(1):103-110

 

小麦乙酰化淀粉的理化性质及对面条品质的影响

张克,陆启玉

      以乙酸酐为酯化剂,在温和条件下制备低取代度的乙酰化淀粉,分析淀粉乙酰化前、后其理化性质的变化及其对面条品质的影响。研究发现,淀粉乙酰化后颗粒表面变得粗糙且有轻度损伤,在水溶液中容易粘连,淀粉的晶型不变,各衍射峰的结晶度和面间距基本相同,淀粉中直链淀粉含量无显著变化;乙酰化淀粉经高温糊化后,膨胀势和持水力大于对照淀粉,溶解度小于对照淀粉;添加乙酰化淀粉样品的峰值黏度、低谷黏度和最终黏度均大于对照样品;添加乙酰化淀粉的面条中深层结合水的比例低于对照样品,弱结合水的比例大于对照样品;在面条开始糊化后,添加乙酰化淀粉面条的储能模量和损耗模量均大于对照样品。

中国食品学报,2019(1):111-116

 

加速氧化过程中不同植物油的稳定性研究

黄雨洋,齐宝坤,赵城彬,等

      采用水酶法分别制备油茶籽油、花生油、核桃油、葵花油和大豆油,通过化学方法和中红外光谱技术对5种油脂在加速氧化过程中的稳定性进行研究。不同植物油的脂肪酸组成存在显著差异,油茶籽油和花生油的单不饱和脂肪酸含量大于多不饱和脂肪酸含量,而核桃油、葵花油和大豆油均含有大量的多不饱和脂肪酸,且含量均在50%以上。在整个加速氧化过程中,随着加热时间的延长,共轭二烯值和共轭三烯值逐渐增加。5种油脂的氧化稳定性由大到小依次为油茶籽油>花生油>核桃油>葵花油>大豆油。采用中红外光谱法对油脂氧化稳定性进行分析,再次印证了对共轭二烯值和共轭三烯值的分析结果。

中国食品学报,2019(1):243-248

 

超声辅助面团醒发对面条品质的影响

罗登林,杨园园,吴若言,等

      面团醒发对面条的品质具有重要影响,本实验将功率超声引入面团的醒发过程,以期提高面条品质。利用质构仪和综合加权评分法对所制备的面条品质进行分析,考察超声功率密度、超声作用时间、面胚厚度和醒发温度等因素的影响。结果发现:在超声功率密度为25.55 W/L时,相对空白组(常规醒发),面条的弹性显著增加15.9%,硬度则显著降低7.8%,面条的蒸煮特性也有一定程度的提高;当超声功率密度25.55 W/L、超声作用时间30 min、面胚厚度6 mm、醒发温度30 时,面条的综合加权评分最高;扫描电子显微镜观察结果显示,当超声功率密度超过25.55 W/L时,小麦淀粉颗粒表面出现明显的孔洞和剥落现象。总体看来,超声辅助面团醒发工艺是可行的,超声能够提高面条的质构特性和蒸煮特性,改善面条的品质。

食品科学,2019(1):102-107

 

超声预处理对大豆分离蛋白糖基化复合物酸诱导凝胶性质的影响

赵城彬,许秀颖,刘景圣,等

      对溶液体系中大豆分离蛋白(soybean protein isolate,SPI)与葡萄糖和麦芽糖之间的糖基化反应进行超声预处理,探讨超声预处理对SPI/糖复合物酸诱导凝胶性质的影响。傅里叶变换红外光谱分析表明糖分子与SPI形成了共价复合物。超声预处理20 min时,SPI/糖复合物的接枝度最大。葡萄糖和麦芽糖与SPI的糖基化作用会降低蛋白质的表面疏水性(H0)和平均粒径(D43),而超声预处理能够使SPI/糖复合物具有更高的H0和更低的D43。由于疏水相互作用的减小,糖基化反应会削弱SPI酸诱导凝胶网络,导致凝胶强度和凝胶持水性降低。然而,超声预处理能够降低或消除糖基化反应对SPI酸诱导凝胶的弱化作用,甚至能够改善蛋白质的凝胶性。

食品科学,2019(1):123-129

 

发芽糙米米糠营养成分和γ-氨基丁酸分析及缓解体力疲劳功效

王嘉怡,潘姝璇,夏陈,等

      测定发芽糙米米糠中营养成分及重金属的含量,建立高效液相色谱HPLC)法测定发芽糙米米糠中γ-氨基丁酸(GABA),并研究发芽糙米米糠的抗疲劳功效。采用邻苯二甲醛柱前衍生、HPLC法测定发芽糙米米糠中GABA的含量; 50只SD大鼠按体质量随机分为5组,即空白对照组、高脂对照组和发芽糙米米糠质量分数分别为30%、20%、10%的高、中、低3个剂量组。喂饲83 d,进行负重游泳实验,记录游泳力竭时间。结果表明,发芽糙米米糠的粗纤维、灰分质量分数分别不到普通米糠的29%、33%,粗蛋白、总氨基酸及单一氨基酸(除胱氨酸)、粗脂肪与普通米糠中的含量相近,无机元素含量都低于普通米糠,重金属含量在GB 2762—2012《食品安全国家标准食品中污染物限量》安全食用限量以下;2)用实验建立的HPLC条件检测GABA,在68.7~275.0μg/mL范围内线性关系良好,R2为0.999 9,测出的GABA含量为53 mg/100 g,平均回收率为99.61%;3)与空白对照组相比, 发芽糙米米糠高剂量组大鼠游泳力竭时间显著延长(P<0.05)。

食品科学,2019(1):177-182

 

海藻酸钠与氯化钙对大米淀粉回生影响机理的热力学分析

周艳青,何璐,向忠琪,等

      为探究海藻酸钠与氯化钙对大米淀粉回生的影响机理,采用差示扫描量热仪研究海藻酸钠与氯化钙对大米淀粉回生热力学特性的影响,采用Avrami模型分析大米淀粉的回生动力学参数,并用热重分析法验证影响结果。结果表明:3?mmol/L氯化钙组、质量分数0.9%海藻酸钠组及其混合物分别使大米淀粉的糊化峰值温度提高1.0%、1.1%和2.2%,使糊化焓提高4.7%、14.0%和21.4%;储藏21 d后,氯化钙对大米淀粉的回生没有显著性影响(P<0.05),质量分数0.6%的海藻酸钠及其与氯化钙混合物分别使大米淀粉的回生焓降低23.7%和27.6%,使回生率降低33.9%和36%;氯化钙、海藻酸钠(0.9%)及其混合物使大米淀粉的成核方式由瞬间成核转变成连续成核,并分别使大米淀粉的结晶速率常数降低73.0%、90.1%和95.3%;海藻酸钠(0.6%)与氯化钙混合物使回生大米淀粉的水分损失率减少87.1%,验证海藻酸钠与氯化钙混合物对大米淀粉回生的抑制作用。 

食品科学,2019(2):6-11

 

生物解离大豆膳食纤维对饼干质构及消化特性的影响

钟明明,齐宝坤,孙禹凡,等

      测定生物解离大豆膳食纤维理化及功能特性,研究其对面粉粉质特性及面团质构特性的影响,并明晰其对饼干质构特性及消化特性的改善作用。结果表明,生物解离大豆膳食纤维纯度为81.34%,可溶性膳食纤维占比50.83%,理化及功能特性相比于豆渣膳食纤维均有所提高。当生物解离大豆膳食纤维在面粉中添加量为30%时,面粉粉质特性及面团质构特性最佳,此添加量制作饼干质构特性高于市售纤维饼干,且消化速率也明显低于另外2种饼干,快速消化淀粉质量分数相比于市售纤维饼干及普通饼干分别降低17.14%、42.57%,慢速消化淀粉质量分数分别提高24.93%、110.27%,抗性淀粉质量分数分别提高0.85%、21.57%,且血糖指数仅为45.99,已处于低糖食物水平范畴。因此生物解离大豆膳食纤维具有良好的理化性质及功能特性,可作为一种新型大豆膳食纤维来源在烘焙品中进行应用。

食品科学,2019(2):18-24

 

鹰嘴豆粉对面团流变学特性及面条品质的影响 

张榉,钟金锋,雷凡,覃小丽

      鹰嘴豆含有大量蛋白质及不溶性膳食纤维,脂肪含量低,有益于人体健康并受到广大消费者的喜爱。但鹰嘴豆粉应用于面条及其对面条品质的影响尚不清楚。该研究将鹰嘴豆粉以一定比例与小麦粉混合,研究了鹰嘴豆粉含量对面团的流变学特性、面条的烹煮特性及质构特性的影响。结果表明:鹰嘴豆粉与小麦粉质量比小于2∶8时,对面团流变学特性及面条品质的影响较小;随着鹰嘴豆粉添加比例增加,面团更易流变且加工性能明显下降,面条的熟断条率显著增大,质构性能变差。鹰嘴豆粉与小麦粉质量比为1∶9时,魔芋精粉、食盐和水的添加量分别为0.5%、0.5%和35%(占鹰嘴豆粉和小麦粉的总质量)。使用该工艺生产的面条不仅含有鹰嘴豆特殊宜人的豆香味,同时改善了传统面条的营养品质。

食品与发酵工业. 2019, (1): 171-176

 

发芽糙米中粗多糖的纯化及分子量测定

刘晓飞,张宇,王薇,等

      对发芽糙米粗多糖进行纯化,通过比较活性炭吸附法、过氧化氢氧化法、大孔树脂吸附法三种方法的脱色效果,以及Sevage法、三氯乙酸法、酶与Sevage结合方法三种方法的脱蛋白效果,筛选出发芽糙米粗多糖脱色、脱蛋白的最佳方法。分别比较了DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B、DEAE Fast Flow、DEAE Sepharose 52三种柱层析填料对糙米粗多糖的层析纯化效果,筛选出最优填料。并对纯化后的发芽糙米多糖各组分进行分子量的测定。结果表明:大孔树脂AB-8对发芽糙米粗多糖脱色效果最佳,脱色率为86.57%,多糖损失率为28.96%。酶-Sevage法脱蛋白效果较好,且多糖损失率低,脱蛋白率为74.36%,多糖损失率为14.09%。对发芽糙米多糖进行柱层析的最佳填料为DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B。根据线性回归方程计算其平均分子量,水洗多糖组分的平均分子量为1.47×10~5Da,盐洗多糖组分的平均分子量分别为9.62×10~5、5.59×10~6、3.15×10~5Da。确定了针对发芽糙米粗多糖的去除蛋白质和脱色的方法,并筛选出最佳的柱层析填料,分离出四个组分发芽糙米多糖,为发芽糙米粗多糖的提取、纯化、分离逐渐转变为工业化生产提供了理论基础。

食品工业科技, 2019(2): 19-24

 

不同发酵时间甜酒酿面团的超微结构与面包香气特征研究

吴玉新,张可欣,蒋慧,等

      将不同发酵时间(0、24、48、72 h)的广西农家酒曲制备的酒酿应用到面包中,采用α-氨基态氮表征蛋白酶活力,利用激光共聚焦观察面团的超微结构,通过气质联用测定面包中的挥发性风味物质,并结合感官鉴评,对面包进行品质评价。结果表明:甜酒酿面团(FRD)发酵前后α-氨基氮含量没有显著性差异(P> 0.05),但添加有48 h甜酒酿面团的网络结构最稳定。与发酵0 h甜酒酿面包(FRB)相比,48 h甜酒酿面包中酯类、醇类物质明显增多,尤其是辛酸乙酯、壬酸乙酯以及异戊醇,赋予面包更浓郁的花香和果香。除72 h甜酒酿面包外,各组面包比容没有显著性差异(P> 0.05),48 h甜酒酿面包在感官鉴评中获得更高的分数,面包更易被接受。

食品工业科技, 2019(2):29-36

 

紫淮山全粉对面团流变特性及面条质构特性的影响

李燕,邹金浩,郭时印,等

      研究不同紫淮山全粉添加量对面粉粉质特性、糊化特性、面团拉伸特性和面条品质的影响。结果表明,随着紫淮山全粉添加量的增加,面粉的吸水率上升。面团的形成时间在添加量为15%时达到最大值,为5.3 min,增加了39.5%。面团稳定时间在添加量为10%时达到最小值,为3.5 min,减少了40.7%。紫淮山全粉的添加使拉伸能量、延伸度下降。面团在45、90、135 min醒发时间下的延伸度均在添加量为25%时达到最小值。添加紫淮山全粉能降低糊化温度、面粉黏度和回生值,且最终黏度和回生值均在添加量为25%时达到最小值,但崩解值在添加量为25%时达到最大值。面条的硬度、胶黏性、咀嚼性、回复性均在紫淮山全粉的添加量为15%时达到最大值,但紫淮山全粉的添加对面条的弹性无显著性(P> 0.05)影响。面条的L*值随紫淮山全粉添加量的增加呈显著(P <0.05)下降趋势,添加量低于15%时,紫淮山面条的感官评分较高。紫淮山全粉对面粉粉质特性、糊化特性、面团拉伸特性和面条感官品质均有较大影响,紫淮山全粉的最高添加量以15%为宜。

食品工业科技, 2019(2): 41-46

 

豌豆功效成分及其生理活性的研究进展

孙冬阳,呼鑫荣,薛文通

      豌豆是我国主要的食用豆类作物之一,营养价值高。豌豆中不但含有丰富的碳水化合物、蛋白质、维生素、矿物质等营养成分,还含有多肽、膳食纤维、胰蛋白酶抑制剂、酚类物质、植物凝集素等多种功效成分,具有抗菌、抗氧化、抗癌、降血压、降血糖、免疫调节等生理活性。目前豌豆主要作为高蛋白低能量的食品供人们食用,工业化生产也主要集中在豌豆淀粉、蛋白质的加工,而忽略掉其他功效成分的开发利用,使得豌豆的经济价值无法得到充分的体现。

食品工业科技, 2019(2): 316-320

 

青麦粉添加对馒头面团及面筋蛋白结构的影响

张康逸,康志敏,王继红,等

      以馒头专用粉及青麦粉制作青麦馒头,利用激光共聚焦显微镜、黏度仪、红外光谱仪等分析仪器进行测定,探究不同青麦粉添加量(0%、5%、10%、15%、20%)对面团粉质特性、糊化特性、微观结构及面筋蛋白二级结构的影响。结果表明,随着青麦粉添加量的增加,混合粉湿面筋含量、面筋指数减少;糊化温度、峰值黏度降低,面团糊化时间缩短,面团稳定时间从6.18 min降至4.92 min、粉质质量指数减小了18,面筋强度变弱,承受力变差;面团拉伸面积、延伸度和最大拉伸阻力在135 min时显著减小;面筋网络结构逐渐出现孔洞,分布不均匀;面团面筋蛋白各吸收峰都发生了偏移,β-折叠和α-螺旋结构含量增加;综上所述,青麦粉的加入改变了面团特性和面筋蛋白结构,这些变化可能是导致青麦馒头品质下降的主要原因。

现代食品科技,2019(1)

 

不同糯性谷物淀粉性质的比较研究

张正茂,阚玲,王丽

      选取圆糯米、血糯米、糯小麦、糯玉米、糯小米(糜子)、糯高梁和糯薏米为原料提取淀粉,比较研究了7种糯性谷物淀粉的性质,为其应用提供一定的参考。结果表明:透光率以糯玉米和糯高粱淀粉最大,为20%左右;糯薏米和糯小麦淀粉较易凝沉;50 ℃下圆糯米、血糯米和糯玉米淀粉的膨胀势较大;圆糯米淀粉的冻融稳定性最差,而糯小麦、糯玉米、糯小米(糜子)和糯高粱淀粉的较好;糊化温度以糯小米(糜子)淀粉最大,为67.8 ℃,而圆糯米、血糯米和糯玉米淀粉的糊化温度最小,均为60 ℃;7种糯性谷物淀粉的峰值粘度、保持粘度和最终粘度以糯小麦、糯高粱和糯薏米淀粉的最大,糯玉米淀粉的最小;由回升值/峰值粘度的大小可知,糯玉米淀粉最不易老化,糯薏米淀粉最易老化;糯高粱、糯小麦和糯薏米淀粉的抗剪切作用较弱,而血糯米和糯玉米淀粉在剪切过后有变稠的趋势。

现代食品科技,2019,35(1):51-57

 

马铃薯淀粉物化特性分析及其对马铃薯热干面品质影响

蔡沙,施建斌,隋勇,等

      以马铃薯为试验原料并对其中淀粉进行提取,并探讨不同含量马铃薯淀粉对混粉物化特性以及生鲜马铃薯热干面和干制马铃薯热干面品质的影响。结果表明,马铃薯中淀粉含量为73.80%,马铃薯淀粉中直链淀粉含量为28.23%,支链淀粉含量为71.70%;马铃薯淀粉中快消化淀粉(RDS)、慢消化淀粉(SDS)和抗消化淀粉(RS)含量分别为20.29%、15.03%和64.68%。马铃薯淀粉添加量在60%~70%时,混粉的持水性、吸水膨胀性和粘度值较高;马铃薯淀粉含量为70%~80%时,能较好的改善生鲜马铃薯热干面的蒸煮特性和质构特性;马铃薯淀粉含量在70%时,干制马铃薯热干面的复水特性最好;随着马铃薯热干面中马铃薯淀粉含量的增加,干制热干面更易消化。综上所述,马铃薯淀粉的建议添加量为70%。

现代食品科技,2019,35(1):72-81

 

不同贮藏温度下鲜湿米线的品质变化动力学模型及其货架期预测

胡云峰,王晓彬,张利苹

      为了研究贮藏过程中,鲜湿米线品质变化与贮藏时间的相关性,测定了4、10、20、25、37 ℃下贮藏的鲜湿米线的酸度、碘蓝值、pH值和吸水率随贮藏时间的变化,并建立了碘蓝值、pH值和吸水率的动力学模型,及以碘蓝值为终点的货架期预测模型。结果表明,鲜湿米线的碘蓝值和pH值可以建立一级动力学模型,吸水率可以建立零级动力学模型。且建立的三个模型的拟合系数R2分别为:0.9901(碘蓝值),0.9524(pH值)和0.9785(吸水率),并且其平均相对误差W分别为7.0%,5.8%和5.6%,均小于10%。以贮藏期间鲜湿米线碘蓝值的变化建立货架期模型,且货架期达终点时,碘蓝值为1.2389,其平均相对误差W为1.06%,小于10%。说明本文以碘蓝值作为终点时建立的货架期模型可以较好预测鲜湿米线的货架期。

现代食品科技,2019,35(1):89-96  

 

方便米食中淀粉组分对风味形成的贡献

金征宇,麻荣荣,田耀旗

       方便米食是适合以稻米为主食的消费者口味的一大类米制产品,其风味是评判食品好坏的重要指标。 淀粉作为方便米食的主要组分之一,参与其风味形成并影响风味释放。 简述了淀粉组分对方便米食风味物质贡献的共性机制,分别阐述了常温方便米饭、挤压方便米饭、米发糕、炒米、挤压米线、粽子等 6 大类具有代表性的方便米食产品中淀粉组分在其风味产生及释放中的重要作用,并提出了淀粉对方便米食风味物质贡献方面的研究与发展趋势,以期为高品质方便米食产品开发提供重要科学依据。

食品科学技术学报,2019,37(1):1-9

 

超强筋小麦粉面包烘焙技术研究

毛凤鑫,王灿国,李豪圣,等

      为了烘焙出能充分表现超强筋小麦济麦229面粉品质特性的优良面包,设置了4种醒发时间处理、5种酵母和糖用量处理、4种配粉处理,对超强筋小麦面粉的面包品质进行了评价分析。结果表明,在4个醒发时间处理中,当面团醒发时间为30 min和面包胚醒发时间为50 min时,烘焙的面包品质最好。在5种酵母和糖用量的处理中,利用吐司面包程序时,干酵母和糖的用量分别为6 g和24 g时烘焙的面包品质最好;利用法式面包程序时,干酵母和糖的用量分别为3 g和18 g时烘焙的面包品质最好。在4个配粉处理中,200 g超强筋小麦济麦229面粉中添加100 g普通小麦济麦22面粉的混粉烘焙得到的面包品质最好。因此,适当调整超强筋小麦粉面包的面团、面包胚醒发时间及物料配比,可以烘焙出品质优良的面包。

食品科学技术学报,2019,37(1):78-83

 

木薯淀粉、谷朊粉、复合磷酸盐与瓜尔胶对冷冻熟面品质的影响

曹莼,陆启玉,刘紫鹏,等

      用质构仪、布拉班德粉质仪、低场核磁共振和电镜扫描研究改良剂-木薯淀粉、谷朊粉、复合磷酸盐与瓜尔胶,对冷冻熟面(frozen cooked noodles,FCN)品质、加工性能、冻融稳定性和内部结构的影响,同时探究4种改良剂的最佳复配添加量。结果表明:木薯淀粉降低硬度使面条变黏,谷朊粉提高面条的硬度和回复性,复合磷酸盐提高面条的内聚性和回复性,瓜尔胶对硬度和回复性影响先升高后降低;谷朊粉和复合磷酸盐强化面筋网络,提高面粉加工性能,瓜尔胶抑制冰晶生长,保护面条品质。 

食品研究与开发,2019(1): 24-30

 

双酶法提取红松籽油及其抗氧化分析

周琪,韦家辉,盛智丽,等

      以红松籽仁为原料并以提油率和皮诺敛酸的量为指标,经超声波处理,蜗牛酶水解单因素试验,并通过响应面试验对酶解条件进行优化。结果表明,红松籽油提取的优化工艺条件为:碱性蛋白酶加酶量2 364 U/g、温度51℃、时间3 h、pH 8.4;蜗牛酶加酶量为39.0 mg/(10 g松子乳)、温度44℃、时间1 h、pH 7.0、料水比1∶5(g/m L),在此条件下,红松籽油得率可以达到93.9%,皮诺敛酸的量为855.8 mg/(10 g松子乳),明显高于传统方法的研究结果。同时,在最优条件下,红松籽油自由基清除的IC50值为8.5 mg/mL,而且红松籽油的抗氧化活性高于紫苏籽油等其他植物油。

食品研究与开发,2019(1): 57-63

 

大豆干热预处理对豆浆品质的影响

汪建明,李娜,范红梅,等

      为研究干热预处理大豆对豆浆的影响,采用干热方法对大豆进行预处理后制备豆浆,研究干热对豆浆表面微观结构,豆浆得率、可溶性固形物含量、蛋白含量、脲酶、胰蛋白酶抑制因子、粒径和感官品质的影响。结果表明:与常规法相比,干热预处理对豆浆微观结构的影响较大,显著降低脲酶、胰蛋白酶抑制因子的活性,其蛋白含量较多。常规法制浆在豆浆得率、可溶性固形物、粒径和感官评分方面优于干法制浆。

粮食与油脂,2019, (1): 20-23

 

不同制备工艺的籼米粉对面条品质的影响

任真真,李力,李利民,等

      采用了干法、半干法、湿法对籼米进行加工,研究了不同工艺籼米粉的理化特性差异及其对面制品所产生的影响。结果表明:3种工艺生产的米粉中,湿磨米粉白度最高,平均粒径最小,淀粉颗粒形态较其它工艺完整,半干法米粉峰值黏度、回升值、崩解值均较高;加入籼米粉的面片亮度下降,弹性升高;面条的最佳煮制时间变短,干物质吸水率升高,蒸煮损失率降低;试验还发现干法籼米粉可同时提高面条的硬度、弹性和咀嚼性。

粮食与油脂,2019, (1): 28-33

 

马铃薯全粉添加对烩面品质的影响

焦婷婷,章绍兵,卞科

      研究了马铃薯全粉添加量对面粉特性及烩面品质的影响,并探究了黄原胶对马铃薯烩面品质的改良。结果表明:随着马铃薯全粉添加量的增加,混合粉湿面筋含量线性下降,面团的粉质特性变差;与纯面粉制作的烩面相比,马铃薯烩面(添加15%马铃薯全粉)的蒸煮特性、烩面颜色和弹性较好,硬度和咀嚼性无显著性差异,但黏聚性和回复性都显著下降。在马铃薯烩面中添加0.5%黄原胶时,产品具有马铃薯的香味,且蒸煮品质和质构品质较好。

粮食与油脂,2019, (1): 34-37

 

超声预处理大米蛋白对其酶解产物ACEI活性的影响

邓昱昊,马海乐,李云亮,等

      以酶解产物ACEI活性为指标筛选最佳超声预处理模式,在最佳的超声波模式条件下采取单因素逐级优化方法优化超声预处理工艺参数。结果表明:采取20/28/40 kHz同步模式,在超声时间7.5 min、温度40 ℃、工作间歇比6∶3 (s/s)和功率密度66.7 W/L条件下,大米蛋白酶解所得产物ACEI活性最高,为48.39%,与对照组相比提高了35.20%。说明发散型三频超声对大米蛋白进行预处理能有效的提高酶解产物的ACEI活性。 

粮食与油脂,2019, (1): 50-54

 

亚麻籽全营养成分的综合利用

周羽,叶莉婷,蒋陈添,等

      以热榨亚麻油的亚麻粕为原料,根据所含功能成分理化性能的差别,可依次分离提取亚麻木酚素、亚麻籽胶和亚麻蛋白,提取率分别为亚麻木酚素5.5%、亚麻籽胶15%、亚麻籽蛋白12%。经过大孔吸附树脂分离纯化,亚麻木酚素纯度从29.3%提高到87.5%,回收率30.1%。微胶囊化亚麻油的包埋率为89%,可用作保健食品配料。 

粮食与油脂,2019,(1)3: 6-66

 

橄榄油在高温条件下的稳定性研究

陈纯,李以隽

      对橄榄油进行煎炸和加热试验,考察高温下橄榄油的稳定性。通过取样检测发现,煎炸橄榄油15 min或加热橄榄油3 min内,橄榄油的酸价、过氧化值和角鲨烯含量的变化较小,性质较为稳定,由此可见,橄榄油可适用于短时间烹调。

粮食与油脂,2019, (1): 67-68

 

双向发酵提取燕麦β-葡聚糖及其理化性质研究

吴迪,邴雪,王昌涛,等

      从12种药用真菌中筛选出可增加燕麦β-葡聚糖含量的3种菌种--黄伞、大杯伞和灰树花,以我国的燕麦麸皮作为培养基,通过双向发酵法提取燕麦麸皮中的β-葡聚糖,进行工艺优化、分离纯化及理化性质的研究。结果表明3种菌经双向发酵后提取燕麦β-葡聚糖,其得率较未经发酵的燕麦β-葡聚糖得率高,分子量更小。与未经发酵的燕麦水提液相比,发酵液的蛋白质及总糖含量增加。

食品研究与开发,2019(1): 184-193

 

大分子交互作用对小麦粉品质影响的研究进展

张政,王晓曦,马森

      从小麦淀粉和蛋白质特性,淀粉和蛋白的交互作用对品质的影响这几方面进行了综述和探讨,提出了研究淀粉和蛋白交互作用时存在的一些问题,并对今后的研究趋势进行了展望。

粮食与油脂,2019, (1): 13-15

 

面制品制作过程中蛋白质的行为及作用

张莹莹,陈园园,郭兴凤

      以小麦为原料生产的面制品是我国居民主要的日常主食之一,其中所含的植物蛋白也是日常膳食中蛋白质的主要来源。小麦蛋白是面团的主要结构组分,对面团特性具有重要影响。对小麦粉中蛋白质组分、和面与发酵过程中面团蛋白质的结构和组成变化,以及添加非小麦蛋白后面团性能的变化及其对面制品的品质影响进行了归纳总结,以期为面制品的品质改良和开发提供理论参考。 

粮食加工,2019(1):9-14

 

青麦仁面包加工中复合改良剂使用优化研究

方百谦,张国治,贺国亚,等

       研究了谷朊粉、α-淀粉酶、L-抗坏血酸对青麦仁面包品质的影响,并对青麦  仁面包的品质特性进行了优化分析。结果表明:谷朊粉最适添加量为5%,青麦仁面包的筋度较好;α-淀粉酶最适添加量为0.007%,青麦仁面包内部组织结构较好;L-抗坏血酸最适添加量为0.01%,青麦仁面包色泽和风味较好。复合改良剂响应面实验得出主次因素:谷朊粉>α-淀粉酶> L-抗坏血酸,最佳添加量:谷朊粉添加量5.56%,α-淀粉酶添加量0.0071%,L-抗坏血酸添加量0.0099%,在此条件下,青麦仁面包的感官评价值为80.09。 

粮食加工,2019(1):15-21

 

关于面粉灰分与面粉内在品质的关联的探讨

张景渠

      面粉厂过于片面追求面粉的灰分指标而忽略了该指标与其它指标的内在关联性,往往会造成事倍功半的效果,产品不被市场接受,出现大量退货的现象。探讨灰分与面粉其它指标如稳定时间、吸水率、弱化度及内在品质的关联性,为面粉厂同行提供参考以互学互鉴、更好地控制好产品质量,满足用户需求。

粮食加工,2019(1):32-34

 

乳酸菌、酵母菌的筛选鉴定及其在米发糕中的应用

李美伦,姜萌艺,龚川杰,等

      为得到适合米发糕发酵的发酵剂,对传统发酵米浆中的乳酸菌和酵母菌进行分离,通过对其菌落、菌株形态特征及生长性能的测定,筛选得到1株乳酸菌和2株酵母菌,分别经16S rDNA和26S rDNA鉴定,确定为植物乳杆菌、矮小假丝酵母菌和酿酒酵母菌。将3株优良发酵菌株复配应用于米发糕中,通过对其发酵所得产品的感官品质及质构特性进行分析,确定出最佳复配菌比。结果表明:当植物乳杆菌、酿酒酵母和矮小假丝酵母的复配体积比为1︰3︰6时,所得米发糕的感官品质和质构特性最好,且由GC-MS检测到29种挥发性风味物质,其中与市售米发糕和双菌复合发酵得到的米发糕共同检出5种风味物质,分别是苯乙醛、苯甲醛、苯乙醇、十四烷和棕榈酸乙酯,其特有的风味物质有12种,其中9种为酯类物质。该种复合发酵剂发酵得到的米发糕具有较好的品质,有望应用于米发糕的发酵生产。

食品与机械,2019(1):15

 

Water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) during fermentation and baking of composite wheat and lentil flour – Implications for enhanced functionality

D. Portman, C. Blanchard,P. Maharjan,et al

      Changes in water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) composition during the dough fermentation phase of bread making and quantified the residual WSC in the bread was investigated. As expected, the addition of lentil flour increased the WSC profile of the resulting composite flours which included raffinose, stachyose, ciceritol and verbascose. A three‐fold decrease was observed only for verbascose during the dough mixing phase, however during fermentation raffinose and stachyose decreased but ciceritol was not affected.The baking process may reduce the effects of IBS suffered by some individuals who consume lentil products prepared by traditional methods. Our study concluded that bread prepared from wheat‐lentil flour results in a more complex carbohydrate profile and may potentially enhance the prebiotic functionality compared with bread made from wheat alone.

Cereal chemistry,2019(2)

 

Quality of wheat flour and pan bread as influenced by the tempering time and milling system

     Mohammed Abo‐Dief,Taisser Abo‐Bakr,Mohammed Youssef,et al

The effect of the tempering time and milling system (normal versus hard) on the quality of wheat flour and pan bread was investigated for Australian and Russian wheat. Tempering was carried out for 12, 24 and 36 hrs. Tempered kernels were milled by a system controlled by a Bühler automatic programmable logic controller.Hard milling resulted in a significantly (P≤ 0.05) higher extraction rate, ash content and milling efficiency index than normal milling. Normal milling resulted in a significantly higher (P≤ 0.05) gluten index (99.20‐99.65). The amount of damaged starch in the two wheat cultivars was increased significantly (P≤ 0.05) by hard milling. The highest stability times (18.5 and 7 min) were observed for normal milled Australian and Russian wheat tempered for 36 and 24 hrs, respectively. Alveograph data illustrated the superiority of Australian over Russian wheat flour.To produce high quality flour and consequently highly acceptable pan bread, kernels of Australian and Russian wheat should be tempered for 12 and 24 hrs, respectively. Normal milling was superior to hard milling for both wheat.

Cereal chemistry,2019(2)

 

Gluten‐free sorghum pasta: starch digestibility and antioxidant capacity compared with commercial products

Pablo M Palavecino,Pablo D Ribotta,Alberto E León,et al

      The development of new products with a focus on nutrition, rather than other technical aspects, is essential to improve the quality of celiac diets. Nutritional attributes of white and brown sorghum gluten‐free pasta developed in a previous work were analyzed. The extent and kinetics of starch in vitro digestion, estimated glycemic index (eGI), potentially bioaccessible and dialyzable polyphenols, and antioxidant activity were evaluated and compared with commercial products.The results show that sorghum flour samples were used to obtain pasta with high protein (≈170 g/kg), dietary fiber (≈80 g/kg), polyphenols (2.6 g GA/kg pasta), and antioxidant activity. This sorghum pasta showed slower starch in vitro digestion than the other gluten‐free pasta, with a high level of protein hydrolysis (76%). The highest eGI was observed in a rice sample (69.8) followed by a corn‐based pasta (66.4). White and brown sorghum gluten‐free pasta showed 2.9 and 2.4 times, respectively, higher potentially bioaccessible polyphenol content compared to that in cooked pasta. No significant variation in antioxidant activity was found in sorghum pasta after digestion and around 48% and 36% of activity was detected in dialysate.

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry,2019(2)

 

Short‐ and long‐term retrogradation of potato starches with varying amylose content

Anna Dobosz,Marek Sikora,Magdalena Krystyjan,et al

      Gels of potato starches with varying amylose content were prepared and the degree of pasting and the course of retrogradation were studied. The average molar masses of granular and pasted starches were estimated. Determination of the degree of pasting involved use of optical microscopy and the study of pasting characteristics. The studies of susceptibility to retrogradation considered mechanical spectra, hardness, syneresis, resistant starch content, and X‐ray measurements.

The results show that heating of the starch suspensions at 95 ℃ resulted in almost complete deterioration of granules. Changes in storage modulus (G') exceeded these of loss modulus (G”). Values of G' and G”, hardness and syneresis increased with the period of the sample storage and, simultaneously, the relevant tangent of the phase shift angle (tg (G”/G')) decreased. A tendency was observed for the resistant starch (RS) content to increase on prolonged storage of gels. The patterns of diffractograms for the pasted and lyophilized samples only differed slightly.

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry,2019(4)

 

Hydrothermal stability of phenolic extracts of brown rice

Zicong Zeng,Xiuting Hu,David Julian McClements,et al

     The phenolics were extracted and purified from brown rice and twenty-seven compounds were identified, including six phenolic acids, four phenolic acid glycosides, and eight flavonoid glycosides. Afterwards, the hydrothermal stability of phenolic extracts of brown rice was investigated after treatment at 60, 80, or 100?℃ for 120?min. After hydrothermal treatment, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and free glucose were increased, while the phenolic glycosides were decreased. In addition, the total phenolic and total flavonoid content were decreased by 5.7%–9.2% and 3.5%–5.8% after initial 30?min, and then they were slightly recovered after treatment for 120?min. Consequently, there was a slight reduction (<10%) in the total antioxidant activity of the phenolic extracts after hydrothermal treatment. These results suggest that hydrothermal treatment of phenolic extracts of brown rice made some phenolic glycosides deglycosylated, but does not lead to a large reduction in their overall antioxidant activity.

Food chemistry,2019(1-2):114-121

 

Effect of radio frequency heat treatment on protein profile and functional properties of maize grain

Amro B.Hassan,Dietervon Hoersten,Isam A.Mohamed Ahmed

      The study was aimed at investigating the effect of radio frequency (RF) heating at different temperatures on the protein profile and functional properties of maize grains. Maize grains with 14% moisture content exposed to the radio frequency energy at 300?W for different temperatures 50, 55 and 60?℃, respectively. The results indicated that radio frequency heating had no effect on the protein profile of maize. The molecular weight distribution of protein remained in the range of 20–25?kDa after RF heating. On the other hand, the functional properties in term of oil holding capacity and emulsifying properties of maize were improved after RF heating. According to these finding, it can be concluded that radio frequency heating improves the functional properties of maize flour. Thus, RF may provide a potential as an effective emerging technology for improving the quality characteristics of maize grains.

Food chemistry,2019(1-2):142-147

 

Gluten-free flours from cereals, pseudocereals and legumes: Phenolic fingerprints and in vitroantioxidant properties

GabrieleRocchetti,LuigiLucini,Jose M. LorenzoRodriguez,et al

      The interest in gluten-free (GF) products increases together with the increase in gluten-sensitive people. However, GF foods might have decreased nutritional quality as compared to the gluten containing counterparts. In this work, an investigation of the phenolic and antioxidant profile in 18?GF flours belonging to legumes, cereals and pseudocereals was achieved. Significant differences could be observed across samples. Total phenolic content was highest in violet rice flours, whereas total anthocyanins were highest in violet, nerone, and black rice flours. FRAP and ORAC antioxidant activities were correlated to phenolic contents and found to be higher in violet rice flours. Metabolomics highlighted a wide diversity in phenolics, with flavonoids (197 compounds ascribable to anthocyanins, flavones, flavanones, isoflavonoids, flavonols, and flavanols), phenolic acids (74 compounds belonging to hydroxycinnamics, hydroxybenzoics, and hydroxyphenylacetics), and tyrosol derivatives the most represented. Finally, OPLS-DA multivariate statistics outlined flavonoids, furofurans and phenolic acids as the most discriminant phenolics.

Food chemistry,2019(1-2):157-164

 

Effect of fermentation process, wheat bran size and replacement level on some characteristics of wheat bran, dough, and high-fiber Tafton bread

Somaie Rezaei, Mohammad Ali Najafi, Tayebeh Haddadi

     This study investigated the effects of different particle sizes of sterilized wheat bran (100–200, 200–300 and 300–400?μm), their replacement levels at 5, 10, and 15% (based on flour w/w) and also their fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae PTCC 5052 on the qualities of Tafton bread. Measurements indicated how these parameters affected pH, TTA, phytic acid, protein, ash, fat, soluble and insoluble dietary fiber contents in sterilized wheat bran samples. The volume of dough samples and the sensory properties of Tafton bread samples were examined. The lowest amount of phytic acid (2.0?±?0.12%) was observed in fermented sterilized wheat bran (FSWB) which had particle sizes of 100–200?μm (p<0.05). Also, the highest amount of soluble dietary fiber (6.7?±?0.4%) was observed in FSWB which had particle sizes of 200–300?μm (p<0.05). The largest increase in dough volume (284.0?±?4.9%) was observed in dough sample containing the FSWB which had particle sizes of 100–200?μm?at the 15% replacement level (p<0.05). The Tafton bread sample that had been prepared with FSWB (200–300?μm and 15% replacement level (7.50?±?0.54), tasted fresher according to sensory attributes after 24?h, compared to the control sample (5.80?±?0.79) which had no sterilized wheat bran.

Journal of Cereal Science,2019,85 (1):56-61

 

Physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of rice after parboiling with heat moisture treatment

Kang-Che Cheng, Shih-Hsin Chen, An-I. Yeh

      Parboiling is widely used world-wide, but properties of the final products depend upon processing conditions and rice variety yielding complex results. This study intended to understand the formation of amylose lipid complex (ALC) after parboiling combined with heat moisture treatment (HMT). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction were utilized to understand the properties of the parboiled rice. In vitro starch hydrolysis was employed to evaluate the digestibility of the products. The distributions of protein and starch in rice kernels were observed using a light microscope. Data from amylose content measurement using iodine indicated the formation of ALC after parboiling and HMT. The presence of type II ALC was confirmed by DSC and X-ray diffraction. Pressure cooking increased the resistant starch (RS) from 1.95 to 7.95%. Resistant starch (RS) and slowly digestible starch (SDS) were further increased to 10.4% and 45.8%, respectively, by HMT after parboiling. The data indicated that pressure cooking and HMT could increase the contents of RS and SDS of rice, along with other potential health benefits.

Journal of Cereal Science,2019,85 (1):98-104

 

Effects of Starch From Five Different Botanical Sources on the Fermentation and Gelatinization Properties of Starch–Gluten Model Doughs

Duqin Zhang,Taihua Mu,Hongnan Sun

    Wheat, corn, tapioca, sweet potato, and potato starches are independently mixed into starch–gluten model doughs containing 15% (w/w) vital gluten. Fermentation properties, including gas production, and retention capacities, are studied by recording dough height and gas release kinetics through rheofermentometer. Gelatinization properties are investigated by recording changes of heat transition and dynamic moduli with temperature using a differential scanning calorimeter and control stress rheometer, respectively. Wheat starch (WS)–gluten dough has the greatest total gas production (500 mL) and gas retention coefficient (87.6%), lowest viscosity, and highest dough structure hardening during gelatinization, while potato starch–gluten dough has the smallest total gas production (85 mL) and gas retention coefficient (82.1%), highest viscosity, and lowest structure hardening during gelatinization. In addition, the ultrastructure and freezable and non‐freezable water contents are determined to investigate the structural properties of the starch–gluten model doughs. WS–gluten dough shows the most consistent and uniform ultrastructure, and highest non‐freezable water content (42.60%) among all the starch–gluten model doughs. This suggests that WS–gluten dough exhibits a better processing performance compares to the other four starch–gluten model doughs.

Starch,2019,71(1-2)

 

The Influence of Hydrocolloids on the Properties Organic Red Jasmine Rice Noodles, Namely on Antioxidant Activity, Cooking, Texture, and Sensory Properties

Supaluck Kraithong,Suyong Lee,Saroat Rawdkuen

      In this study, organic red Jasmine rice flour (RJF) is mixed with guar gum (GG), with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and with xanthan gum (XG) at 0.0% (control), 0.2%, and 0.4%, respectively. They are all subjected to noodle formation. The results showed that XG increased the peak and breakdown viscosities of RJF (p<0.05), while GG and CMC improved the setback viscosity (p<0.05). Final viscosity is induced by the use of hydrocolloids (p<0.05). The conclusion temperature and gelatinization enthalpy of RJF increased remarkably by using GG and CMC (p<0.05). The use of GG (0.2%) give the highest values with respect to the textural properties of the rice noodles, including the tensile strength (47.25 g) and extensibility (16.02 mm). In contrast, it notably decreased cooking loss (p<0.05). These parameters are determined to have the highest acceptability (5.70) in the noodle (p<0.05). The total phenolic content and anitioxidant activities of the rice noodle are not affected by using hydrocolloids (p>0.05).

Starch,2019,71(1-2)

 

Combined effect of xanthan gum and water content on physicochemical and textural properties of gluten-free batter and bread

Christian R.Encina-Zelada,Vasco Cadavez,Fernando Monteirod

      The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of xanthan gum(XG) on physicochemical, rheological and textural properties of gluten-free batterand bread. To prepare gluten-free batter, different levels of XG (1.5, 2.5 and 3.5%) and water (90, 100 and 110%) were added to a base formula of rice (50%), maize (30%) and quinoa flours (20%); and the batters were evaluated in a factorial design. Several properties on both batter (stickiness and back extrusion) and its corresponding bread (loaf specific volume, baking loss, water activity and pH, texture profile, mean cell area, mean cell density, cell size uniformity, void fraction, mean cell compactness and mean cell aspect ratio) were then evaluated. Higher XG doses (p?<?.001) tended to produce batters of lower stickiness, adhesion and cohesive-strength, yet, of higher firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and viscosity index. After baking, these loaves presented lower specific volume; lower crumb aw, pH, hardness, springiness, mean cell area and void fraction; and higher (p?<?.001) chewiness, resilience, mean cell density, cell size uniformity and mean cell compactness. The sticker and less consistent batters produced with higher WC rendered larger bread loaves of softer and more springy/resilient crumbs with greater mean cell size and void fraction. Gluten-free loaves of good appearance in terms of higher specific volume, lower crumb hardness, higher crumb springiness, and open grain visual texture were obtained in formulations with 110% WC and XG doses between 1.5 and 2.5%.

Food research international,2019,115(1)

 

Concentration dependent rate constants of sodium substitute functionalities during wheat dough development

Mario Jekle, Andreea Necula, Margit Jekle, et al

      Chloride salts can serve as sodium chloride (NaCl) substitutes in wheat dough for sensory or technological reasons. Therefore, the effect of different substitutes on wheat dough development during mixing (optimum water absorption, dough development time, stability) and fermentation (maximum dough height) with a material-adapted water addition and mixing time were investigated. The substitutes had effects on all measures at a level of 2?g salt 100?g−1 wheat flour, with the exception of KCl. The intensity of the effect significantly followed the Hofmeister series due to an altered hydration behavior of the structure-determining gluten proteins. The experiments were supported by CLSM micrographs combined with image analysis. Next to an absolute substitution, the main focus of the study were concentration dependent functionalities of the chloride salts. Therefore, concentration dependent rate constants were calculated based on the application of different concentration levels of the chloride salts. These rate constants showed in all cases a similar tendency following the Hofmeister series.

Food research international,2019,115(2):346-353

 

Analytical Testing to Support Australian Wheat Export Quality

D.M. Miskelly

     Wheat is the largest Australian grain crop, with a 10 year average production of almost 25 million tonnes. About 70% of the crop is exported, principally to markets in Asia. Australia’s wheat classification and grading system relies on the additive effects of wheat variety (inherited characteristics) plus grain quality testing (environmental characteristics). A wheat variety’s maximum classification is determined prior to release, and testing at the first point of receival establishes the class and grade for storage and, hence, suitability for end use. Grain quality is tested at up to 5 points within the supply chain before it is shipped to export markets or used by the domestic market. This article describes the analytical testing used and how it is integrated within the broader context of the Australian wheat industry.

Cereal food world,2019(1/2)

 

Effects of ohmic and microwave cooking on textural softening and physical properties of rice

Mohsen Gavahian, Yan-Hwa Chu, Asgar Farahnaky

      The effects of two volumetric heating methods, ohmic and microwave, on consumed energy and physical properties, such as color, texture, and hydration, of a rice recipe (rice-water ratio of 1:15) were investigated and the results were compared to that of the hotplate cooking method. The textural parameters were analyzed using texture profile analysis and fitted into a previously suggested equation to obtain texture softening rate (K) and residual constant (A) values. Although the color values were negatively affected by ohmic heating, this processing method resulted in greater softening rates with the K value of 0.4 as compared to that of the traditional method with the K value of 0.2. In addition, no fouling was observed in ohmic heating and this method consumed 69 % of the required energy in the microwave process for a 50% decrease of the initial hardness of the rice grains. This innovative method could be a promising alternative to traditional rice cooking methods after further improvements.

Journal of Food Engineering,241, 2019(1):114-124

 

New insights into cooked rice quality by measuring modulus, adhesion and cohesion at the level of an individual rice grain

L. Yu, T. Witt, M. Rincon Bonilla,et al

   Causal relationships between physical properties and structure/composition of cooked rice are difficult to quantify when mechanical measurements are performed on bulk samples using large deformations that alter the structure irreversibly. We demonstrate here methods involving small-deformation to characterise the elastic modulus (E), adhesion and cohesion at the individual grain level, and show distinct differences between freshly cooked rice and shelf-stable retorted rice. On average, retorted rice is harder and less adhesive and cohesive than freshly cooked rice, but their distributions in each of these mechanical properties overlap. E is independent of adhesion and weakly correlated with moisture content. In addition, a ring-shear tester is shown to distinguish the bulk cohesion and flowing ability between rice samples. Measuring the inherent physical properties of individual grains has the potential to enable a more sensitive evaluation of new processes and grain varieties, and development of quantitative structure-property-processing relationships for rational design of products to perform optimally at different stages, from manufacturing through to oral processing.

Journal of Food Engineering,240, 2019(1):21-28

 

Evaluation of drying of edible coating on bread using NIR spectroscopy

Swathi Sirisha Nallan Chakravartula, Chiara Cevoli, Federica Balestra, et al

      Edible coatings are recently gaining attention for potential applications in bakery products to extend the shelf-life and incorporate functional characteristics, like probiotics, antimicrobial or an antioxidant compound, for which drying of the coating is an essential step. The aim of this work was to utilize near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a tool to rapidly monitor and develop predictive model for the drying of edible coating on bread (mini-burger buns) surfaces. The buns coated with edible coating were dried at two different temperature regimes, at 25?℃ and 60?℃ for one layer of coating and one temperature regime at 60?℃ for two layers of coating. NIR spectra were collected and moisture content was determined at different drying times. The spectral data were pre-treated and subjected to Principal component analysis (PCA) for discrimination of drying times and subsequently to Partial least squares (PLS) regression for moisture prediction for given temperature, time and surface. Results show that NIR spectroscopy was able to reflect the drying process and discriminate between the various surfaces of bread and times of drying, primarily by the differences in water and protein absorption bands (1940?nm, 1500?nm, 2050?nm). Also, the subsequent PLS regression of the spectral data was found to describe satisfactorily the drying behaviour and the optimal drying moment with RMSE values?≤?3% for the calibration and cross validation data sets. The procedure proposed could be used for faster quantification of moisture during drying process.

Journal of Food Engineering,240, 2019(1): 29-37

 

A Soybean Oil‐Based Adhesive and Its Application for Birdseed Binding

Tao Fei,Melissa Anne Slagle,Darren H. Jarboe,et al

      Current birdseed binders are mainly based on animal protein and fat. However, exporting the seed cakes containing animal products to European countries can be difficult due to their import policies. A plant oil‐based adhesive may be capable of binding loose seeds together, enabling it to be used as an alternative to the animal protein‐based and fat‐based binders used currently and making the exportation possible. A soybean oil‐based adhesive was, therefore, synthesized and tested for birdseed binding in this study. The effects of the quantity of saturated fatty acylglycerols (i.e., fully hydrogenated soybean oil, FHSO) introduced into epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) and a phosphoric acid (H3PO4) cross‐linker on product characteristics were investigated. Increased quantity of FHSO improved the glass transition point (T g), hardness, and adhesion while further increasing the quantity led to various degrees of phase separation of the product. Increased quantity of H3PO4 also improved hardness and adhesion of the binder. A binder‐MDAG (a mixture of mono and diacylglycerols at about a 1:1 ratio as a hardening agent) mixture (BMD) having an average hardness and adhesion of 4024 and 1197 g, respectively, was selected for seed binding. Seed cakes bound with 15 wt.% BMD were about twice as hard as gelatin‐bound ones. Storage of the BMD itself in open air led to increased hardness, adhesion, and melting point, and storage of the seed cakes bound by BMD in open air led to increased hardness and high temperature tolerance. Seed cakes bound with BMD also presented much better water resistance.

JAOCS,2019(2):179-187

 

Characterization of a novel folic acid‐fortified ready‐to‐eat (RTE) parboiled rice

Elizabeth D. Wahengbam,Brian D. Green,Manuj K. Hazarika

FA content in the unmilled fortified product was as high as 1.091 g/kg for FA concentration in soak water of 4.0 g/L. On rehydration for 25 min at 60℃, different products soften to hardness values of 152‐172g. A V‐type diffraction pattern was observed. Fortification improved the pasting properties and a slight increase in yellowness. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed an O‐H bond stretching at band range of 3000 ‐ 3600 cm−1, and a very small peak at band range of 1740‐1750 cm−1 attributed to C=O bond stretching.Fortification elevated the total FA content in the parboiled product. The product retained its no‐cooking characteristics, and textural and physico‐chemical properties remain favorable with slight yellowing effects upon FA fortification.

Cereal chemistry,2019(2)

 

Extrusion of a Curcuminoid‐Enriched Oat Fiber‐Corn‐Based Snack Product

Sara Sayanjali,Luz Sanguansri,Danyang Ying,et al

     Extruded snack products were made from an oat fiber‐corn flour matrix fortified with 1.5% (w/w) curcuminoids (750 mg curcuminoids/100 g) to improve the solubility and stability of curcuminoids. The effects of extruder feed moisture content (21%, 28%, and 35%) and screw speed (200 and 300 rpm) on the extrusion parameters and physical properties of final snacks were investigated. Curcuminoids lost during extrusion and curcuminoids loss during subsequent drying of extrudates were analyzed, to separate the losses occurring in each unit process. Drying post extrusion (at 50 ℃ for 4 hr) was essential to obtain a crunchy shelf stable product (5% moisture). Curcuminoids loss during extrusion was from 17% to 84%, with high loss for the extrusion with low feed moisture content (21%). A further curcuminoids loss of 4% to 44% occurred during drying, with much higher loss for the extrudate with high moisture content. Total curcuminoids retained after extrusion and drying was 12% to 41% (59% to 88% loss), equivalent to 180 to 616 mg curcuminoids retained per 100 g snack, levels within recommended daily dose. Curcuminoids retained after drying was stable during 80 days of storage at 25 ℃. The results highlighted the importance of understanding the impact of each unit process separately (for example, extrusion and drying) on the stability of curcuminoids for the development of healthier extruded snacks.

Journal of Food Science,2019(2):284-291

 

Optimization of Processing Condition of Instant Rice to Lower the Glycemic IndexOnvara Ritudomphol

Naphatrapi,Luangsakul

      White rice is classified as having a low to high glycemic index (GI) depending on its amylose:amylopectin ratio. High GI food can be detrimental to diabetics since they can rapidly increase the glucose level in blood during digestion. Instant rice is increasing in popularity and is produced by dehydrating whole grain cooked rice, therefore, to make it more suitable for diabetics, the effect of the processes involved in the production on GI were tested. The objective was to optimize cooking temperature and the ratio of water to rice to reduce in vitro starch digestibility and GI of instant rice made from three Thai rice cultivars (Hom Mali (KDML105), Pathumthani Fragrant (PT) and Sao Hai (SH)) that had different amylose contents. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the cooking conditions. The rapidly digestible starch (RDS) content and estimated glycemic index (eGI) decreased as cooking temperature decreased and the ratio of water to rice increased. The decrease in RDS content was associated with the increase in both slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) contents. The microstructure of instant rice kernels after cooking at higher temperature or lower volumes of water showed larger voids and a less compact surface, which facilitated enzymatic accessibility and increased starch digestibility. Rice cooked at higher temperature (90 ℃) showed lower peak viscosity and breakdown in pasting properties, compared with lower temperature 82 ℃. The optimal cooking condition for producing lower GI instant rice was cooking at 82 ℃ with 1.9‐fold water volume. Rice has a high glycemic index (GI) that makes it unsuitable for consumption by many people with type 2 diabetes and obesity. Therefore, preparation of an instant rice product with a lower GI would ensure the product was beneficial to a wider range of the population.

Journal of Food Science,2019(1):101-110

 

Effects of Different Fermentation Strains on the Flavor Characteristics of Fermented Soybean Curd

Ping Liu,Qin Xiang,Liu Gao et al

      The effects of different fermentation strains on the flavor characteristics of fermented soybean curd (FSC) were investigated in this study. Fresh tofu was fermented by Actinomucor elegans, Rhizopus arrhizus, Mucor racemosus, and Rhizopus chinensis, either alone or in various combinations. The FSC manufacturing process included prefermentation by different strains at 28 ℃ for 60 hr, followed by salting at 16 ℃ for 7 days and finally proceeding postfermentation at 25 ℃ for 35 days. Subsequently, five tested samples were obtained, namely, sample A (fermented by A. elegans alone), R (fermented by R. arrhizus alone), AR (fermented by A. elegans and R. arrhizus at 5:1), AM (fermented by A. elegans and M. racemosus at 1:1), and RR (fermented by R. arrhizus and R. chinensis at 7:3). The flavors of the five samples were determined by E‐nose, sensory evaluation, and GC‐MS. E‐nose system observed significant discriminations by principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis analysis. Sensory evaluation ranked the overall sensory scores: AR>AM>A>RR>R. As shown in GC‐MS results, sample AR also had, on average, the highest level of many volatiles. Out of 10 critical volatiles, the detected frequency of samples AR, AM, RR, A, and R was 10, 9, 9, 8, and 7, respectively. PLS2 regression model was used to explore the influence on flavor quality of different strains. All three analytic methods revealed similar results, with sample AR providing the best flavor quality, while the opposite was the case with sample R. Therefore, it could be concluded that A. elegans and R. arrhizus at 5:1 (v/v) was the optimal combination, and may likely promote the production of critical volatile compounds.

Journal of Food Science,2019(1):154-164

 

Bread crumbs extrudates: A new approach for reducing bread waste

Markus Nail Samray, Tugrul M. Masatcioglu, Hamit Koksel

      Processing bread wastes constitutes a major problem for most bakeries. They are generally processed into “bread crumbs” and used in breading formulations. The aim of the study was to develop a new way of reducing bread wastes by processing bread crumbs in extrusion cooking. The effects of feed moisture and exit die temperature on physical and functional properties of bread crumbs extrudates (BCEs) were investigated in comparison to wheat flour extrudates (WFEs). Feed rate, screw speed and die hole diameter were kept constant (4.0?kg/h, 200?rpm and 2.0?mm, respectively). Exit die temperature was adjusted to 120, 135 or 150?℃, while feed moisture content was 13, 15 or 17%. Especially at low feed moisture content (13%), BCEs had higher expansion index values (7.57–8.07), than WFEs (5.88–6.01). The lowest bulk density values were 0.02 and 0.06?g?cm−3 for BCEs and WFEs, respectively. BCEs had significantly softer and more crispy textures than WFEs at all extrusion conditions studied. BCEs' dietary fibre contents (5.75–7.28%) were significantly higher than WFEs' (4.58–5.50%). Resistant starchcontents also demonstrated a similar trend. These improved properties confirmed that, bread crumbs are promising raw material in extrusion cooking and expected to provide products with added-value from bread wastes.

Journal of Cereal Science,2019,85 (1):130-136

 

Effect of limited enzymatic hydrolysis on the structure and emulsifying properties of rice bran protein

Xiaodan Zang, Chonghui Yue, Yuxin Wang,et al

      The influence of the degree of hydrolysis (DH) on the structure, solubility and emulsifying properties of rice bran protein (RBP) was investigated. Sodium dodecyl sulfide polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), intrinsic fluorescence, surface hydrophobicity and circular dichroism (CD) techniques were used for the analysis of the structural characteristics. Hydrolysis can change the molecular weight of the protein, increase its flexibility and fluidity, change its surface hydrophobicity, and increase its solubility. Oil-in-water emulsions were prepared from rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBPH) with different DH values (1%, 3%, and 6%). The stabilities of the RBPH-stabilized emulsions were investigated under the following environmental pressures: pH (3–9), ionic strength (0–300?mM NaCl) and thermal treatment (30–90?℃, 30?min). Particle size and surface charge (ζ-potential) were measured as an indication of the emulsion stability. Emulsions prepared with 3% DH RBP were much more stable than the emulsions prepared with RBPH with other DH values, and this RBP has potential as an emulsifier in the food industry.

Journal of Cereal Science,2019,85 (1):168-174

 

Structure analysis of β-glucan in barley and effects of wheat β-glucanase

Elisa De Arcangelis, Susanne Djurle, Annica A.M. Andersson, et al

      In this study, β-glucan in samples of sifted flour from six barley varieties was sequentially extracted with water and NaOH obtaining three fractions: water-extractable (WE), NaOH- extractable (NaE) and residual (Res). β-Glucan isolates were incubated with lichenase and oligomers released were analysed with high performance anion exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). A higher ratio of 3-O-β-cellobiosyl-D-glucose (DP3) to 3-O-β-cellotriosyl-D-glucose (DP4) is reported in WE, NaE and Res fractions in variety SLU 7 (shrunken endosperm) compared to the other varieties, suggesting a more packed β-glucan structure. Water-extractable and water-unextractable β-glucan fractions were incubated with wheat extract and effects of wheat β-glucanase on the structure was assessed after lichenase digestion and analysis with HPAEC-PAD. Findings suggest that wheat β-glucanase manifests a selective hydrolysis towards β-glucan with lower DP3/DP4 ratio and that β-glucan of SLU 7 is composed of a population with higher DP3/DP4 ratio and hence with a more tighten structure which may be more resistant to enzymic action. Overall, the results obtained are of interest to characterise barleys differing in starch and dietary fibre composition, specifically shrunken endosperm barley SLU 7 in the perspective of its inclusion in the production of β-glucan enriched foods.

Journal of Cereal Science,2019,85 (1):175-181

 

Hydrothermal treatment of rice: Reduction of aflatoxins and bioaccessibility

    Marina Nogueira da Silva, Kelly Cristina Massarolo, Larine Kupski,et al

The reduction and bioaccessibility of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 and their relationship with resistant starch in three class of rice after two hydrothermal treatments was studied by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Microwave oven(84.5%) and electric plate (87.2%) treatments promoted a high level of reduction for all aflatoxins. Bioaccessibility in the range of 58%–100% for aflatoxins B2, G1 and G2 was caused by the microwave treatment and in this treatment the polished rice had a higher bioaccessibility. Hydrothermal treatment efficiently mitigated AFB1 and AFB2 in brown rice. The correlation among aflatoxin bioaccessibility, their reduction during hydrothermal treatment and the level of resistant starch was performed by a Principal Component Analysis and it showed no correlation between aflatoxins bioaccessibility and resistant starch, but it showed that the higher reduction of mycotoxin levels the lower its bioaccessibility, which makes this study interesting to mitigating human exposure to this contaminant.

Journal of Cereal Science,2019,85 (1):199-205

 

High‐Solids Bio‐Conversion of Maize Starch to Sugars and Ethanol

Zhaofeng Li,Donghai Wang,Yong‐Cheng Shi

      In current industrial production, maize is the predominant crop used to produce starch which is converted to sugars. In this study, liquefaction and fermentation of normal maize starch at different solid contents are examined. Starch is liquefied at solid contents from 20 to 60% by thermostable α‐amylase at 90 ℃. The molecular weight distributions of the dextrins from starch liquefaction, determined by gel‐permeation chromatography, are practically the same for those generated at 20–40% solids, whereas those at 50–60% solids contain increased levels of high molecular weight dextrins. A higher solids level (40–60%) requires more α‐amylase to produce liquefied starch with a reducing sugar content of 9–15%. The starch hydrolysates are subjected to a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process that is conducted at 20–60% solids, 30 ℃ for up to 72 h. The highest ethanol concentration (17.4%, v/v) is obtained after 72 h from the 30% starch hydrolysate with reducing sugar content of 12–14%. Enzymatic liquefaction of normal maize starch at high solids content (40–60%) is feasible and the high solids enzyme conversion of starch could find potential applications in productions of sugars and chemicals made by fermentation of sugars.

Starch,2019,71(1-2)

 

Developments in Hydroxypropylation of Starch: A Review

Zhen Fu,Lu Zhang,Min‐Hong Ren,et al

      Because hydroxypropyl starch (HPS) represents an important chemical modification of starch, extensive studies on hydroxypropylation are being carried out at various research centers worldwide. The present review summarizes development of methods for determination of the MS (molar substitution)/DS (degree of substitution) of hydroxypropyl starch, location of hydroxypropylation reaction sites in granules and on amylose and amylopectin molecules, and factors affecting reaction efficiency. Also presented is an overview of changes of physicochemical properties of starch that result from hydroxypropylation. Specifically reviewed are the effects of hydroxypropylation on granule morphology, crystallinity, thermal properties, swelling, and solubility; pasting, paste, and retrogradation properties; rheological and textural properties of HPS gels; and digestibility and uses of HPS.

Starch,2019,71(1-2)

 

Impact of Process Parameters on the Acid Modification of Potato Starch

Marco Ulbrich,Eckhard Flöter

      The acid‐modification of a regular potato starch (PS) using the slurry process is systematically investigated. The hydrolysis parameters temperature (30, 40, and 50 ℃), acid concentration (0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 M HCl), and reaction time (4, 10, and 20 h) are graded, and characteristics regarding the modification process as well as the resulting acid‐thinned samples are analyzed based on size exclusion chromatography‐multi angle laser light scattering‐differential refractive index detection (SEC‐MALS‐DRI) experiments. The data are examined statistically. Significant impacts on the amount and the molecular composition of solubilized starch polymers are identified. Increasing parameter values increased the carbohydrate solubilization and concurrently decreased the weight average molar mass (Mw) of the dissolved starch. Moreover, the Mw of the resulting acid‐thinned starch samples as well as the corresponding amylose fraction (AM) decreased incrementally with enhanced temperature, acid concentration, and hydrolysis time, respectively. The results indicated the simultaneous molecular degradation of both AM and amylopectin (AP) during the acid modification in slurry. The potential for preparing almost identical acid‐thinned samples by applying combinations of different parameter specificities is shown.

 Starch,2019,71(1-2)

 

Fortified Rice Starches: The Role of Hydrothermal Treatments in Zinc Entrapment

    Fernanda Gabriela Henning,Egon Schnitzler,Ivo Mottin Demiate,et al

This study investigates the potential for zinc fortification of native, heat‐moisture treatment (HMT), and annealing (ANN), modified rice starches, using neutral extracted rice starch as precursor. The zinc content, micrographs, X‐ray crystallinity, pasting, and thermal properties are evaluated. The fortified rice starch increases crystallinity, thermal stability, and gelatinization enthalpy, as well as lowers peak viscosity and gelatinization temperature when compared to its precursor (native rice starch). The ANN fortified starch shows decreased crystallinity, thermal stability, gelatinization temperature, and enthalpy, while the HMT starch has increased crystallinity and final viscosity. The results indicate that the native rice starch has higher zinc entrapment potential (1359 mg/kg) than the physically modified starches (<100 mg/kg); this is attributed to the protein spread over the surface of the granules and the pre‐gelatinization of the surface of the starches after modification, which serve as a barrier to zinc cations.

Starch,2019,71(1-2)

 

Molecular Approaches to Understanding Microbial Populations in Traditional Fermented Grain Products

Kehu Li

      Humans have used fermentation to produce foods and beverages since the Neolithic Age. As a relatively low-cost and energy-efficient method of food preservation and processing, grain fermentation has long offered humans a wide variety of interesting, health-promoting, and complex products, including dietary staples, supplementary foods, and beverages. The microorganisms that participate in the fermentation process convert mainly sugars and other carbohydrates to organic acids, carbon dioxide, and alcohols that alter the texture, appearance, flavor, nutritional value, and safety status of the original grain-based substrate. Traditional fermented foods often rely on spontaneous fermentation from mixtures of microorganisms, without close control of the species or strains present. This creates challenges in maintaining product consistency and assuring product safety. For the food scientist, it is critical to understand the microbial profiles and population structures, dynamics, and functioning during fermentation in order to establish controls and achieve a fermented product with high, consistent batch-to-batch quality. Understanding of the microbial ecology of such systems is advancing rapidly thanks to recently developed molecular techniques. In this article interesting recent research on molecular analysis of microbial populations is introduced in order to explain the key techniques and demonstrate their usefulness in advancing the study of traditional grain fermentation processes.

Cereal food world,2019(1/2)

 

Extraction of high stearic high oleic sunflower oil (HSHO): Effect of dehulling and hydrothermal pretreatment

A.K. de Figueiredo, M.B. Fernández, S.M. Nolasco

      The effect of a hydrothermal pretreatment on the solvent extraction of oil and minor compounds (tocopherols) from high stearic high oleic sunflower seeds (HSHO), partially dehulled and undehulled, was analyzed. Samples of sunflower seeds of different origins and oil contents (high oil, 43.0% d.b., and low oil 35.1% d.b.) were used. The oil yield increased significantly due to the hydrothermal pretreatment (p?≤?0.05) for HSHO samples with high oil content, both partially dehulled and undehulled. The pretreated HSHO samples with low oil content did not show significant differences in oil yield compared to the untreated samples. The effective diffusion coefficients for the hydrothermally pretreated seeds (2.12.10−11? m2?/s) and the untreated samples (7.07.10−12?m2?/s) were determined based on the oil extraction from the partially dehulled high oil HSHO samples. For both types of partially dehulled HSHO seeds, a significant increase in tocopherol content in the oils extracted from the pretreated samples was observed.

Journal of Food Engineering,240, 2019(1):49-55